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His Grace 


Lord Archbishop of York, 

Primate op England and Metbopoutan, 

Lord Hien Almoner to the Kino, 

&ۥ Ac. Ac* 

Principal Trustee op the Minster Church of Betbrlby; 

Of which superb Fabbic 

And of the Ecclesiastical Intebbsts of the Town in oenebal, 

(Althouoh the connexion of Lobd and Vassal, 

Which in ancient Times subsisted 

Between His Gracb^s Prbdecessobs and the Inhabitants of BETERLETy 

Has been dissolved 


Which have infused 

A SPIBIT of Fbebdom and Civilization unknown to oub bemotb Fobbfathebs;) 

He is thb lboitimatb and attentive Guabdian; 


Which professes to illustrate the dabkeb Pebiods of theib Histoby, 

As well as to develops 

The pbooressive opebation of those kindly Systems 

Which bbdeemed the Serf fbom Bondage, 

And distbibuted the blessings of Civil and Religious Liberty 

With an impartial Hand, 

is respectfully inscribed, 

(With His Grace's kind Pbmission,) 
By His Grace's obliged, 

And MOST devoted 

Humble Servant, 



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" Let no man say, I'll write a duodecimo." Such was the exclamation of 
Laurence Sterne while engaged in a work of fancy, which had no other limit 
than the will and pleasure of its author. But of all writers the observation will 
most properly apply to the Topographer and the Antiquary, whose materials, like 
a ball of snow, accumulate as they advance ; and their performances, consequently, 
almost always exceed the limits originally prescribed. In the present instance, 
the projected octavo has swelled into a quarto, and even with this alteration in the 
plan, so abundant have the materials been, that in many instances it has been 
found difficult to determine what to insert and what to reject.* I flatter myself, 
however, that I have succeeded in condensing as much useful and interesting 
matter into the* following pages as they are capable of containing, and that such 
documents only have been rejected as were either trivial or of no general impor- 
tance. It is therefore to be feared that an anxiety to crowd an extended mass of 
information within a prescribed compass, may, in some parts of the work, have 
cramped the style or weakened the energy of the composition. Should this fault 
be detected, it must be referred to my determination to do ample justice to the 
essential parts of the subject, rather than to any species of carelessness or inatten- 
* tion arising from a want of interest in the undertaking ; for I have been impressed 
with a firm conviction that the excellence of a Topographical work depends more 
on assiduity of research and accuracy of delineation, than on, the embellishments of 
style and laboured elegance of diction. . 

It will be needless to add that I have encountered difficulties and disadvantages 
which are now efiectually removed, and will cease tp impede the progress of any 
future topographer or historian who may follow mevin the same track. I have 

1 The materials were so exceedingly difliise, that I have been obliged, in cases of mere per- 
sonal transfer, or conveyances of individaal possessions, to be as brief as was consistent with 
perspicuity ; otherwise two quarto volumes would scarcely have contained the astonishing mass of 
matter which had accumulated under my hands. 

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cleared the way for others, and made smooth the path which has been so rugged 
to myself. Little assistance has been derived from the previous brief accounts of 
Beverley which are found in works on general topography ; for they all bear one 
character, and from Leland to Baines there is little variation in the hackneyed 
statement. The plan and execution of the present work therefore, may claim the 
merit of originality ; and if, amidst the laborious and complicated researches which 
have employed my most anxious attention, any important incident should have 
escaped my notice, it can be imputed only to those ung^cious obstacles which form 
a common subject of complaint with every writer who has been engaged in works 
of a similar nature, the fastidious retention of documents which might have contri- 
buted their aid to rectify what is erroneous, or illustrate what is obscure. 

The first topographical account of Beverley, which has been handed down to us 
in a printed form, is contained principally in the third volume of Leland's Col- 
lectanea, and consists of sundry loose notices and traditions which that celebrated 
antiquary collected during his enquiries respecting the state of the Collegiate 
church, and the minor religious houses in the reign of Henry VIII. How 
authentic soever these desultory observations may be, they form but a very slender 
basis on which to rest the majestic structure of its general history. Besides, they 
are sometimes incorrect, sometimes confused, and always imperfect; and- the 
chronology having been entirely neglected, it. is difficult to arrange the facts with 
absolute precision. On this disjointed foundation have all succeeding accounts of 
Beverley been raised. Gent^ has given us little additional matter except his col- 
lection of epitaphs ; and what he did attempt to add to the original of Leland is 
charged with gross inaccuracies on the one hand, and fabulous legends on the 
other. Camden^ and Drake^ have furnished some original notices, but their infor- 
mation is mostly drawn from the same source. TickelP has presented us with a 
few facts as far as they had any connexion with his subject ; and we find in Ency- 
clopeedias and other general works a short article on the town and church of 
Beverley ; and the recent publication by Baines* contains a brief narrative of their 
origin and some of their existing institutions. But in all these works we are dis- 
appointed in our endeavours to find materials of sufficient importance for a complete 
and extended histoiy. The " Short History of Beverley Minster," by the Rev. 
Joseph Coltman, is almost the only publication to which the historian or antiquary 

' Hi3t. Ripon. ' Britannia. * Eboracum. ^ Hist. Hull. ^ Directory. 

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can refer with sentiments of unmixed satisfaction ; and to this little pamphlet I 
acknowledge myself indebted for much information respecting the early history of 
the Minster Church. A dissertation relating to the disputes between Beverley and 
Hull, authenticated by some substantial references, has been recently given to the 
world by Mr. Frost.^ Warburton made considerable accumulations towards a 
History of Beverley ; but the attempt was subsequently abandoned, and his papers 
were deposited in the noble collection of the Marquis of Lansdowne, and are now 
in the British Museum.' Dugdale' and Tanner'^ have furnished a fertile source of 
reference ; and the papers and documents enumerated by the latter have been of 
essential service in directing my enquiries into a channel whence an abundance of 
matter has flowed. I allude to the Records in the Tower, Exchequer, and other 
public depositories, where numerous manuscripts and evidences lie scattered in a 
detached form, a catalogue of which would extend this preface beyond its just 
limits." Suffice it to say that they have been sedulously consulted ; and authentic 

^ Notices relative to the Early Hist, of Hull, p. 119. 

* They are principally contained in a thick quarto volume, and marked 896. VIII. 

® Monasticon Anglicannnu '^ Notitia Monastioon. 

" The following heads of MSS. in that otie splendid national depository, the British Mnseom, 

will be amply sufficient to shew the voluminous nature of the reeoids which have been consulted, 

when we consider that almost eveiy public and many private libraries contain documents illustrative 

of the town of Beverley. 

Lansdowne MSS. 
289. fo. 213. The charter of king Athelstan to the church of Saint John at Beverley, in English 
rhyme, but in language long posterior to the time of Athelstan. ** That witten all that ever beene.'^ 

446. fo. 89. Transcripts of two Saxon charters to Beverley Minster, from Edward the Con- 
fessor and William the Conqueror. 

896* VIII. A volume of printed and manuscr^t collections, chiefly relating to Beverley,, 
oontaining, Hawkesmoor^s survey of Saint John's church at Beverley, A. D. 1717. The Memoirs 
and Antiquities of Beverley, collected by Mr. Matthew Ashmole, alderman of the town. Annals 
of Beverley, with a list of mayors. Memoranda of books and manuscripts relating to the town* 
King's Views of Beverley. Three printed leaves, containing the Histoiy of the Minster church ; 
from Maynard's edition of Dugdale's Histoiy of Saint Paul's. Mr. Torre's account of the Minster. 
Trickings in pen and ink, of arms in windows, tombs, &o. in Beverley church. Index locorum, 
collect, per G. K. R. D. 1678. Account of Saint Maiy's church in Beverley. Of the foundation 
and fate of the Collegiate church of Saint John. Rental of the revenue of the same, A. D. 1706* 
Abstract of the grant of Edward VI. to the same. Abstract of grants from Charles II. and James 
11. to the town. A book of tracts and evidences relating to tiie church of Saint John. A licence 
to Richard Fairclough, for altering a way in the Friar Garth. Account of the monastery of 
Beverley. A short account of the life of Saint John of Beverley, and of the antiquities there,, 
collected by Marmaduke Nelson, aldennan of the town, A. D. 1710. A blazon of coats of arms 
on the tombs and in the windows of Beverley Minster. Copy of Archbishop Thurstan's charter 
to the men of Beverley. Cart, antiq. R. n. 18. Copy of the charter of confirmation of Henry 

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copies taken of them all, as well as transcripts of numerous papers from the Aug- 
mentation office, the Dodsworth*s collection in the Bodleian library, Oxford ; the 

I. Charter of Stephen, A. D. 1 135. Nomina PrsBpositaB Beverlaci. Carta Regis Edward II. 
Carta Regis Stephani. Confirmatio Honorii Pap. circa 1125. Carta Regis Johannis. Carta 
Regis Edw. II. Breve Regis 36 Edw. III. Plac. coram Rege apnd Ebor. Term. Pascb. 16 
Rich. II. Cantar^ Joh'is Ake. Licen. Achiepiscopi. Rentale redditum et firmarum terrarum, 
tenementorum &c. pertinen. Cantariae Rob. Rolleston clerici nnper Prepos. Eccl. B. JohUs 
Beverlaci. A. D. 1 450. Pro Cantaria RobHi Rolleston. Rentali Prepositnne infra bargnm Bever* 
laci solvend. ad terminos S. Martini, pentecostes et natalis Domini. Inqnis. capt. apud Beverl. 
1407. De domo leprosorum extra Keldegate Bar. A rentali of the lands and tenements within 
the borongh of Beverley, which formerly belonged to the provosts of Saint John^s church there, 
payable at Martinmas and Christmas. Benefactors to the poor of Saint Mary^s parish ; Saint 
Mary's rents, leases, &c. Ex vetusto rotulo in pergameuo tempore Hen. II? Ric. I? et Job. ut 
character in quo exaratnr ostendit, in custodia d'ni Sedgwicke vicarij de Marfiete, qui mihi (J. 
Warburton) amice proebuit. Ordo pro ministratione in Bederna. An inventory of the books, 
chalices, and other ornaments of the chantry chapel founded by John Ake, on the Cross Bridge 
in Beverley. Licentia prebendarii de Fridaythorpe. Carta Henr. Manpas. The testament of 
John de Ake. Copies and parts of wills relating to the town of Beverley. A rental of the Pro- 
vost^s lands and tenements without the borough. Taxatio prepositura Beverlaci. 6 Edw. III. A 
list of all the persons who paid Scot and Lot in the town of Beverley, A. D. 1456. Memoranda 
respecting the Corpus-Christi plays at Beverley. The form of the oath anciently taken by the 
XII governors. The old oath of the burgesses. The order of the archbishop of York in relation 
to some ill words spoken against the xii governora. A new order for the electing of the xii 
governors, 1488. Orders of the xii governors. Articles of an order taken in the Star Chamber, 
27 Hen. VIII. concerning the yearly election of the xii governors. Ordinance by the governors, 
1560. Ordinances made in the mayoralty of Richard Bullock. Orders, laws, &c. made by Robert 
Fayrer, mayor. Note concerning the timber growing in Westwood, sold to pay the town^s debts. 
The orders of the ancient company or fraternity of Minstrels in Beverley. The ordinance of the 
young men called the iiij Yeomen in Saint Mary's parish. The ordinance, newly made, of the 
young men called Four Yeomen in the Minster parish. Fox^s Hospital. An abstract of the 
charters in the chartulary of Beverley relating to the street called Newbiggin. Proposals for 

cleaning Beverley Beck. Answers to Mr. P 's objections to Mr. W 's proposals fw 

cleansing Beverley Beck. Mr. Lelham's estimate for cleaning the said river. Notes by Mr. 
Warburton respecting Beverley. Pat. 4 Hen. V. reciting Athelstan's charter to Beverley. Me- 
moranda concerning Beverley, from Leland^s Itinerary. Mr. John BurnselPs manuscript Notes 
for additions to Camden's Britannia respecting Beverley. Extracts from some manuscript Notes 
by the Rev. Abraham de la Prime. Act of Parliament, 18 Geo. II. for cleansing and widening 
the creek called Beverley Beck, running into the river Hull. 

Harleian MSS. 

368, 5. p. 5. Heads of a petition exhibited to the lord President of the northern parts by the 
mayor and governors of Beverley, against Michael Warton, &c. 18th June. 1593. 

433, 831. p. 70 b. To the governors &c. of the town of Beverley, 20 marks yearly till £100. 
. be paide. 

560. Codex chartaceus in 4to in quo continentur ... 1. CoUectiones de vitaet miraculis 
D. JohHs BeverP transcripts ex veteri MS. Folcardi monachi coenobii Dorobernensis. 2. Liber- 
tates ecclesiflB Sci JohMs Beverlacensis a regibus et principibus Anglorum &c. largiter collatae et 
Qsq ; in hodiernum diem usu vel consuettidinis attricione celebres obtentae ; quas magister Alu- 
redns vir vitsB venerabilis, et prenominatse ecclesiae Sacrista, scripturarum studiosus Indagator, 
sicut a predecessoribus suis andierat et viderat, scripto commendavit, &c. Notandum, quod Cart» 
qu» hie Anglo-Saxonic^ exhibentur, ab imperitissimo librarip, mird depravantnr. 

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Archiepiscopal Archives in the city of York, the Constable MSS. &c. relatiye to 
Beverley and the surrounding villages. Added to this, a most valuable book of 
MS. evidences has been placed in my hands by the Rev. Mr« Coltman, called ^ A 
Book of the Fee of the Provost of Beverley.'' It contains a fund of information of 
which I have availed myself to the uttermost, as will be seen by the g^eat number 
of references to it which are contained in the following pages.'^ 

Of an unlimited access to other sources, through the partiality and kindness of 
private friends, I may reflect with pride and dilate with gratitude; for though I 
have been refused assistance from sources where it might, and ought to have been 
cheerfully conceded, yet I have the gratification of announcing the names of many 
patrons of science, who may indulge the pleasing consciousness of having oontri-* 
buted to the service of literature, of which, it is hoped, they will reap the benefits 
and enjoy the rewards. 

To the Right Honourable Lord Hotham I beg to record my obligations for the 
materials from which the pedigree of his lordship's ancient family has been 

1394. 314. Arms in the Minster, St. Mary% and the Guildhall. 1584. 

1415. 49. and 1571. Arms and seals of the town of Beverlej. 

2225. 2. Prebends formerly in the Collegiate church of Beverley, with their valuation, which 
were also in the Archbishop's gift 

4292. xvi. Codex membranaceus, continens Re^istrum S. JohMs Beverlacensis, et exhibens 
nomina petentinm libertatem, i. e. Sanctnarlum, S. JohMs pro homicidiis, temporis Henrici septimi 
et octavi nee non, (inverse ordine) Edwardi quarti. 

This renter contains seventy closely written folio pages. 

6387. A quarto containing various notes relating to English Histoiy and Antiquities. At the 
beginning there is a list of mayors of Doncaster, between the years 1493 and 1641 inclusive; and 
interspersed throughout the book there is mention of several things relating to Beverley. 

>' This book is a folio, bound in calf, and appears to be a transcript from some more volumi- 
nous work> probably the original Registers of the Provostry, as it contains a record of transactions 
from the reign of Stephen to that of James. It is written in abbreviated latin» in the peculiar 
manuscript of the middle ages^ but with different grades of execution, some parts being beautifully 
penned, and others so execrably written as to be almost illegible. It contains accounts of the 
early provosts; the privileges, immunities, and jurisdiction of the court; records of suit and 
service, homage and fealty, pleas of trespass, fines and deodands, description and transfers of 
property, forfeitures and alienations, rents and pensions, together with some charters, and a 
tolerably general and accurate account of the disposal of the monastic property throughout the 
district at the Reformation. The volume consists of four separate parts or books ; the first is 
paged to 74 ; the second commences at 19, and is paged very irregularly, but concludes at 108. 
Book the third is numbered in folios as far as 22, when the regular series is interrupted by an 
mdex, and a long copy of letters-patent granted by King Philip and Queen Mary to Sir Henrv 
Constable, knight ; after which, fo. 23 occurs, and the numbers are uniform to 36, when the book 
concludes with another index, and several papers and directions to the Feodaries of the E^sU 
riding. The fourth book is paged from 1 to 83, subsequently to which it is numbered in folios to 
96, when an index interposes, and it then proceeds in pages to 146, and concludes with another 
index. As a document of undoubted authority this volume is invaluable. 


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compiled; and to express my thanks for the polite attention which was so promptly 
afforded to further the purposes I had in view. From Richard Bethell^ esq. of 
Rise, I received equal satisfaction on a similar subject 

. The Rev. Joseph Coltman, with that unostentatious kindness which enhances 
obligation while it deprecates acknowledgment, voluntarily transmitted a bundle 
of papers on the subject of Beverley; and not only freely, and without intermission, 
assisted me with his advice, but undertook the arduous task of perusing several 
portions of the manuscript, and gave me the benefit of his suggestions for their 
improvement. Added to this, he entrusted me with two voluminous ancient 
manuscripts, one of which has been already noticed; and the other, engrossed on 
parchment and bound in oak, is ^^a Chartulary of the chantry of St. Catharine in 
the Collegiate church of St. John." I have also made use of this gentleman's 
" Short History," but I am not conscious of having purloined a single extract 
without prompt acknowledgment. 

To Thomas Hull, esq. M. D. I am indebted for the entire article on Botany, 
(p. 516.) and some other useful documents which are acknowledged in the notes. 
This gentleman has also done me the honour of perusing a portion of the MS. and 
favouring me with a few hints, of which I have availed myself in the proper place. 
I must also thank his daughter. Miss Mary Jane, for several drawings of antiquities 
with which the work is illustrated. 

The corporation of Beverley have forwarded about forty short extracts from the 
Court Books, all in the 17th century. 

Barnard Clarkson, esq. of Kirkham Abbey, has furnished me with considerable 
information relative to the tumuli at Bishop-Burton; and has been extremely 
liberal in the loan of books and papers, which have been of great utility. 

The kind co-operation of Robert Machell, esq. has improved that portion of 
the work which relates to Heraldry. Indeed, this gentleman is entitled to my 
acknowledgments in more respects than one, for he has rendered much assistance 
of too general a nature to be minutely particularized; and his conduct throughout 
the whole progress of the work has been characterized by an anxiety to afford 
every aid in his power. 

Richard Almack, esq. of Long-Melford, Suffolk, has favoured me with some 
valuable papers, particularly an account of the Percy family as connected with 
the village of Leckonfield. 

Francis Iveson, esq. with that honourable feeling which consults only the 
benefit of literature^ and the credit of the town in which he resides; on the very 

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first announcement of my intention to compile this work, forwarded to me, nn- 
solicited^ several documents relating to the corporation, and also a bundle of 
papers and evidences respecting Watton Abbey. 

I beg to return my best thanks to Charles Frost, esq. the ingenious author of 
"Notices relative to the early History of the Town and Port of Hull/' for the loan 
of the twenty volumes of Rymer, the Rolls of Parliament, and M. Paris, all of 
which were absolutely essential to the perfection of my history. 

In this enumeration of friends and contributors to the work, I must not omit 
the names of Thomas Thompson, esq. of Cottingham, the Rev. D. Ferguson of • 
Walkington, John Walker, esq. of Malton, the Rev. W. Hunter of Cherry- 
Burton, Thomas Wharton, esq. of Hull, and Mr. English, the librarian of the 
Hull Subscription Library, whose kindness I beg to acknowledge. 

It will be doing injustice to Mr. Willis, the corporaticm clerk, and Mr. Comins 
the architect, were I to on^it their names in this catalogue of gentlemen from whom 
I have received assistance. The former examined and corrected my MS. chapter 
on the Corporation; and, more than once, accompanied me round the lordship, 
and explained many local peculiarities which appeared quite familiar to him, and 
his remarks were of essential service to me. He also communicated other infor- 
mation for which he has my thanks. Mr. Comins cheerfully afforded every facility 
in his power to aid my investigations in the Minster; and his son favoured me 
with some diagrams and drawings which were of great utility. Neither must I 
forget to notice the kindness of the churchwardens of St. Martin's and St. Mary's, 
who cheerfully gave up their time during my researches in the registers of their 
respective churches. 

Mr. Turner, the publisher of this work, had employed his leisure during the 
last twenty years in making collections for a History of Beverley; and so long ago 
as the year 1818, he^ placed his materials in the hands of the Rev. Mr. Watts of 
Pockthorpe, to be arranged and digested into a regular form for publication. But 
the subsequent illness and death of that gentleman prevented the design from being 
carried into effect. Mr. Watts's papers fell into the possession of Mr. Iveson, and 
were placed in my hands in 1827, together with Mr. Turner's augmented docu- 
ments, when the design was finally committed to me. These papers contained 
an unfinished description of the Minster, portions of which have been incorporated 
into the second Chapter of the third Part of the present work, and a translation 
fix>m Alured in X Scriptores, of the seduction of a nun in the convent at Watton. 
This I have carefully compared with the original, and with many alterations, have 


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inserted it in the proper place. I must here giye Mr. Turner the credit, during 
the progress of the work, of being unceasingly active in his search after records 
and useful papers; and every source from whence even the most trifling informa- 
tion was anticipated has been ransacked with ceaseless industry; often, indeed, in 
vain; but frequently with the most happy success. 

To all my friends I return my most sincere acknowledgments. The liberal 
manner in which their assistance was afforded, has been highly gratifying during 
every stage of the proceedings, and has left an impression on my mind which time 
can never efface. 

The graphic department has been committed to the exclusive management of 
Mr. Britton, who has rendered himself so deservedly celebrated by his *' Architec- 
tural Antiquities," and other equally splendid publications. 

Thus have I faithfully stated the original sources from which the following 
history was compiled ; and the extent of reading and general research which have 
been used to embellish its pages may be estimated from the notes, references, and 
authorities which are appended to illustrate the text. I have been careful not to 
make any important insertion without the sanction of some respectable authority, 
except in the most early period ; and when conjecture was of necessity used, I have 
been uniformly directed by the corresponding circumstances of the times and the 
voice of general history, corroborated by local appearances, and authenticated by 
ancient remains. The undertaking was arduous, but not absolutely hopeless ; for 
the greatest obstacles may be surmounted by patient industry and steady resolution. 

Sedit, qai timnit ne non succederet : esto 

Quid? qui pervenit, fecitne viriliter? Atqai 

Hie est, ant nasqaam, qnod qasrimns. Hio onas horret, 

Ut paivis animig et parvo corpore majns.; 

Hio snbit, et perfert. Ant virtus nomem inane est, 

Ant deooB et pretiam rect^ petit experiens vir. 

HoR. Epist. XVII. 

Great Grimsby, May 1st, 1829. 

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His Grace thb ARCHBISHOP of YORK, Patron — large paper. 

His Grace the Duke op Northumberland, K.G. Lord Lienteuant of Ireland, 

large paper. 
The Right Honourable Earl Spencer, K. G. F. R. 8. Ac. large paper. 
The Right Honourable the Earl of Carlisle, large paper. 
The Right Honourable the Earl of Harewood, large paper. 
The Honourable and Right Reverend George, Lord Biahop of Lincoln, large paper. 
The Right Honourable Lord Viscount Milton, F. R. S. and S. A. large paper. 
The Right Honourable Lord Hotham. 

Broadley, J. Esq. F.S.A. F.L.AH*S. M.R. 

A. B. 

Alexander, E. N. Esq. Halifax. 

Allen, Mr. Robert, London. 

Allen, Mr. William Stephenson, London, two 

copies, one large paper. 

.Imack, Rich^ ~ 

large paper. 


Almack, Richard, Esq. Long-Melford, Suffolk, 

Arden, John Barker, Esq. Beverley. 
Athorpe, Colonel, Hull. 

Bainton, Mr. Thomas, Arram-Hall. 

Baitson, Mr. Thomas, Beverley, large paper. 

Barnard, Mrs. large paper. 

Barnes, Rev. William, Richmond. 

Baron, G. Esq. Drewton. 

Batley, Charles Harrison, Esq. M. P. London. 

Bayley, Rev. Dr. Archdeacon of Stowe. 

Bennison, Mr, AppleUm, Hull. 

Best, Rev. Francis, South-Dalton, large paper. 

Beswick, Mr. Richard B. Hull. 

Bethell, Richard, Esq. Rise. 

Blackstone, Mr. Christopher, Beverley. 

Blanchard, Mr. William, York.>. 

Blanchard, Mr. John, Solicitor, t^k. 

Blanchard, Mr. Wm. Stephenson, Bradford. 

Bland, Mr. Samuel, Beverley. 

Blumfield, Mr. S. Hull. 

Borton, Francis, Esq. M. D. Malton, large 

Bower, Henry, Esq. F. A. S. Doncaster. 
Bower, Mr. William, Beverley. 
Boyle, Mr. J. Hull. 

Boynton, Sir Frtmcis, Bart Burton-Agnes. 
Brereton, Charles, Esq. Beverley. 
Brigham, Mr. William, Beverley, large paper. 
Brigham & Pipes, Messrs. Bevwley. 
Britton, John, Esq. F. S. A. Londoui large 


S.L. large paper. 
Brown, J. Esq. M. D. 
Brown, Mr. Commissaiy, Beverley. 
Buckler, J. Esq. Loudon. 
Burton, Henry, Esq. Hotham, large paper. 

Caborn, Mr. James, Beverley. 

Campbell, Mr. Knediington. 

Capes, Mr. Heni^ William, Manchester. 

Carter, Richard, Esq. Surgeon R.N. Beverley, 
large paper. 

Catterson, Mr. George, Beverley. 

Chaplin, Charles, Esq. M.P. Blankney, Lin- 

Clarkson, C. Esq. F.A.S. Richmond. 

Clarkson, Barnard, Esq. Kirkham- Abbey. 

Clemesha, Mr. S. Jun. Liverpool, large paper. 

Clifton, Mr. William, Beverley. 

Clubley, Thomas, Esq. Beverley. 

Cogswell, Rev. N. Keelby. 

CoUison, Mr. Thomas, Beverley. 

Collinson, Mr. John, Beverley. 

Coltman, Rev. Joseph, Beverley, hirge paper. 

Constable, Rev. Charles, Wassand. 

Crosskill, Mr. WUUam, Beverley. 

Dargavell, Mr. William, Beverley. 

Davies, Mr. Rees, Hull, ten copiee. 

Dixon, Rev. Thomas, Laceby, Lincolnshire. 

Drake, Rev. Francis, D. D. 

Duesbery, Thomas, Esq. Beverley. 

Duncombe, Hon. William, M. P. 

Duncum, Messrs. T. & C. Beverley. 

Eccles, Rev. William, Hopton. „ ^ .. 

Edwards, Thos. Esa. Long-Melford, Suffolk. 
Eglin, Joseph Esq. Hull. 
EUerker, Mrs. EUerker-Abbey, Surrey. 

Digitized by 



Ellison, Henry, Esq. Beverley, large paper. 

EUlison, Richard, Esq. large paper. 

Fenby, Miss Sarah, Liverpool. 

Fenby, Mr. George, Liverpool. 

Fenby, Mr. William, Liverpool. 

Fenby, Mr. Joseph, Liverpool, large paper. 

Fenby, Mr. Thomas, Liverpool, large paper. 

Galland, Rev. Thos. M. A. Leeds, large paper. 
Oedge, Rev. Joseph, Hnmberstone. 
Gibson, Matthew Tc^ham, Esq. Sigglesthome. 
Gilby, Rev. John, L. L. B. Beverley, large 

Gleadow, R. W. Esq. Hall. 
Greame, John, Esq. Sewerby, large paper. 
Green, George, Esq. Hornsea. 
Greenwood, Rev. Wm. Malton, large paper. 
Grey, Rev. Thomas, M. A. Vicai of Howden. 

Hall, John, Esq. Scorbargh. 
Hall, Mr. J. Hull. 
Hall, Mr. Daniel, Beverley. 
Hargrove & Co. Messrs. York, two copies. 
Hatfield, Rev. J. Sproatley. 
Hayes, Matthew, Esq. Pickering, large paper. 
Hayes, Mr. Thomas, Beverley; 
Heneage, G. F. Esq. M. P. two copies. 
Hewson, Thomas, Esq. Croyden, Surrey. 
Hick, Rev. David, Marske. 
Hildyard, Rev. W. Trinity-Hall, Cambridge. 
Hill, Richard, Esq. Thornton. 
Hornby, William, Esq. York. 
Hopkinson, James, Esq. Billings-Hill. 
Hoil, Thomas, Esq. M-. D* Beverley, large 

Inman, Miss, Beverley. 

Issott, Mr. Joseph, Beverley. 

Iveson, Francis, Esq. Beverley, large paper. 

Jarratt, William, Esq. large paper. 

Johnson, Mr. William Bell, Beverley. 

Keigkley, Mr. J. Elland. 

King, Colonel, Lincoln, large paper. 

Knowsley, Edmund, Esq* Hull. 

Lambert, Miss, Beverley. 

Langdale, Mr. Thomas, Ripon^ 

Lee, Robert, Esq. Hull. 

Legard, Mrs. Watton Abbey. 

Legard, Mrs. Beverjtey. 

Lockwood, John, Esq. Beverley, large paper.. 

Lundy, Rev. Francis, M. A. Lockington. 

Lundie, Robert, Esq. Hull. 

Lyceum Library, Hull. 

Machell, Colonel, Beverley. 
McDonald, Mr. Lincolo* 

fiffaddm, F. EiM}. F. A. S. F. R. S. L. Magda. 

len Hall, Oxford. 
Mathew, Col. Pentlow Hall, Essex. 
Middleton, Mr. Henry, Leeds. 
Moody, Rev. Robert, Beckingham, Lincoln* 


Moody, John, Esq. Grimsby. 
Moore, Rev. G. A. M. A. Caistor. 
MuUins, Mr. 
Myers, Mr. John, Beverley. 

Newham, Mr. Lvnn, Norfolk. 
Nornabell, Mr. Hull. 

Oliver,. Rev. Samuel, Kneesall, Nottingham* 

shire, large paper. 
O'Neill, A. J. Esq. M. P. 

Parkinson, Rev. John, D. D. Ravendale,, 

Parker, Mr. J. Jun. Liv^pool. 
Parker, J. C. Esq. F. H. S. HuU. 
Payley, Dr. Bishopton. 

Pennyman, Sir William, Baronet, large paper.. 
Prattman, Mr. Robert, Beverley. 

Ramsden, Mr. James, large paper. 

Ranson> Mr. Samuel, Jun. LiverpooL 

Ranson, Mr. Thomas, Beverley. 

Rankin, Rev. T. Huggate. 

Richardson, Mr. William, Beverley, two copies^ 

one large paper. 
Richards, Rev. George Piers, M. A. 
Rodford <& Stephenson, Messrs. HulL 
Ross, Mr. Charles, Beverley. 

Sampson, Rev. George, Leven. 

Sandwith, Thomas, Esq. Beverley. 

Sandwith, Mr. Humphrey, Bridlington. 

Sandwith, Mrs. Hull. 

Sheen, Rev. J. M. A. Stanstead, Suffolk. 

Shepherd, Henry John, Esq. Beverley, two^ 

Sibthorpe, Rev. H. W. M. A. large paper^ 
Smith, Mr. James, Malton. 
Smith, Mr. John, Bingley. 
Smith, Rev. W. Great Coates. 
Somerscale% Mr. Charles, Hull. 
Stephenson, Rev. Lawrence, M. A. Cambridge. 
Stewart, John; Esq. M. P. large papen 
Stillingfleet, Rev. Edward, M. A. Hotbam,. 

large paper. 
Sumner; Mr. GilLyat, Woodmansey. 
Swaddle, Mr. John, Woodmansey. 
Taylor, Mrs. Cottingham. 
Tennyson, Charles, Esq. M, P. F. R. 1^- 

F. A.8. Ac. 

Digitized by 



Tennyson, George, Esq. Bayons Manor, Lin- 

Thompson, Mr. T. P. E. large paper. 

Thompson, John Vincent, Esq. Recorder of 
Beverley, large paper. 

Ti^r, Mr. Peunock, Grovehill. 

Tindall, Mr. George, large paper. 

Todd, Messrs. J. & G. York. 

Torre, Rev. John, M. A. Catwick. 

Townrow, Mr. Catherine Hall> Cambridge, 
large paper. 

Take, John Batty, Esq. Hull. 

Villiers, F. H. Esq. M. P. 
Villiers, C. Pelham, Esq. 

Waddilove, Robert Darley^ D. D. Dean of 

Walker, James, Esq. Beverley. 
Walker, John, Esq. Malton. 
Walker, Mr. Geoi^, Beverley. 
Walker, Mr. John, Hnil. 
Wardell, 21 r. Francis, Beverley. 

Watt, Richard, Esq. Bishop-Barton, Uarg^ 

Watt, Francis, Esq. Beverley, large paper. 
Wasney, Rev. Richard, B. A. Newcastle. 
Webb, Rev. John, Thornton, large paper. 
Westerby, Captain, E. Y. Militia, Beverley, 

large paper. 
Wharton, Mr. Thomas, Hall. 
Wilkinson, Wifiiam, Esq. Theame. 
Williams, John, Esq. Mayor of Beverley. 
Willisy Rear Admiral. 
Willis, Mr. John, Beverley. 
Willcox, Mr. John, Beverley. 
Wibon, Thomas, Esq. York. 
Wilson, Mr. Isaac, Hall, two copies, ime large 

Wood, C. Esq. M. P. 
WooUey^ Mr. J. HaU. 
Wranffham, The very Rev. F. M. A. F.R.B. 

Archdeacon of Cleveland, large paper. 


Digitized by 




Dedication • • • iii 

Preface *•*•••••••• • • • • v 


The Britons. — Ancient site of Beverley — Enquiry after the true situation of Petuaria — Druid 
Temple at Godmanham — Tumuli at Arras — Druid^s town or Drewton — Rites of the insular 
sanctuary — Ancient British road — Authorities for placing Petuaria at Beverley — Tumuli at 
Bishop-Burton — Origin of the name of Bever-Lac — General opinion erroneous — British 
derivations — Mythological observances — ^Original planters of Britain — Pheryllt — Cymri — 
Sanctity of the druidical character — Consecrated groves — Initiation — Consecrated lakes — 
Mystical ceremonies aiid legends — Etymologies — Mythological Beaver — Corporation Seals 
— Druids established in the wood of Deira — Ancient religious festival at Beverlac — Horrid 
rites and ceremonies there • .••••! 


The Romans. — Their first appearance in Deira — Treachery of Cartismunda — Caractacus — 
Bravery and activity of the Britons — Romans introduce the Arts— People and cultivate the 
wood of Deira — Improve the appearance of the country — ^Accounts of the first Christian 
establishment there examined — Introduction of Christianity into Britain — Doctrines of the 
Druids compared with Christianity — The inhabitants of Deira embrace the new religion — 
Lucius converted — His history examined — Evidences of the existence of Christianity at this 
period — Druidism deeply planted — A church erected at Beverlac probable — ^Name of the 
site of this edifice — ^its derivation and reference — Progress of Christianity — Errors of Pela- 
gius — Romans forsake the island. • • . . .16 


The Saxons.— The Saxons hate both Druidism and, Christianity— Seize on the kingdom- 
Commit desperate ravages — Destroy the church "hi Deirwold — Abolish Christianity — Pope 
Gregory — Is struck with the beauty of some youthful slaves from Deira — Commissions 
Augustine to convert the Anglo-Saxons — Ethelbert converted — Saxon temples converted 
into Christian churches — King Edwin convenes a solemn assembly in Deirwold, to deliberate 
on the propriety of embracing the Christian religion — Arguments of Paulinus — successful 
— CoiiBy the Pagan High Priest, desecrates the Temple of Thor at Godmanham — Edwin 
baptized — The people converted by thousands, and baptized in the river Swale* • ^^ 

Digitized by 




Thb Saxons.; — The Saxons acqaainted with the elementary principles of arcbiteetare — Christi- 
anity floarishes in Deira — Probable that the charch at Beverlac was re-edified by that 
people — Invasion of Cadwallo and Penda — Edwin slain — Drnidism restored at Beverlac by 
Cadwalio and his Druids — Splendid rites of worship celebrated there — Excesses at these 
festivals — Oswald patronizes the Christians — The wood of Deira polluted — John of Bbver- 
LBT born — ^Acquires a high degree of reputation — Jurisdiction of the Pope — Wilfrid 
^peals to his holiness against a decree of the synod — The Pope supports bis cause, and 
pronounces judgment in his favour— John of Beverley consecrated Bishop of Hagnlstad — 
His singular activity in that high situation — Miracles attributed to him--John elevated to 
the archiepiscopal see of York — Visits Beverlac — Charmed with the beauty of its situation 
— Rebuilds the church — Founds a double monastery — St Martinis church — Style and 
character of the buildings — Endowments — Church of St Nicholas — This establishment 
highly advantageous to the cause of Christianity — Origin of collegiate churches — Temporal 
jurisdiction of the Abbots — Courts — Persevering industry of the religious orders — John 
vacates his see, and retires to Beverley — Dies, and is buried there — Influence attached to 
thenameof John of Beverley. ...... 37 


Thb Danes and Saxons. — The Danes — Comparative view of the Roman, Saxon, and Danish 

character — Danes in the province of Deira — their ravages Monastery of St John of 

Beverley destroyed — Partially restored — Atheistan — Gives a charter to the town of Bever- 
ley — Privilege of sanctuary to the church — This privilege illustrated — Fridstol — Origin of 
the privilege of sanctuary — Atheistan pledges his knife at the altar of St John — Victor^' 
over the S<x»ts — Grants to the church and town — Archbishops of York reside at Beverley — 
Riches of St John^s tomb — Three new offices constituted in the church — Hospital of St 
Giles built at Beverley — St John canonizedi and his bones enshrined — Fairs established — 
Ancient laws respecting fairs — Tower built to the Minster, and bells introduced — History of ' 
bells — ^Minster decorated by Aldred — Character of the fabric before the Norman Concjuest 53 


Thb Normans. — William the Conqueror resolves to reduce the power of the church- 
Oppresses the clergy — Insurrection in the north — Quelled — The king issues an order to 
ravage the county of York — Extraordinary judgments inflicted on the party who were 
deputed to desecrate the Minster at Beverley — The property of this church exempted^ by 
royal proclamation, from injury — Archbishop Aldred dies — Provostship constituted — The 
island divided among the Normans — Tenures — ^Inconveniences of the system — Terms in 
Domesday explained — Property of the Archbishop of York in Beverley and the neighbour- 
hood — Pn^rty of the canons of St John described — Disputed claims — Observations — 
Population of Beverley at this time — Wood of Deira — Town of Beverley^ how divided and 
oooapied—Ferme—Mills— Extent ..... 65 


Comparison of ancient and modem manners— Thurstan grants a charter to the town — Canal 
from the fiver Hull, called Beverley Beck— Thurstan builds the chapel of St Mary— His 
privileges as the lord of the town— King Stephen's charter— Rebellion of Eustace Fitsjohn 

Digitized by 




— ^his ravages, in oonjunction with the Scots — Battle of Cnton-Moor — Heniy Mardac, Arch- 
bishop of York, resides at Beverley — Stephen contemplates the fortification of the town — 
Is deterred from his purpose by a vision — Charter of Henry II. — Thomas i Becket provost 
of Beverley — Town and Minster consumed by fire — 'Pobiic offices put to sale — Fee-farm 
rents of Beverley — Disputes in the town — Disgrace of the Archbishop — King John visits 
Cottingham — and Beverley — View of the town and its inhabitants — Miracle there — Com- 
mandery of St. John founded — Disputes between the Archbishop and the Canons of Bever- 
ley^Property conveyed to the church-— Provost of Beverley — Streets paved — Fines and 
taxes — ^Arrangement respecting the navigation of the river Hull — Chivalry — Superiority 
of the Beverley cloths — Charters of Henry III. • . . .82 


Injustice and extortion — Commission of enquiry — Instances of crime at Beverley — The Arch- 
bishop grants Fegang and Byscopdynges to the burgesses — Hospital of Saint Giles assigned i 
to the priory of Wartre — Enumeration and explanation of the rights of the Archbishop in 
Beverley — Disputes respecting private property — Charter of Edward I. — Donations to the 
church — Taxation of Pope Nicholas — War between England and Scotland — First parlia- 
ment or assembly of lords and commons — Standard of John of Beverley conveyed to 
Scotland — Victory over the Scots — Hostilities renewed — Second victory — Banner replaced 
— Edward I. visits Beverley — Grants liberties to the church — Minster restored — House of 
the Franciscan Friars erected — Enumeration of many detached private transactions which | 
took place at Beverley about this period — The king pays a second visit to the town. 106 


Provost's court — ^House of Black Friars erected — Writ to arrest fidse procurators — War with 

Scotland renewed — Commission of array — Suburbs of York burnt — Archbishop of York ^ 

vanquished by the Scots — Soldiers raised at Beverley — Church of Saint Mary endowed — k 

Decoration of the Minster — Commission of array — Town of Beverley reluctant to provide k 

the stipulated number of soldiers for the Scottish wars — Ekiward III. visits Beverley — The coi 

bailiffs of Beverley pay a fine to the king to be released from the conscription — Naval i^i 

armament— Extensive trade of Beverley — Donations to the church — Pardon to Grithmen -.] 

at Beverley — Invasion of the Scots — Vanquished by the Archbishop of York — Humility of Qi^ 

the inhabitants of Beverley during the conflict. . . . • 122 ^^ 


Motives of pious men in devoting a portion of their goods to the church — Nave of the Minster 

erected — Endowments — Dispute between the towns of Beverley and Hull about tolls — ^ 

Charter of Richard II. — Comparative importance of the town of Beverley — Attack on the 3^ 

Archbishop and his attendants by the mayor and bailifis of Hull — The Archbishop assigns ,; .^ 

Westwood to the burgesses of Beverley — Enlai^ement and decoration of the Minster ,^ ' 

church — Sanctuary claimed — Some demagogues threaten to bum the town — The Arch- ^^ 

bishop forcibly expels the canons from Sieir benefices — Litigation — Canons restored^ — ^ 
Bridge at Beverley built — Ordinance for the better government of the coUege^-^Twelve 
governors appointed by charter — Ake's chantry founded — Henry IV. favours the town — 

Horrible punishments — Charters of Henry V. — Infamous attempt at murder — Festivals '^u 

ordained by royal authority on the days of John of Beverley's death and translation — 5^^ 

Charter of Heniy VI^—Dispute between Beverley and South-Cave— Dispute between ' ^^.^ 

Beverley and Hull— Henry VI. visits Beverley — Several grants of that monarch enumerated': . '^< 

-Civil war. : . ... . .136 ;;^''»t 

Digitized by 




General view of the town — Dwelling-hoases — Pavements — Fortifications — Parish churches — 
Religions honses — Minster — Influence of the church — Fraternity of minstrels — Richard 
Cockereil of Beverley attainted of high treason — ^Charter of Eklward IV. — Trinities founded 
— Disputes between the governors and burgesses — Ordinance of the Archbishop— Seven 
rectors incorporated — Sanctuary claimed — Earl of Northumberland murdered by the popu- ^ 
lace — His splendid funeral at Beverley — Sanctuary once more claimed — Ordinances of the - 
four yeomen — Style of living in this age — ^Northumberland household book — Tower of St. 
Mary^s church falls — Rebuilt — Tabernacle work over the stalls in the Minster built — 
Charter of Henry VIII. — Two fellowships founded in Saint John's college, Cambridge^ for 
the benefit of natives of Beverley. » . • . .162 


Commencement of the Reformation — Visitation of the monasteries — Income of the Collegiate 
church — Dispute renewed between Beverley and Hull — Referred to the abbot of Meaux — 
Decision — Dissolution of the smaller monasteries — ^^ The Pilgrimage of Grace'* — ^Alleged 
vices of the monks — ^General dissolution of the religious houses — Grant towards the repairs 
of the Minster — Dispute respecting tolls between Beverley and Hull — Burgesses of Beverley 
petition the queen — Dispute finally settled by arbitration — Charters of Elizabeth — Chantry 
property granted to the churches at Beverley — Timber in Westwood felled — The town 
much impoverished — Exempted from payment of certain taxes during the queen's pleasure 
— Hurricane — The inhabitants visited by the plague — Its horrid progress — Charter of 
Charles I. — Misapplication of church funds — Inquisition and decree. . • ISO 


Disputes between the king and parliament — Scottish war— ^King Charles at Beverley — Sir 
John Hotham appointed governor of Hull — The king appears before Hull, and demands 
admission — Is refused — Declares Hotham a traitor — The parliament sanction Hotham's 
conduct by a vote of thanks — Violence of the parliament — Preparations for war — Charles 
attempts to get possession of Hull by stratagem, and is assisted by a gentleman of Beverley 
— The plan detailed — Is unsuccessful — Active operations commenced by both parties — 
Charles places a garrison at Hull-Bridge, and stations himself at Beverley with his whole 
court — ^Lays siege to Hull — Returns to Beverley — and York. • . 19B 


Consternation of the inhabitants of Beverley after the king's departure — London merchants 
arrive at Beverley, and petition for leave to sell their goods — Precautions for strengthening 
the town — Parliamentary troops take possession of it — Sir John Hotham apprehended at 
Beverley — Battle in the streets between the Earl of Newcastle 'and Sir T. Fairfax — Troops 
of the latter routed — Royalists sack the town — Commission for a treaty of peace — Practices 
of the independents — Trial and execution of the king— -Change of measures — Pews built in 
the Minster nave. . • . . . . .216 


The Restoration — Purgation of the borough — Charter of Charles II. — Relics of St. John of 
Beverley discovered — Pestilence at Beverley — Excommunications — Charter of James II. 
— Election contest in 168 J — Costly present to St. Mary's church from the London merchants 
— Suit between Hull and Beverley — Abdication of king James — Extensive preparations for 
repairing and beautifying the Minster^— North gable screwed up — Ornaments and decora-* 
tions^Eleotion contests of 1722 and 1727— Improvement of the Beck— Excommunications. 282 


Digitized by 





Accession of Geor^ III.— Ditunag^e — Act for SLUgmeniing the revenues of the curates of the 
Minster — War with America — Hull Dock act — Addresses and petitions — French Revolu- 
tion — Beverley volunteers — Scarcity of com — ^Attack on the king — Depredations — ^Act for 
appointing an additional assistant curate-^Act for lighting and watching the town — Superb 
illumination for Peace — Illumination for queen Ceuroline — Coronation festival — Improve- 
ments in the Minster — Oas works — Balloon. . • . • 248 

iPart 3ESS. 



Perambulation of the Town. — Retrospect — General description — Beck-side — Site of Saint 
Nicholases church — Gas works — The Minster — Hall-garth — Black Friars — Grey Friars — 
Keldgate — Routh^s hospital — ^Grammar School — Lairgate — Theatre — Hospital of St. Giles 
— Independent Meeting-hoase — ^Church Methodist chapel — Catfos — Newbigg^ng — East- 
riding Bank— Maison-de-Dieu — ^Quakers* Meeting-house — Hengate — Saint Mary^s church 

— ^Norwood — Pick-hill Fairs — Court of Pie-powder — Assembly-rooms — ^News-room — 

Constitutional Lodge of Free Masons — Beverley Bank — ^North-Bar — Cockstalepit-lane— 
Sessions-bail — Saturday Market — Market Cross^-Shambles — Com Exchange — Lady-gate— 
Post office — Guildhall — Trinities — Wednesday Market — Ranters^ Meeting-house — Min- 
ster-moorgate — Woik-houses — Fox^s hospital — Charles Warton^ hospital— Sir Michael 
Warton's hospital — Graves^s Free School — Wesleyan Methodist chapel — Baptist Meeting- 
house — Tymperon^s hospital — Common pastures — Concluding remarks. • 265 


Perambulation and Description of tbe Minster. — Superiority of style and decoration — 
Site — Materials — Dimensions — East end — North porch — West front — South transepts — 
Galilee — Sanctaary — General view of the interior — West door — ^Nave — ^Aisles — Sisters^ 
tomb — Font — Contrast between the east and west windows — Transept — Tomb of George 
Percy, clerk — Ancient tomb and altar — Organ screen — Choir — East window — Stalls — 
Tabernacle work — Pulpit — Altar sceen-^Percy shrine — ^Colonnade — Lady-chapel — Hatch- 
ments — Reading desk — Vestry — Fridstol — Percy chapel — Armorial bearings — Reflections. 305 


Account of St. Mart's Church. — Origin — Endowment— Church of St Nicholas — Union of 
the two parishes — Value of the living — Services — Description of the fabric — Exterior — In- 
terior — Nave — Inscriptions — Fontn-5)rgan — Galleries — Tmnsept — Decayed chapel — Chan- 
cel Monaments — Ceiling Hatchments — Stalls — Crypt — Church-yard Income of the 

parish — Perambulation — Population — Plate, vestments, Sec, — List of vicars. . 345 


Account op the Corpobation. — Mayor — Recorder — Aldermen — Capital burgesses — Common 
council — Town clerk — Corporation clerk — Inferior officers — Burgesses-^ourt of Record 
— Courts Leet and Baron — View of Frank Pledge — Qaarter Sessions — Sheriflf's tonrn — 

Digitized by 



Gaol — ^Members of parliament — Right of eleotton — Exemption from tolls — List of ohaiten 
— Jnrisdiction — ^Anns and seals — OfBoers of the ooiporation — List of repiesentatlFes— Ltirt 
of abbots — Provosts — Mayors — Recorders — Town clerks — Chamber denes. . 366 


Donations and Bequests — Charitable institntions supported by volnntaiy oontribution-^^ociety 
for promothig Christian knowledge — Qerioal fond — ^Traet society — ^Bible society — ^Dispen- 
sary — ^Lying-in charity — Bank for Savings. . • . • 401 

Present state of the town — Morality — Friendly societies — ^Learning— Trade. • 413 


Games, Am ussMENTSy and Customs. — Bull baiting— Badger baiting-— Cock fighting — Corpns- 
Christi plays — Boy bishop— Minstrels — Cocking stool — ^Stange— Football — Angling— Races 
— Social amusements-— Chairing a member of parliament • • . 421 


BiooBAPHT. — John of Beverley — Archbishop Thomas — ^Archbishop Thnrstan — Archbishop 
Mnrdac — Alnred of Beverley — Philip Ingelbert — Bishop Alcocke — Bishop Fisher — Robert 
Ingram — ^Bishop Green — Lawrence Whitaker — Mary Woolstoncraft Godwin — Dr. Rey* 
nolds— William Wilson— Richard Sissison— Thomas Clarke. . 433 



Cottinoham • . • • • « . . 45S 

Leckonpibld— <Percy Family) • . . ^ . . 472 


North and South-Barton — Walkington — Rlsbv — Scorbrongh — The hamlets comprised within 
the liberties of Beverley, viz: — Molescroft, Slorkhill-cam-Sandholmy Tickton-cnm-Hall- 
firidge^ Weel) Woodmansey-com-Beverley-Parks, Theame> and Eske— Botany of the 
district ..••... 488 

Abbey op Wattoh ....... 520 

Abbey op Mbauz or Melsa . « . « « « 434 

Digitized by 




A— Charter of Athelstan ..---- 

B— ^Sanctaaiy Oath .------ 

C— Charter of Archhishop Thurstan . - . - - 

D— Petition of Archbishop Bowet for the restitation of his rights^^ and the King's Answer 

F Extracts from the Northumberland Household Book 

G— Proclamation of King Charles I. - 

H — Petition to the same monarch at Beverley .... 

I— Charter of Charles II. - - - - - 

K — Charter of James II. ----- - 

L— Court of Sheriff's Toume ------ 

M The order of the famous company or fraternity of Minstrels in Beverley 

N — Additions and emendations - - - - 




1 The Minster Church 

2 Dmidical ceremony of drawing the Avanc, or mythological 

3 Antiquities, (Plate 1.) 

4 Antiquities, (Plate 2.) 

5 Gateway of the Franciscan Monastery - 

6 Jar found in the ruins of Watton Abbey 

7 Ancient Cross near Bishop-Burton 

8 Font in St Mary's Church 

9 View of the Old Grammar School 

10 Sessions Hall . - - - 

11 Market Place and Cross 

12 Distant view of the Minster - 

13 North Transept of the Minster 

14 Machine for screwing up the Gable, (No. 1.) ^ 

15 Ditto ditto (No.2.)> 

16 Percy Shrine . . - - 

17 St. Mary's Church - - - - 

18 Ciypt in St. Mary's Church - 

19 Race Stand .... 

20 Cottingham Church 

21 Autograph ly, fifth Earl of Northumberland 

22 Ancient Elm Tree at Bishop*Burton 

23 Seat of R. Watt, Esq. at ditto 

24 Bishop-Burton Church 

to face the title 

Beaver out of the Lake 

to face page 
to face page 













to face page 313 

to face page 336 
to face page 345 


Digitized by 



25 Walkington Church ..... 

26 North-West view of Watton Abbey - - . - 

27 East view of ditto - - - - - , - 

28 View of North- Bar ..... 

29 Pedigree to shew the connection between the Percy and Arandel Families 

30 Pedigree of Heron ..... 

31 Pedigree of Stateville ..... 

32 Pedigree of De Wake ..... 

33 Pedigrees of Percy and Louvaine .... 

34 Pedigree of Gee ...... 

35 Pedigree of EUerker ..... 

36 Pedigree of Hotham ..... 

37 Pedigree of Warton . . . . . 

38 Pedigree of Bethell - - - 

39 Pedigree of Machell ..... 

40 Pedigree of Bassett - - - . 

41 Table of the population of Beverley com membris in the year 1821 

42 Table of Cnrates of the Minster .... 

43 Table of Rectors of St Nicholas .... 

44 Table shewing a comparative view of the number of communicants at St Maiy * 

and 1826 ...... 

45 Table of Vicars of St Maiy's 

46 Table of Corporation Charters .... 

47 Table of Beverley Races^ 1828 .... 

48 Table of Rectors of Cottingham .... 

49 Table of Vicars of Cottingham - - - - 

50 Table of Rectors of Cherry-Bnrton .... 

51 Table of Rectors of Walkington .... 

52 Table of Botanical Plants 




s in 1698 



n lllo 

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Ancient site of Beverley — Enquiry after the true situation of Petuaria^Druid 
Temple at Chdmanham — Tumuli at Arras — DruicTs Tonm orDrewtan — Rites 
of the iftsuhr sanctuary — Ancient British road — Authorities for placing Petuaria 
at Beverley — Tumuli at Bishop-Burton — Origin of the name of Bever^Lac — 
{General opinion erroneous — British derivations — Mythological observances of 
the druidical priesthood — Original planters of Britain — PheryUt — Cymri — 
Sanctity of the druidical character — Consecrated groves — Initiation — Con- 
secrated Lakes — Mystical Ceremonies^ and hegends — Etymologies of remarkable 
names now used in Beverley — Mythological Beaver — Corporation Seals — Druids 
established in the wood of Ddra — Ancient religious Festival at Beverlac-^ 
Horrid rites and ceremonies there. 

The town of Beverley is situated in the East-riding of Yorkshire, a division of 
the county which was termed by the aboriginal Britons — ^Dwyvawr or Deifyr,* in 
allusion to the universal deluge, a tradition of which was preserved by the Druids; 

1 Welsh Triad, in ^ Jones's Ancient ReUc%'' p. U. 


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for Dwyvawr amongst these priests, was the Great Father or Pangenetor of 
Antiquily, or in other words, Noah. It was afterwards denominated by the 
Saxons, Deira. The narrow promontoiy which terminates at the Spurn was 
distinguished by the name of Cava Deira, Low or Hollow Deira; and because its 
form bears some resemblance ^o the human nose, the syllable Ness was subse- 
quently added either l>y accident or design, and it was termed Hol-deira^ness, 
the nose of Hollow Deira, which soon became softened into its present name, 

The site of Beverley was (in the de^pirec^ssses t>f ab ^iBtensive wood called Deir- 
wold; and, from circumstances of vital importance to the religion of the primitive 
inhabitants, it acquired the local appellation which it still retains of Xlyn yr AvanCf 
the Beaver Lake in the wood of Deira* 

Many topographical writers, aft;er a laborious and indefatigable research into the 
origin and antiquity tif ihe ^ilax^es which ihcy piupuse ix> illustrate, have found 
occasion to lament the want of success with which their most anxious endeavours 
have been rewarded. , Numerous are the towns in this island which had risen to 
some considerable degree of civil, if not political importance before they were 
known to history, or invested with the record of common tradition. To this 
uncertainty is owing much of the darkness with which the primitive history of 
Britain is obscured. There can be little doubt but the town of Beverley had a 
being long before it was dignified with its present characteristic name. And when 
this distinguishing appellation was imposed, it doubtless possessed a direct reference 
to certain mythological rites which marked the spot as the consecrated seat of 
ancient superstition. 

Bark and dreary is the period now under our consideration. The mists of 
oblivion have enclosed it. A few weak and scattered rays dimly shed their illu- 
minating beams over its surface, and are scarcely able to penetrate the dense 
atmosphere which overshadows the bright abode of truth. By these feeble corus- 
cations must our enquiries be directed ; and with the aid of collateral and pre- 
sumptive evidence they will probably enable us to pronounce, with a confidence 
approaching almost to certainty, a decisive opinion on the primitive state of this 
interesting spot, which to this day bears a mythological name, descriptive of the 
mysterious rites and awful ceremonies which in times far distant were solemnized 
within its precincts. 

« Lei. Collect, vol. iii. p. 99. Lye's Sax. Diet, in V. Holderness. 

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Many opinions hare been fuivanced respecting the situatiou ^f tt^e ancien^ 
Petuaria» and it aypeais exceedingly probable thsrf; those who h^ve placed it ait 
Beverley have the most substantial evidence to confirm their ccyojfectujces. Tlt^ 
primitive name of the district Deifyr or Dwyvawr is a sufficient testimoiiy tbtUt ^ 
was occupied by the Britons, and appropriated to commemorations of tbe^ most 
ineffable nature^ which were solemnized on this very spot, as will be proved here- 
after. The wood was inhabited by the Druids, who adopted this siiuatioiL &r th# 
performance of their tremendous rites^ But the most important ipeligious staiions 
of this people were always placed under the protection of a petty jfrifl/^ or 
chieftain to guard their hallowed rites from vulgar pro&nation* 

We are furnished with sufficient evidence to prove that an ancient druid temple 
ousted at Godmanhan,' which contained an orade,^ and con&eqjaenily had- its 
regular establishment of Druids, Bards, and Eubates, who resided on the sp^ et 
in the neighbouring wood of Deira, which, from its local appellation, waa U3>« 
doubtecUy the principal wood in this state or kingdom/ At Arras, in the inu^ie^ 
diate vicinity of Godmanham, several tumuli have been recently opened^ and th^ 
contents are decidedly British. ^ Their form is oirculaTr and in ^ize generidly 
flmall; in some instances, indeed, so slightly elevated above the surface aa ^ be 
nearly indistinct; they are numerous, and placed at no yery distant intervals : e$udi' 
contains a single skeleton, and with few exceptions, pretty entire, not mutilated, 
nor rendered otherwise imperfect, than what the ravages, of time (aaay easily account 
for. In every instanee the bodies were interred pretty nearly oq tl^e same level* 
whatever might have been the elevation of the tumukift} and 1^ ipay b(t ^oor 
sidared at about two feet below the sur&ce at the present day, invariably v^ftmg 
on a dry bed of chalk. The position of the body, with one or two exceptions^ Vfw 
in the ^jUreeti^i ei North and Senthr 

^^ Upon the bones of the fore arm of several were found bracelets of brass, 
variously oi*ntoiented and well executed : some were qmte plain, aaad fastened at 
their extremities in different ways; in some instance^ the two* extremities lapped 
over eadi other, and were kept together by their own elasticity i in others, a small 
bole was made at one extremity fitted to receive a point made at the odier, like 

* Bede. Eoo. HisL I. ii, c. 13. ^ Gibs. Camd. ool. 738. 

' Tbe Kingdom of Deira eoflH>rehandad Yorkilihe, Lanoashin, WestMoielaiid, QuibMS 
bnd, aii4 Dorham. Usher. Piimord. p. 394. 6ibs..Camd. col. 706.. 

B 2 

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many of the key rings of the present day. In one instance, and only one, we 
found a similar ornament romid the bones of the leg, which I have now in my 
possession* Jet ornaments, amber and brass rings, were found in several of the 
barrows, but no coins, nor any thing bearing the slightest resemblance to weapons 
or implements of a domestic nature. 

^ The most valuable curiosity found here is now in the possession of Mr. 
Stillingfleet, discovered near to the high road, consisting of the iron rim of a 
chariot wheel : along with this were found several brass ornaments and a chain, 
which appear to have been appendages to the chariot or harness, though at present 
it is difficult to explain their use. 

^ I have stated that, in general, the bodies were not found mutilated. There 
may have been two or three exceptions. The bones I have now in my possession 
afford a striking instance to that effect.^ They consist of part of the oss ilium, 
the thigh and leg bones, with the knee bent upwards, of the left side, with the 
brass ornament round the leg; the thigh bone of the right side is placed under the 
leg bone of the left ; and near to these lay the bones of a left fore-arm, not belonging 
to the same body, but apparently much younger, ornamented with a bracelet. 

** The ground occupied by these tumuli, seems obviously to have been enclosed 
by what still appear to be marks of a regular and defined boundaiy, and when all 
circumstances are considered^ connected with the nature and character of the 
tumuli and their contents, as well as its situation along the line of the old Roman 
way, it is more than probable, that it has been a burial ground attached to a 
Romanized British settlement." • It was indeed an ancient place of sepulture, and 
had been, doubtless, used for that purpose by the primitive inhabitants of this 

• Vid. page 4, Fig. T. 
« Lette? from Dr. Hnll of Beverley, to Mr. HinderweH ofScarborongh. 
'The Rev. E. StUiingfleet and B. Clarkson^ Esq. opened about two hundred barrows at 
Arras, In the month of May, 1817, and found a variety of ornaments, which I do not hesitate to 
pronounce British. In almost every tumulus they opened, as I am informed by Mr. Clarkson 
himself was found a human skeleton; some very perfect, and others in every stage of *®^y* 
Some had rings of brass upon their arms; and one had a torques of brass round the neck. A 
great number of brass and iron ornaments were found, such as rings, brooches, Ac. One tumulus 
contained a skeleton of a horse on one side of the interment, and that of a pig on the other; and 
near the horse were two very large bridle bits, one of fine brass, very neatly wrought, and the other 
of iron much corroded. In the same barrow were two chariot wheels at about three feet nt 
diameter, and the rim two inches wide. The boss of a shield of iron was found bv the side of one 
skeleton, and a string of coloured glass beads by the side of another; all of which are strikmg: 
indications of a British settlemoit 

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In the neighbcrarhood of Beverley, is a village which retains the name of Druid's 
Town (DrervUm) to this day; and near to it is a remarkable vestige of the religions 
worship ^f that priesthood. This consists of a gigantic upright stone, natural or 
artificial, which was unquestionably a primitive rock idol, placed in an open space 
within the wood, and serving as an object of devotion to the native Britons.* 

The rites of insular sanctuary were performed periodically by the Druids, at 
some convenient distance from the temple, and in situations which possessed the 
natural advantages of a river or lake in the centre of a grove of trees. And on the 
spot where Beverley now stands, these priests found eveiy thing prepared by 
nature for their purpose. Here were lakes and pools of water in the midst of 
open spaces in the wood; hills, a rivulet, and every convenience for the perform** 
ance of their rites; a situation which they would appropriate to themselves with 
eager avidity, as in this part of the country no other place presented equal facilities 
for these mysterious celebrations. Near this spot then, the petty chieftain would 
throw up his embankm^its, and fix his residence as the monarch of his tribe. 
Accordingly, traces of an ancient road, supposed to be British, and certainly used 
by the Romans, have been discovered leading from Godmanham by Beverley to 
Patrington or Spurn.* Two Roman tesselated pavements have been discovered at 
South Burton;'® and at Swine, and other places on this line of road, several brass 
instruments called celts have be«i thrown up;" a certain indication of British 
occupancy ; for these instruments were undoubtedly used by the original population 

* The Dniids did not worship idols in the hnman, or any other shape; because one of their 
tenets inculcated the invisibility of the deity, and that consequently he ought to be adored wiOiout 
being seen. But we are told that they did sometunes erect, in retired places, statues of Isis or 
Cendwen; BorL Ant* Com* p. 105; and these must have been gigantic stonest rough as when 
taken from the quarry, the ^trv%» of the eastern nations; which were litually consecrated by 
anointing them with oil, and investing them with peculiar and distinctive properties. Dr* Gordon 
says, that the Irish peasants stUl pay ^ese upright stones an awful respect vii Hutchinson Hist. 
Cumb* vol. 1. p. 243. 

The first Christian missionaries found the people so deeply impressed with an Idea of the 
peculiar sanctity of this stone at Drewton, that nothing could divert them from assembling round 
it periodically to offer up their customary devotions. They chose it therefore as the scene of theic 
own exertions in the cause of truth; and here it is said, St Augustine boldly planted the sacred 
emblem of ChristUniiy, and like St Paul, in the Areopagus, intrepidly preached the true religion 
te Idolaters from the altar of their own superstition. Hence the rock retains the name of Austin's 
Stone unto this day. It is a stone of great magnitude, being upwards of twelve feet in height 
composed of grey stone, and situated on the declivity of a hill. 

•Phil. Trans, vol. xliv, p. 855. « Drake. Ebor. p. 30. Gent Ripon, p. 77. 

" Thompson* Swine, p. 217. 

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of Britam, though the preeise purpoBe to which thsj were applied has not been 
saitisfaetarily ascertained.^ 

Tbe Batiinl appearance of the country^ erea at tibis dBtant period^ mdJcates Ae 
cxisfcence of a road in the direction here speeMed; for after all the improTements^ 
which the present si^erior knowlec^e of agriculture have made up^i it, a disstiact 
ridge al<»&g the site of this road is still perceptible; and the coimtrf on each side 
remains so low, as to make it evident that, m its; Mnimproved state, it was little 
better than^ an extensdve morass, partially covered wkh wood,, and with the excep- 
tion of a few insulated tracts slightly elevated, aoid of small dimensicms^ no part of 
it <!i^ble of being converted into a road wttkout in^i^edible labomr and expense ; 
and no traces remain to induce a belief that such labour had been bestowed on any 
fort of ft Richard of Cirencester, etidenfly refers to Beverley when he in^iti<ms 
Petiiaria;'* Camden confidently pronounces Beverley to be the ancient Petuaria;'* 
and Drake, from personal investigation, appears to entertain the same opinion. 
His words are, •* Beverley has the votes of some on this account; near which, a 
a t&w years ago, was discovered in a field a curious Roman tesselated pavement, 
Which is a stronger argument in its behalf than any of the former.' 

, » i» 

I'SIt Joseph BankB was of opinion that these faistrnments weve need for the pwept^ae of 
hollowing oat large treeg into canoes, Archeeol. vol. xix, p. 102. Mr. Whittaker thinks that the 
^H was a British battle axe; Hist Manchest vol. i, p. 17. 8ro. Dr. Plot ptononnces it a Roman 
instmment, and supposes it to have been a rest to sapport the Litnus; Hist Staffordsh. p. 403. 
Heame caUs it a chissel; Letter to Mr. Thoresby. Lei. ftin. Leland makes it a spearhead;, 
CoUect vol. ili) p. 7; and Borlase offers the same opinion; Ant Com. p. 268. > It is with great 
deference to these high anthorities that I presume to oifer a conjecture. The opinions of Heame 
Md Dt. Plot appear to be the widest from the truth; those of Whittaker and Sir Joseph Banks 
tte ingenious; but those of Leland and Dr. Borlase are the most probable. I am induced to think 
fbat as the celt possesses but mie ear, it cannot have been intended for a battle axe, or an axe of 
^y khid. The ear could not have been used with any effect towards fastening the staffer handle 
to the blade with a ligature, because a corresponding convenience on the opposite side would have 
been necessary to convey the requisite security and firmness to the machinery. An axe is used for 
cutting, but the handle of the celt being in a line with the blade, would form a most inconvenient 
instrument to produce that effect I conceive that the celt was intended for the upper end of a 
banner staff, and to the ear was attached the streamer by which eveiy war chariot was distinguished^^ 
In ca^es of emergency, this instrument might be converted into a formidable offensive weapon, 
and in the hands of a resolute Briton, inspirited by the din of battle, might inflict considerable 
execution on the enemy. 

" De Situ. Brit 1. i. c. 6. "Gougfr. vol. iH. p. ^47. Gibs. col. 738. 

" Drake. Ebor. p. 30. I have a veiy old Gaaretfeer or Bfcftonary In my possession, without 
a title, but which appears to be at least two hundred years old, and the expianati^on it attaches to 
the word Petuaria, is '« Beverley in Yorkshire.'' This is followed by Ainsworth in his Latin. 
Dictionary, and many other authorities^ 

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It is absolutely certaia, however, that a very populous colony of Britons was 
established W this very spot. Traces of ancient tumuli are ** found widely dis- 
persed on fh^ whdejrangeG^ wolds, extending ito the neighbourhood of Malton; 
and thongh many still remain unexamined, yet from their size, form, and general 
appeasaneef'* mys Ik*. iSuIl, ^M ;aia disposed to consider them of a similar cha- 
ractenvrith those we have i^i^mpdned in this jneighbourhood. Many tumuli are 
found;on the estate of Bichsord Watt, esq, ajt Bishop-Burton, and in one field of 
about thirty ;ttcrds, ^e 'Opened tm* Their form was circular, but differing very 
considemUly iin mae, varyii^ from ten to four feet in elevation ; and firom one 
hundred to twenty in diameter. In these we found no skeletons, no ornaments, 
no coins. Jn <three we found ums, in .ihe others a mixture of bones and charcoal, 
but no urns. Two of the .urns were placed with their mouths downwards, of a 
smaller 4nze, and corresponding with those described by Borlase, found at Trelo* 
warren and in Gwythian jpainilh, ComwaU.'* The one now in my possession, 
which is represented in die adjoining sketeh, was found placed upright, and is 
much larger than the rest.'^ 

^ In :thoee tumuli which contained an intermixture of bones and charcoal, the 
earth was found to feel .greasy between the fingers, and to yield a faint cadaverous 
smell. The tumulus, fi^m which we obtained this urn, was seventy^four feet in 
diameter, and seven feet and a half in elevation. It was placed in the centre of 
the barrow^ about four feet below the surface of the adjoining ground. It had no 
lid or outward covering, which, I believe is generally the case ; the upper part of 
the urn being filled with earth closely pressed, and with difficulty separated firom 
its internal surface. Uninclosed, and within eighteen inches of the urn, was found 
a collection of bones, in larger pieces, and not so well burnt as those contained in 
the urn, which most probably belonged to the same body; the size of the urn 
being insufficient to contain them. These were intermixed with charcoal and 
burnt clay in considerable fragments, and confined within a very narrow compass.'* " 

'« Borl. Ant. Corn. p. 221. 

'^ Vid. page 7, Fig. 6. 

'• Dr. Huirs Letter to Mr. Hinderwell. « Borlase, in his History of Cornwall, pp. 222, 223, 
describes these urns as being sometimes filled with earth in which the roots of grass have been 
discovered ; sometimes as if cemented by strong mortar to keep ont impurities, as well as the air 
and moisture; and observes that the most ancient and eflfectaal way was to cover the bones with 
the fat of beasts; the oil of which, the. bones, hot from the embers, strongly imbibed, and became 
therefore much better guarded against successive drought and moisture, than by any other method 

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8 . 

These ore decisive evidences that this important station was a British residence; 
and being combined with other facts, and strengthened by circmnstantial testimony^ 
will prove to demonstration that it was honoured with the presence, and hallowed 
by the splendid services of the druidical priesthood; — as a place of ritual solemnity 
it received the significant appellation of the Beaver-Lahe of Dwyvawr, and at the 
parochial division of the county, it very naturally retained the name of Bbvsrlac. 

This name, apparently so simple in its reference, and unequivocal in its appli- 
cation, has been recorded by Leland, from an ancient manuscript, as he informs 
us,'' and received by succeeding topographers, in its literal sense, and adopted, 
without examination, into their respective works, as bearing an unquestion- 
able allusion to the sagacious animals with which, it is said, the river Hull 
formerly abounded. And thus an invaluable evidence of the ancient state of 
Beverley has been carelessly rejected, and much of its primitive consequence 
overlooked, though the dusky veil in which it is shrouded from common observa* 
tion, would have yielded to the persevering touch of antiquarian research. From 
the etymology of this name however, corroborated by other circumstances, the 
remote antiquity and pristine importance of the town may be rationally determined. 

*^ It is admitted by Camden, Spelman, and other learned men, that a consider- 
able part of the present language of Britain, is to be derived firom that old one, 
which was used by the inhabitants of this country, in common with Gaul, Germany, 
Spain, lUyricum, and most other nations of Europe, before they were cverrun by 
the Romans. From this ancient language, call it British, Saxon, or Celtic, for 
they were nearly the same, as they were dialects only one of the other, we may 
derive successfully many words and phrases which would be otherwise inexpli- 
cable."^ Bishop Percy says to the same effect, that " the hills, forests, rivers, &c. 
of this country have generally retained their old Celtic names.*'" To this primitive 
source then we must look, for the derivation of the word Bever-lac. 

To accomplish this desirable purpose, it will be necessary to take a brief review 
of the superstitious rites and mythological observances by which thiB drmdical 

then known; which refers to that passage of Homer, IL £3, v. 243. where AchUles orders his 
attendants to cover the bones of his friend Patroclas with a double coat of fat*^ Ibid. 

!• Lei. Coll. vol. iii. p. 100. Gibs. Camd. coL 743. 

^ Pettingal on the Gnle of Angnst, in ArohaoL vol. i« p« 63. 

» Mall. North. Ant Pref. zzzix. 

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religion was distinguished. The rites of dniidism were not only analogous to the 
Eleusinian mysteries,^ but they also bore a striking resemblance to every idolalyoila 
system which was practised amongst mankind.^ And this coincidence could only 
arise from the circumstance of a common origination, which may be traced to an 
sera prior to the dispersion fit>m the plains of Shinar. The postarily of Gomer,^ 
migrating fit>m the primitive settlements of the arkite ogdoad,. took their first 
station in Gaul, thence passed over into Britain, and brought with them the rites 
of worship moddled according to (he institutiona of the Cabiri; for even Gomer 
himself, who, it is thought^ settled in Gaul, and became the great original of the 
Cymry,^ or Celtae, as diey were afterwards denominated, had been initiated into 
the mysteries of these celebrated men,^ and had even assisted them in propagating 
their errors over the eastern world, before he sought out a distinct settlement for 
his own posterity. 

The original planters of Britain are named by the bards, Pheryllt, and the first 
British Chair or Grorsedd was established at Oxford.*^ But they soon penetrated 
into the northern parts of the kingdom, and under the name of Druids, flourished 
in all the splendour of sovereign pontiffs, in their respective districts throughout 
the country of the Brigantes, where numerous vestiges of their existence still 

In the ineffable mysteries of this religion were involved all the science and 
morality then known in the island,^^ which, for evident purposes, were sedulously 

** Strabo. 1. 4. Dion. Perierg, v. 565. 

» BTyant. Anal. vol. iL p. 331. et passim. Dav. Draid. seo. 3. Fab. M ys. Cab. vol. ii. c. 10. 
Manr. Ind. Ant vol. ii. passim. Borl. Ant Com. b. 2. c. 22. 

M According to the Welsh Triads, the three peaceable settlers in Britain were, firai the 
Cjmry, who were a colony of Asiatics, headed by Gomer, or some of his immediate descendants;— 
secondly, the Loegrians, who were Gauls, descended, originally, from the same stock, bat dege- 
nerate, from a promiscaons intercourse with other tribes;— and thirdly, the Biython or Britons, 
led by Prydain, the son of Aedd, the Great Under the first, onr island was denominated 
¥ Vel Ynys, or the Honey Island; ander the second, Clas Meidin, or the Rocky Island; and 
under the third Tnys Prydain, or the Beautiful Island. Vid. Turner's Anglo-Saxons, voL i. p. 14. 
It should seem by the above account, that the bards claimed for Britain, an epoch of population, 
equal at the least in point of antiquity, if not anterior to that of most of its European neighbours. 

*• Cymry or Cimmerii, (x*ftf*i^<) probably from the mi^y atmosphere of the countries which, 
they peopled. 

^ Pausan. Bsot p. 300. 

^ Old MS. quoted by Dr. Williams. Vid. Dav. Druid, p. 215. 

2* Gollut Axiom. 33. Bori. Ant Com. p. 88. 

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€ohi(Mkd frdm the vulgar with « jeaiousy well becoming the stem advocates 
ef Wg^ntty and suparstitioii. No species of knowledge was attainable except by 
laitktion^ whidi^ thcr^eil^, became n point ef primary importance with ev&ry 
individixai wb» was iimfa[tk)ust)f exalting hinwelf to eminence in any etaticm of life^ 
wJwAer civil, milrtaryy nr religious. 

The'wordiip of diue Druids was of « nature that required silence, secrecy, and 
spioe for oontemphticin. This end could be attained by no means so effectually^ 
as by placing* <^ir sacred temples in the bosom of an impervious grove of trees, 
inleiisiecfced by mfatbyrindi of devious and inextricable paths and windings. The 
vianeratbn for oaks was patriarchal ; "* it is not, therefore, wonderfiil that (iie early 
Sbrnids esteemed thset tree holy, and solemnly consecrated it to one of their most 
poWM^ deities. The solitude of « grove t)f branching oaks gave an air of mystery 
to their proceedings, and the people were easily persuaded that it was the peculiar 
randenoe t»f the great aiud terrible god, who would not fail to inflict summary 
^utiitdmMnt en the proi&ne intruder whose unhallowed feet should violate the 
sanctesry, and nnaudiorized, attempt to penetrate the hidden recesses of the saored 
enclosure where the most holy temple was constructed. A high degree of vena*a- 
tiaii is iMKm inspired, by the aid of superstition in an unlettered mind ; and it is 
alone to this feeling that the implicit submission of the people to all the horrid 
rites and bloody sacrifices of druidism can be reasonably referred.'^ 

in ianodiOT part tif die wood was un opoi space amongst die trees, containing a 
pond or lake, where certain religious ceremonies were frequently performed; and 
in this lake were certain islands or rafts,'* constructed for the purpose of celebrating 
publickly, in the presence of all the people, the rites of their religion. Small float- 
ing islands were considered peculiarly sacred by all the ancient idolaters, because 

^ Gen. xviii. a 1, 4, 8 v. zxi. c 33 v. 
*The Aesctlpftian of tlie Massilian Grore by Lncan, which was also a place of initiation, 
lOifl ccmseqnenfly poTloted wKh ihe blood of human victimsi may convey some idea of the accom- 
panying horrors filiich these consecrated places inspired. '' He describes it as a place, gloomy, 
danq>, and scarc^y penetrable; a grove in which no sylvan deity ever resided, no bird ever sang, 
no beast ever slanibered, no gentle zephyr ever played, nor even the lightning conld rend a 
passage, tt was a'jplace of blood and horror, abounding with altars reeking with the gore of 
btunaa vi4^ms9 by which all the trunks of the lofty and eternal oaks which composed H, were dyed 
of a crimson colour; a black and tarbid water rolled through it in many a winding stream; no sool 
ever entered the forlorn abode, except the priest; who, at noon and at midnight, with paleness 
on his brow, and tremor in his step, went thither to celebrate the horrible mysteries in honour of 
that terrific deity, whose aspect lie yet dreaded, more than death, to behold/^ Maurice. Ind. 
Ant vol. vi 

>i Dav. Druid, p. 190. 

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iSbey bore a strikmgr reference to the ark of Noah^ in whose eapaetons woHib tlie 
hero-goda were entombed during the prevalence of the dihnian waterv^i and Ikese 
ialanda were mjsticallf termed Beavbas.'* ^Erery eonaecrated grMe was a 
copy of paradise ; every sanctified mountain or high place waa a lacal transcnpt of 
Ararat, itself geogn^[»hicaUy coincident with the garden of Sden ; every islet dmbly 
shadowed out the insidar ark, and the once sea-girt top of die Armenian peak; 
and every gloomy cavern represented the dark interior of the Noetic ship wedg^ 
fast amidst the clifis and rocks of the hill of debarkation*'"^ Henee the eddbcatieiis 
of the insular sanctuary were founded on a tradition of die genei^l deknge, whidi 
was perpetuated in the secret rites of the dmidical priesthood, tboagb perverted 
and localized Uke the traditions of other natiims. The legend was thuL 

In die time of the great god Hu, who is the some as Noah, mankind Wese in- 
volved in an universal profligacy of mamiers. A commuiHcation waa therelbfe 
made from hea?^m that the corruptions of the world should be purified li^ fire and 
water; and Aat from the bursting of the Lake Llion an overwhehning flood of 
the latter element should proceed to deluge the earth and destroy its impnre in* 
habitants* In consequence of this revelation, a vessd was constructed widioiit 
sails, in which were preserved a male and female of every species^ of animal^ add 
alsoa mananda woman named Dwyvawr and DwyvMh. When these were safidtjr 
inclosed withm the womb of the vessel, a pestilential wind aioae, replete with 
pdsonous iagredienfts, which spread devastation and death throughout the werUL 
Then followed a fiery deluge, which melted the rocks, and iq)lit the earth asuifeder. 
After this the Lake Llion burst forth, which inundated the globe, and destroyed 
the whole creation of men and animals, except the favoured few who had sought 
protection in the sacred vessel. And thus the world was purified by fire and water 
firom the pollutions which the sins of men had accumulated upon it When the 
destruction was complete, the Avanc or Beaver, a symbol of the floating Ark, fvas 
drawn out of the Lake by the oxen of Hu Gadarn ; Gwydion formed the rainbow as 
an attendant on the sun, and an assurance was given to the favoured pair by whom 
the world was destined to be re-peopled, that the Lake should burst no more.** 

»» Webh Archaeol. vol ii. p. S9. Dav. Celt Research, p. 157. Mythol. Drnid. pp. 142, 159. 

M Faber. Pag. Idol. b. 5. c. 7. 

^ Strabo. 1. 4. Pliny. 1. 8. Ep. 20. Talieein. Cad Goddea. Welsh AirchiBoL p. 30. Casnodin. 
Welsh Archffiol. p. 431. Trioa. Owen's Diet v. Llion. Ibid. v. Banawg. Fab. Mys. Cab. vol. i. 
p. 61. Dav. Celt Res. p. 157. Bryant Anal. vol. ii. p. 417. Borl. Ant Com. p. 110. Dav. 
Druid, p. 96, 105, 142, 267, 268. 

c 2 

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Hence tJiis spot, whicli was undoubtedly die consecrated scene of the diluviaa 
celebrations, terminating invariably in the actual ceremony of drawing the floating 
Ark or Beaver out of tiie Lake, acquired the distinguishing appellation of Llyn yr 
Avanc, or tiie Beaver Lake.^ 

Here then we have the undoubted origin of the name of Bever-lac.^ It referred 
to tiie indispensable religious ceremony of drawing the shrine or emblenmtical 
Beaver out of tiie Lake, and placing it in security on an eminence in tiie sight of 
the assembled multitude. This rite was performed near the course (Hwylf^ of the 
stream, which was hence called Hull; in honour of JKed^ (Ceres)'' whence tiie 
name of a street in Beverley called Ked or Keld-Gate. This female divinity 
was also denominated Hin^wen, (Old Lady)'' whence perhaps, Hen-Gate and 
Lady-Gate ; and was . the daughter of Llyr^^ whence Lair-Gate. The Ark or 
Beaver was also named Aren or Em^*^ whence Hum moor; the eminence on which 
it was placed after being drawn out of the Lake, was, in common with the ark 
itself considered as a mystical Bedd or Pastos, whence tiie Bedd-em ; but tiiis Bedd 
was, in reality, the Cromlech,^' covered with a flat stone, (Llegen) in which the 
candidate for initiation into the mysteries suffered a temporary confinement by way 
of probation,*^ in a shady place; (FtflUad)^ whence Leckonfield, the Cromlech in 
tiie shady inclosure; which holy place was named Cdr,^' from whence came Scor- 
burgh, the dwelling attached to the circular sanctuary. Further, Delffwe, in the 
same Celtic language, signified a place of gods,^' whence Delgovitia; (Londesbro*,) 
GodOf an uncovered sanctuary or temple,^' and mynyddufy a hilly place,*® whence 
Godmundingham, (Godmanham;) Aras or Ares was the solar Noah, as Ceres 

^ Tid. infra, ch. iv. where these ceremonies are described. 

'^ Os av ra owfAoU tth, uetlai Kat ra vtgctyyua^^ Plat, in Cratjlo. 

^ Owen. Diet. v. Hwyl. " Taliesin. Welsh. ArchsBol. p. 67. 

»• Dav. Druid, p. 430 *<> Ibid. p. 206. 

«i Bryant Anal. vol. ii. p. 328. Dav. Dmid. p. 193. 

^> Vid. Signs and Symbols, by the author of this work. 

^' Lle^ gives name to many places, says Mr. Owen ; Diet v. Lle^. 

^ Triad. 50. Welsh. Archsol. vol. ii. p. 12. ^ Owen. Diet in loc. 

*• Owen. Diet in loc. " Gibs. Camd. col. 738. 

^* Dav. Drnid. p. 324. ^ Owen. Diet, in loc. 

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(Ked) was a personification of tbe curk/' whence Arras; and the place of tomnU 
was BeorA, or jBwr,** firom whence we have Burton." 

Be it further remarked, in illustration of this important point, that the Beaver^ 
^ under the name of Avanc, is constantly introduced into the British account of the 
deluge ; and the drawing of him out of the Late, is represented as a great act, which 
was conducive to the removing of that calamity. Our ancestors seem to have re- 
garded the Beaver as an emblem of the patriarch himself. To this symbolical 
honour, this creature may have been promoted by a peculiarity in his natural history. 
The patriarch had built himself a vessd or house, in which he had lived in the midst 
of the waters ; and which had deposited that venerable personage and his family 
safe on dry ground. So the Beaver is not only an amphibious animal, but: also a 
distinguished architect. He is said to build a house of two stories; one of which 
is in the water, and the other above the water, and out of the latter he has an egress 
to dry ground. The fancifal genius of heathenism could not have demanded or 
discovered a more happy coincidence with the history of the diluvian patriarch."^^ 

Here then the Druids had established themselves in all the dignity of eccle- 
siastical pride ; the givers of laws, the arbiters of life and death. Their residence 
was probably at Drewton, (Druid's Town) near the holy Beaver Lake ; their place 
of initiation within the shady groves of Lleyen-fylliad, (Leckonfield) and their 
cemetery at Beorh or Bwr, (Bur-ton) where many vestiges of this fact still remain. 
This religious establishment was under the protection of the chief residing at 

«' Fab. Mys. Cab. vol. L p. 236. ^» Owen's Diet in loc. 
^^ I have received a commanication from John Walker, Esq. of Malton, in which some in- 
genioas remarks are offered on the derivation of the word Beverley; which, though they differ 
essentially from the view I have taken of the sufojeot, deserve to be made public. This gentleman 
suggests, that ''the supposed origin of the name of Beverley from Beaver, is not correct; the 
situation of the town evidently pointing to a name derived from the striking feature of the lo- 
cality — WATER, which would be Ever-ley, the prefix B, not being intended to change the import 
of the name, although it may be difficult now to ascertain why it was added. The Beaver, in the 
arms of the town, is an error similar to what occurs in other places; for instance, HertfiDrd, which 
has in its arms a Hart, although the ford clearly shews the origin of that name." 

^ Dav. Druid, p. 267. This illustration receives some countenance, if not full corroboration, from 
the devices inscribed on the borough seals. The oldest common seal we know of, has a figure repre- 
senting St. John of Beverley sitting on the Fridstol, with a Beaver at his feet. What can this 
signify, but the downfall of idolatry, and St John, the patron of the town, trampling its ancient 
emblem underfoot. This seal, according to the opinion of Drake, £bor. App. cij. was introduced 
by Archbishop Savage, who was translated in 1501, because that prelate's arms are impaled with 
the old arms of the See of York in one of the shields. The circumscription is Sioillum Commu- 
NiTATis Beverlaci. The present seal is still more expressive of the foregoing theory; for here 
the holy lake is represented by three streams of water; and the emblematical Beaver is placed on 
the Bedd'Aren, as though he had been just drawn to land. The Legend^SiGiL. Maior. Guber- 
NAT. Et. Buroens. Vjlub. Bsverla.' 

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risv (Biverl^) m that at Godmanham 'wa» d ^ fe ad e d hj the chief and Is* 
tribe at Delgovitia, (Londesbn>\) Thus established and protected, the Dmidto 
tKBve AefmieA ki1» objects of terror and superstitioa^ i^eneratioBi to the natives, 
niiose igsmnaM^ oi»jwed ap fears which had no existence b«t in their own 
isMiginatBioBf Mt ae these priests were reallj men of great eniditicMi,^ and were 
r«pfrted to know the secret designs of the gods; possessing at the mme tfane the 
eacekunfc^ power of nominating biunan vietims^'^ the Irres and liberties of the people 
wwe laid prostrate at their ifi^otsteol. Andl at those stated periods when the 
tMveased mocm at mx dtys old eshibifted die appearaseo of a crescent or lunate; 
in solenm guise the pabUo rites g{ the great wkite festival were celebrated ; and 
whaa the assembled multitude hebM the onblemAtieal Beaver <hrawn to fend;^ 
die anoienA woods of !Dwyvawr resounded with tiieir acclamaticms and hosamms. 
Soon bowerer ail: was Imshed to sitenee; each devout wo r shipper feB on his iaee 
totheeiurA^ when the shrme was plaeed in safety on Ae Bedd^aren^ and the 
ArchdMnd purged the people b j a watery lustration^ and seattersd beDe£cti6iis 
witli a profiise and liberal hand. Hence arose the marked attachment to a con- 
secrated riv^ or lake, which bore a striking reference^ perpetuated by this 
periodkat ceremony, to the burslmg of the kke by which the world was inundated 
aiftd mankind destroyed. This reneration, which amounted to the last extremity 
of r^^ous dread, caused the circulaticm and belief of many superstitions in wfi^h 
were involved the preternatural agency of superior beings. Haice the traditions 
which are still f^evalent in some parts of the kingdom, that secluded lakes ore 

^ VkL BorK Ant Ck>nL c« 10, where are a host ef aothorilies ia testimony of this fact 

^ Cesar. 1. 6, c. 15. The immolation of haman victims was used by the Druids for the purpose 
of propitiating the favour, and appeasing the imaginary wrath ef deities which their superstitious 
belief had invested with a sanguinary character; for an ancient and obscurely transmitted tradition 
had taught them> that the blood of one man would be accepted as an atonement for the sins of 
another. The apologists of the Druids, however, have referred the revolting custom of sacrificing 
human victims to their strict love of justice, which was considered as adding dignity to the nature 
of man, and peculiarly acceptable to the immortal gods. Diodorus tells us, that their principal 
victims were captives taken in war. Diod. Sic. 1. 5. But we are ftimished with other testimonies 
equally unexceptionable, which convince us, that the Druids were not particularly delicate on 
this subject^ for as human victims were indispensable in tunes of pressing calamity, for the 
purposes of augury. Tacit Annal. 1. xiv. o. 20, they did not hesitate, on such occasions, to 
sacrifice their own countrymen, their intimate friends, or even their wives and children. Justin. 
K 26. c 2. Hence the horror with which the Romans ever regarded the druidical system of religion, 
Sueton, in vit Claud, and hence proceeded that revolting feding which induced them to distinguish 
it by the phrase, dirm immanitatis. Ibid. o. 25. 

^' Taliesin. Mic Dinbych. Welsh ArchaoL voL L p. 67. 

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haunted by phantoms and apparitions/^ The same awe froze the blood of the 
uninitiated in every part of the world, when they approached, by any accident, the 
place of initiation, which was usually in some retired part of the consecrated grove ; 
or even when they spake of the sanctuary wh^*e the mysteries were celebrated at 
die dead hour of night. These feelings vreve encouraged by priests and hierophants, 
to prevent the intrusion of profane or unworthy persons, and to keep at a distance 
the prying curiosity of the vulgar; whose feelings were wound up to the highest 
pitch of agony by the Druid's arrogaitt botil^ tiiat from the magical influence of 
the anguinum ovum, he possessed the power of controlling the dourse of nature, 
comiMBdingtftke services of the gods, txiA^iwa, by the use of 4hat polent aim^t, 
of making the deity tremble on his 11irone« With the knpression ^n his mind 
fHPdduced by these proud pretensions, what must be the dreadful 8il;uatioii ^ the 
midnight traveller, bewildered in his way, dhiould he unconsciously ibpproa^ the 
place of celebration, during the performance of the sacred rites 1 He hears the din 
of shrieks and bowlings, the barking of dogs,^ and other preter&atwral noises^^ for 
which he cannot account, reverberate from mountains or hoUow caMTM of the 
earth; — ^now clamours bursting from the ground benea^ his leet; now gvadoaUy 
subsiding as if floating on the distant winds ; — peals of thunder 'are succeeded by 
strains of heavenly music; — and solemn silence by the imes and howUngs of 
despair. For— 

^' Underneath the soil, a hundred secret paths 
Scooped thro^ the living rook in winding maze, 
Lead to as many caverns dark and deep. 
Mid which the hoary sages act their rites 
MysCerioiM — writes of sach strange potency. 
As done iin open day would dim the sun 
Thoiigh throned in noontide brightness.'*^' 

The ill-starred traveller stands aghast; his footsteps are forcibly arrested, and he 
retreats from the fatal ground with all the expedition he can command, at the ris^ 
of perishing in the woods, from bogs, or pitfalls, or the paws of ravenous beasts. 

«« Gibs. Camd. col. 645. ^ V irg. Eneid. 1. 6. v. 2S7. 
Vid. Antiquities of Free-Masonry, by the author of this work, p. 1 tO. 
*i Mason^s Caractacus. 

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e^ M^manfii. 

Their Jlrst (q^pearance in Deim — Treachery of Cartimunda^Caraotacu9^Br(wery 
andaatwify of the< Britons — Bomam introduce the Arts — Peopk and cidtivaie 
the wood of Deira — Improve the aj^pearance of the country — Accounts of the 
first Christian establishment there examined — Introduction of Christianity inio 
Britainr— Doctrines of the Druidsxcompared wUh Christianity — The inhabitants 
of Deira embrace the new reiiyion — Lucius converted — His hisUny examined — 
Evidences of the existence of Christianity at this period— Druidism deeply, 
pianted — A Church erected at Beverlac probable — Name of the site of this 
ed^ice — its derivation and reference — Progress of Christianity — Errors of 
Pehgim — Bomansforsahe the island. 

Such was the state of things in diis district at the period of the Roman 
invasion. For some years that powerful people confined their ravages to the 
southern ports of Britain, and the first mention of the Brigantes occurs during the 
government of Ostorius Scapula, which was signalized by an act of treachery that 
has handed down the name of Cartismunda, their abandoned queen, to the ex- 
ecration of mankind. This wretched woman, unrestrained by feelings of delicacy, 
or the infamy which attends a defiberate violation of faith solemnly pledged, not 
only deserted her husband, and consigned her person to the embraces of his menial 
servant,^ but delivered up the great Caractacus, who in his adversity had sought 
her protection and assistance against the common enemy. The warrior was led in 
chains to Rome, and his memory is dear to every lover of his country f while the 
wretch who betrayed him gained a temporary protection from the Roman power, 
and after a life addicted to every species of vice and immorality,, left behind her a 
name, stained with crime, disgrace, and infamy. 

1 Tacit Hist 1, 3. c. 4 J. 

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The Romans were whblly incapable of subduing our valiant fore^thers by fotte 
of arms. If vanquished in one quarter by liie superior discipline of tibeir Teiermk 
invaders, the natives of some distant province were soon found in hostile array, and 
harassed the victorious enemy by perpetual insurrections. The dexterity of a n^ive 
Briton was as surprising as his undaunted bravery. If to penetrate, with fear- 
less resolution, into the thickest ranks of the enemy, — to dash his war chariot intb 
the centre of the Roman cavalry, — ^to alight in that perilous situation, and fight on 
foot, — ^to expose his naked body in the midst of a phalanx cased in mail,*— to regam 
his chariot, at an emergency, by a single leap, — ^to run along the pole for any 
advantage while his hors^e was at full speed, — tx> advance and retreat with equal 
rapidity and success, — ^to persevere with invincible intrepidity even in the very 
mouth of destruction, — ^if all this afford any proof of the united qualities of personal 
rtrength, courage, and conduct, then our remote forefathers possessed these vurtueg 
in their highest perfection ; for even their enemies had the candour to acknowledge 
that the bravest and best disciplined troops have been disconcerted and put to 
confusion by their hardy valour, their peculiar eminence in selecting the field of 
action, their consummate adroitness in the art of ambuscade, their judicious skill 
in stratagem and retreat, added to an intrepid and impetuous mode of attack, 
which frequently bore down all opposition.* 

At leng^ however, the Romans effected by policy what they were unable to 
accomplish by coercion. The admirable prudence of Julius Ag^cola, induced him 
to try an expedient on the natives of Britain, which was attended with the most 
complete and triumphant success. He introduced amongst them the arts and 
manners of his own nation, and by instilling into their minds a taste for the elegan* 
cies and luxuries of civilized life, he accomplished more in a few years than his 
predecessors had done by arms in upwards of a century. He erected fortresses in 
different parts of the kingdom, divided Britain from Caledonia by a line of 
forts extending across the island, and returned to his own country satisfied that he 
had firmly established the Roman sway in Britain. 

On the northern coast of the Humber the Romans settled in great numbers. 
They cleared the woods, drained the marshes, and built or improved all the 
principal towns. Eboracum (York) was constituted one of the two municipal 
towns which this island contained. The British towns of Delgovitia (Londe^ro*) 

' Cesar. Tacitus. Dio. Nic. Herodian. Strabo. Died. 8io. &o. Ac 

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«nd Petuaria (Beverley) were conyerted into Roman stations ; they changed the 
British trackway which led from Delgovitia to Pretorium (Patrington or Spurn) 
by way of Godmanham and Petuaria, into a military road, and left behind them 
many tokens of the civilization which they had introduced.' Their ships from the 
Humber navigated the river Hull, and Grove Hill, in the precincts of Beverley, 
was their general landing place. 

A visible change now took place in the appearance of the country ; the dark and 
cheerless cabin of the British chief was exchanged for the Roman villa, decorated 
with porticos and tesselated pavements, and provided with every luxury peculiar to 
the Roman people. The land, formerly encumbered by wood and vitiated by 
norass, was rendered fruitful by cultivation, and the face of the country wa« 
Suddenly changed as if by tiie operation of a spell. The improvement was fascia 
nating; and the hardy Briton, gratified by indulgences to which he had hitherto 
been a stranger, socm resigned himself to the entire sway of his polished conquerors^ 
and laid down his arms at the enticement of sloth and luxurious ease. In this 
state of things the arts had room for extension, and peace was crowned with the 
improved refinements of civil and social life. The introduction of Christianity was 
one of the beneficial consequences that ensued, and soon we find the rec<N*d of an 
ecclesiastical edifice dedicated to this holy religion in the wood of Deira. 

The date of the first establishment of Christianity at Beverley is indeed involved 
in much obscurity. In examining the subject with all the care and attention which 
it so justiy merits, the historian finds it encumbered with many difficulties. The 
introduction of Christianity into Britain is placed by some writers at a very early 
period after the crucifixion of its author. A manuscript in the British museum 
wduld seem to sanction the opinion that it was introduced by Joseph of Arimathea* 
**In the 31st year after the crucifixion,'* says this document, ''twelve disciples of 
St Philip the Apostie, of whom Joseph of Arimatiiea was tiie head, came into thif 
land, >nd preached the doctrines of Christianity to King Aviragus, who denied 
them. But tiiey obtained fi-om him this spot, (Glastonbury) with twelve hides of 
land, whereon they erected the first church in this kingdom.'*^ Others, who have 

' At Swine, on the above line of road^ many Roman coins and other antiquities have been 
found; Thompson's Holdemess, p. 16. and coins of the same people have been foand at Grove 
Hill, and on the .opposite side of the river. Bat the most splendid evidence of Roman occnpaacy 
here, is in two rich tesselated pavements composed of red, blae, and white stones, each being about 
an inch square, and arranged in beautiful figures, which were found about a centurgr ago in two 
fields at Bishop Burton. Genf s Ripon. p. 77. Drake's Ebor. p. 30. 

* Cott. MSS. Tib. A. V. foL L 

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cupkyed tlieir talants in Ae m rogtiga th m of a tbeory m important,; confidently 
pnaaanee lliat it was planted in this island by St Paul himself/ under the auspices 
of the family of Caractacus.^ We cannot doubt but Christianity was known ii| 
Britain at this early period, for the Claudia (Rufina) mentioned by St Paul to 
Timothy/ is said, on good authority, to have been a British lady.* Gent* Speed/^ 
Cainden, and others," assert that the gospel was preached here by Joseph of An- 
mathea in the time of Suetonius, and by Simon Zelotes in the time of Agricola j 
and several authors in defence of the antiquity of the British church, have shewn 
much ingenuity in their attempts to prove that it was established here by the 
Apostles.'* An old manuscript, which Baronius saw in the Vatican library, 
reports, that Lazarus, Mary Magdalen, and others being banished from Jerusalem, 
were exposed to the mercy of the winds and waves in a vessel without tackling, 
and being driven to Gaul, from thence passed over into Britain." However this 
may be, it is quite certain that the progress of Christianity in Britain was incon- 
siderable for many years subsequently to the death of Paul, and idolatry was not 
finally extirpated for some centuries after the Christian era. It is to be lamented 
that so few documents remain which afford any clue to illustrate this event; and 
we can only proceed on general principles to ascertain how it was possible for such 
a change to be wrought in the minds of an unlettered people, as would induce 
them to abandon their ancient and fondly cherished superstitions, and embrace a 
strange and less splendid mode of worship. 

The fundamental truth of all religion is, the being of a God, This is a truth 
bom with us. It has been acknowledged by eveiy nation and ev^ people, as 
well as the Druids of Britain and Gaul,** however they might vary in their notions 

« Speed. Brit p. 203. 
• "It is a remarkable and interesting facV' says a distinguished prelate, "that the detention of 
the British hostages should have been coincident with St. Panrs residence there as a prisoner; and 
it was not a less favoarable coincidence, that they should be released from confinement in the same 
year in which St. Paal was set at liberty. Nothing could be more convenient for St. Paul's mission 
to the Gentiles, than the opportunity which their return must have offered him of introducing the 
gospel into Britain ; and nothing more probable than that he should readily embrace suob an 
opportunity.'' Bp. Burgess. Serm. 1812. 

^ 2 Tim. c. iv. v. 20. • Martial. 1. 4. Ep. 13. 

» Gent. York. p. 195. w Speed. Brit p. 202. " Cur. Disc. vol. ii. pp. 161, 167. 

>> Stilling. Grig. Brit p. 37. HakewilU Cur. Disc. vol. ii. p. 17a 

" Camden ut supra. 

" The Druids believed in Gne supreme God, who is over all, Grig, in Ezek. iv. and Iheir 

mvocations were addressed to the Gne all-healing, or all-saving power; Drayt Poly-GIbion. Seld. 

Annot Hutch. Cnmb. vol. 1. p. 247, though they admitted into their pantheon a numerous train 

D 2 

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o|4iie Worship wliidi wonld be most aoceptaJbite to luml^ Tlicj held diat time wa^ 
0!ily an interested fragment of etemitjr ; and there are strong grouidg for believmg 
&at they were also impressed with the Pythagorean notion of an endless succession 
of worlds. They strenuously mcukated the metempsychosis^'^ and taught that the 
soul of the wicked was degraded to the lowest point in the scale of existence as a 
means of punishment, and that it eoiild only regain its former rank by passing 
through a succession of intermediate transmigrations, each gradually advancing to 
a superior degree of perfection, until it again arrived at man, when it was subjected 
to a new trial. If it now persevered in the practice of virtue, it was elevated by 
imperceptible gradations, until absoHbed into the divine essence, and prepared for 
final and everlasting beatitude. They believed that the world had once been de-* 
stroyed by water, and would suffer a second destruction by fire.'' They taught 
the immortality of the soul, but were ignorant of the attributes of the deity ; and 
connected so much of improbability and fiction with the system of his worship, 
that their knowledge and acknowledgment of One supreme God, were little more 
than a dead letter. It was only the remnant of the patriarchal mode of worship 
which had escaped the rage for innovation ; because eveiy other principle had been 
successively renounced to make way for the introduction of novel contaminations 
more imposing and seductive, as well as conferring more extensive power on the 
supreme order of the priesthood. Their motives for sacrificing human victims 
sprang fix)m an obscure tradition, which taught them to believe that man's re- 
demption conld be secured, and the anger of the gods appeased, only by the most 

of iiifertor deities, who where coiuildered aa the authorized- medifttors beween God and mui, and 
guardians over terrestrial things. They invested their several deities with attributes similar to 
tiiose which the Greeks, and after them the Romans^ had assigned to their principal gods ; and 
placed them, by a systematic classification, in the following order, adapted to the genius and 
peculiar character of their own mythology. The deity who possessed the endowments assigned 
to the Grecian Mercury, was the chief god ;♦ for they esteemed him as the inventor of all the arts 
and sciences; then followed Apollo, Mars, Jupiter, and Minerva. They also adored Pluto and 
Proserpine, Bacchus and Ceres, all under British appellations ; with many inferior deities which 
were believed to preside over the animate and inanimate creation. The Grecian Jupiter was 
worshipped under the appellation of Don ; Mercuiy was termed Gwydion ab Don ; Apollo, 
Halyn Pasgadwr or Granwyn ; Bacchus or Saturn, ftu ; Ceres, Ked or Ceridwen ; Proserpine, 
Llywy ; Iris, Arianrod ; Isis, Eseye, &c. &c* 

• This IB Cesar^t-elaaBiBeatiOD ; bat ReeaHeiifl, in Diodorat the SleiUan, my that ApoHo was the principal deity of 
the aaeient Britoot ; and that the circular temple of Stooeheoge waa erected by his priests^ the Druids, and dedicated 
expressly to his worship. 

>« Vid. <• Signs and Symbols," by the author of this work. Lect 2. 

i« Diod. Sio« 1. 5. '^ Strabo, U 4. 

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precious and a^c^tiable offering; which was eteemed to be the life-Uoodi ofmaii;^ 
and hence the Droids were exceedingly lavish, of bumtfn bloody'* iM the mart 
trifling event was sufficient to justify the immolation of a fellow creatate.** 

Such were ft few of the leading doctrines of ihe druidicai religiMv and their 
manifest imperfection might have some share in disposing the minds of its more 
candid professors to embrace the dispensation of chrirtiamtyy which was ealcolated 
to remove all doubts, and clearly to explain those mysterious doctrines which Were 
involved by an idolatrous worship in inextricable difficulty. The errors of iMn 
false religion however, were so splendid and so fascinating, that the great mass dl 
the besotted people would not renounce them but with extreme reluctance. We 
all know how dear to ourselves are the recollections of past events which hav« 
been consecrated to our memory in the spring of life^ when all was hope and joy 
before us, and our hearts reboimded with the innocent elasticity of unoffending 
childhood. Thus it was with the native Briton. Ancient prejudices, endeared by 
early recollections, and confirmed by habitual use, were fondly cherished and 
secretly indulged; and while he formally worshipped the true God with his mouthy 
the ''glancing Hu" was in his heart; he was his ''sovereign of heaven," and "^gdi* 
of mystery "^* The priesthood, though silenced by the introduction of Christianity, 
was not suppressed, and the Druids only waited a favoiu*able moment to re-asscfft 
their independence. They still continued secretly to instruct the people; and even 
practised their mysteries in darkness and seclusion, and succeeded in preserving aH 
uninterrupted hierarchy, as the occurrences which subsequently took place will 
most clearly testify. 

We are told that the inhabitants of Deira embraced Christianity at a very early 
period after its introduction into Britain j and to proceed on true grounds, it wiH 
fee necessary to examine with impartial attention the evidences on which this con*' 
elusion is founded. Leland says,^ "the collegiate church of the blessed John ot 
Beverley was anciently founded in the county of York, in a certain cottotry call^' 
Deyira, to wit, in the wood of the Deyirians, in the time of Lucius, the most ffltts- 
trious king of England, (then called) Brittany, the first king of the same, the son 
of Coil, a pagan king, anointed by pope Eleutherius, the 13th after Pfeter, in Ae 

'' Cesar, 1. 6. o. 16. >' Sammes. Brit. p. 104. 
»Strabo. 1. 4. Diod. Sic. 1. 5. Vid. also Sammes, Borlase, Davies, Whittaker, Smith, 
Toland, and all the modem authors who have treated on the subject 

•' Poem of Rhys Brydydd. Owen's Diet v. Mymiym. Dav. Druids, pp. 121, 110. 

« Ex. MS. Dom. T. Herbert 

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year of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God the Father Ahnighty, Creatdr of 
Heaven and earth, together with Holy Ghost, according to the computation of the 
church of England^ 126." Now Coil ascended the throne of his dominions in the 
year 126, and after a reign of fi%*four years, died at Caerhranke or York, and 
was succeeded by his son Lucius, in the year 180;^ and the erection of the church 
at Beverley has been placed in A. J). 187. There can be little doubt but Lucius 
was anxious to establish the christian religion in his division of the island, as he 
Was himself a christian, and was stimulated by the commendations of his holiness 
lit Rome. The author already cited says, ^ Lucius or Lucy, the sone of Coilu% 
was made kyng of Brytons in the yere of our Lord, C. Ixxx. The whiche in all 
actes and dedys of goodnes folowed his forefaders in suche wyse, that he of all men 
was beloued and drad. Of this is lytell or none acte notable put in memory, ex« 
cept that all wryters agree that this Lucius sent to Eleutherius^ then pope of Rome, 
certayne pistles or letters, prayinge hym that he and his Brytons myghte be re- 
eeyued to the faythe of crists Churche; whereof the pope beynge very Joyous and 
gladde, sent into Brytayne .ii. noble clerkes, named Faganus and Damianus, or 
after some, Fugacius and Dimianus; thyse .ii. good and vertuous clerkes were 
honourably receyued of Lucius, the whiche, by theyr good Doctryne and vertuous 
ensamples g3ruynge, conuertyd the kynge and a great parte of the Brytons. The 
which Lucie, after the faythe thus by him receyued, by the aduice of the foresayd 
Clerkes, and with the Instruccyons sent to theym by the foresaid pope Eleuthery, 
Instituted and ordeyned that all or the more partie of Archeflamynys and Flamynys, 
whiche is to meane Archebysshoppes and Bysshoppes of the Pagan lawe, whiche at 
that daye were in nombre as wytnessyth Gaufiride and other .iii. of the Arche- 
flamynys, and .xxviii. of the Flamynys were made and ordeyned Archebysshoppes 
and Bysshoppes of the Church of crist" They were also confermed of the pope ; 
he thenne endowed theym with such landes and possessions as before tyme were 
occupyed or gyuen to y* Maynteynynge and vpholdynge of the pagan Rytes and 
lawe, vsed before tyme. And the temples of IdoIIys thorough his lande he caused 
to be Dedicat to Jhesu Criste and his Seyntes, and honouryd theym moche great, 
and w* large gyfts." 

, »»85 

^ Fabyan Chron. Ed. 181 1, p. 38. 
<« Fabyan Chron. p. 38. 
^ Fabyan. Chron. p. 40. The correspondence between Luoihb and Elentherias may be seen 
in Speed ; Brit 222, and it appears to receive some countenance from an ancient painting in the 

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Though there are some errors in this account, yet the main fact that a British 
chief of the name of Lucius, did actually exist about this period, is, I believe, 
indubitable. Indeed, Mr. Hakewell, in his discourse on this subject before the 
society of Antiquaries,** observes, ** the consent of writers herein is so generall, 
that no doubte neede be made hereof." ^ His influence, and the extent of his 
territorial dominions have been greatly exaggerated, yet his exertions to convert 
the Druids may be strictly true. But though in some instances he might prove 
successful, yet he would, doubtless, fail in general to convince the great body of 
that haughty, yet learned, priesthood,^' that their religion was erroneous. It is dear, 
that for many ages after the introduction of Christianity into Britain, the country 
was divided between its followers and the idolatrous professors of the ancient super* 
stition. And this will be evident from the destruction of some pagan monuments^ 
and the preservation of others. The early missionaries, to render the transition 
fix)m a false to a true worship more easy and attractive, generally converted the 
temples dedicated to idolatrous uses into Christian churches; and thus the feelings 
of ihe people were soothed by a compromise, which, in our opinion, appears to 
have been unwarranted, if not absolutely dangerous. In all parts of the world 
the Christian missionaries practised this expedient, long before it was established as 
a politic axiom by Gregory.** But Mr. Davies infers, from this practice, that the 
rites of druidism were, in some places, offered up to the true God j that the history 
of a Christian bishop was frequently confounded with that of an heathen deity ; and 
that the bards transferred to him, the mythological oxen of the votaries of Hu**^ 
Hence, in many parts of the kingdom, our churches actually occupy the andaait 
sites of droid temples. In these places Christianity Vf9i& first introduced. In other 
situations the temples remain to this day, which is no inconsiderable proof that 
there the influence of iddatry was of the longest duration ; there it was practised^ 

high south window over the choir of York cathedral, which represents the effigies of these two 
celebrated personages standing beside each other in full proportion. Gent's York, p. 195. 

^ 29th November, 1 604. 
^ Dr. Barton, Mon. Ebor. p. 6, places Lncins in the latter end of the third centniy; bat I am 
not satisfied with his reasonings because it appears at variance with the best authorities. Yid. 
Leland and Fabyan ut supra. Usher. Antiq. Brit. c. 3. Stillingf. Ant Brit c. 2. Bede. EcdL 
Hist Savil. Fasti, an. 173. n. Bp. Jewel. Sir W. Dethick. Cur. Disc, vol ii. p. 164. 

*< Borl. Ant Com. b. 2. c. 10. 
^ Ibid. p. 210, and vid. Greg. Epi^ 71. CoUiiis* Ecoles. Hist vol. \. 
«> Myth. Druids, p. 140. and vid. Mso V^itet^ Myst C^biri*. vol. U. p. 894jj where precisely the 
same train of reasoning is used. 

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tbo^gh with dimittidied iofluence, until Christians found it unnecessaafy to accom- 
jAodsijte ttteir religion to prevailing superstitions for the purpose of making proser 
lytes; and haace the native structures were suffered to remain, when their 
existence could no longer impede the diffusion of truth; and the gigantic edifice 
of Stonehec^ey as well as many others in different parts of England, will continue 
till time shall be no more, a standing monument of the effects of superstition, and 
a beacon to future generations to avoid the rocks and quicksands of a spurious and 
delusive worship. 

There can be little doubt but Christianity prevailed to a certain extent in this 
tdand, before it was finally abandoned by the Romans ; for it was denominated 
in the third century, the first fruits of God's harvest amongst the Gentiles/' and 
OTl>seqiien% it was said, that the inhabitants worshipped with their faces toward* 
Jerusaiem,^^ and that tibey had erected temples and altars to the living God.'' On 
the other hand, we are informed by Pliny, that in the second century, the druidical 
superstition was as prevalent in Britain as it had been before the dijQusion ni 
Christianity.'^ Carte assigns as a reason why the British Christians were not 
included in any of the persecutions before the time of Dioclesian, thai; till then 
there wa*e no Christians here considerable enough to be remarked.'^ Sulpitius 
Severus, who flourished about the beginning of the fifth century, remarks,'^ that 
duistianity advanced but slowly on this side of the Alps before his time. And we 
learn firom Bede,'^ that the inhabitants of London did not finally give up their 
attachment to the rites of idolatry until the year 653, when Christianity was 
received amongst them by the conversion of Sigebert the good. The impulse 
nrhioh originated and preserved this superstition amongst the Britons was so strong, 
liiat even in contanpt and violati<m of the edict of Claudius, which interdicted its 
|»actice under heavy penalties, druidism survived every other system of idolatrous 
worship which pervaded the continent of Europe. The idolatry of ancient Rome 
feU in the fourth century of the Christian era; the Scandinavian superstition con- 
tinued somewhat longer, because the bright blaze of truth did not fully illuminate 
the snowy regions of the north tmtil a later period j but tiie professors of druidism 

'1 Orig. in Ezek*. horn. 4. ^ Jerooou Eplt. Maroel. vidn. 
«• ChiyB. in 8erm. de Pentr « In vit Claud, c. 25. 
» Hist Engk vol. i. p. 140. •• 1. 2. »^ Eccl. Hist. 1. 3. c 22, 

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%ere in existence, and displayed some vigour nntil the twelfth or fourteenth 

It is hence clear^ that neither all, nor even the major part of the Archdruids and 
Druids were converted to Christianity by Lucius. Bede speaks much of the 
activity of this prince, and so far he is fairly eiititled to credit ; but we must 
hesitate before we receive, with implicit credence, the accounts which endeavour 
to prove the general conversion of the Britons at this early period. It is said^ 
that this island was the first Roman province that received the Christian faith by 
a formal edict,** and Lucius, says Speed,^^ was the first Christian king in the 
world. We may safely admit that this monarch effected much. He constituted 
governors over his newly converted society of Christians, and it is highly probable, 
that he placed a bishop at Caerbranke, (York) because the fact was afterwards 
pleaded by Archbishop Thomas, as a valid argument of the superior antiquity of 
the see of York, during the celebrated controversy which took place in the eleventh 
century respecting the title to the primacy.^* It requires then no very great por- 
tion of credulity to believe that a temporary place of Christian worship should be 
erected at the Beaver-Lake in Dwyvawr, as it was undoubtedly the uniform prac- 
tice of the primitive Christians to place their churches and monasteries in situations 
which had been already rendered peculiarly sacred in the opinion of the worship* 
pers, by a formal consecration to the rites of their own superstition. And it is 
evident that there was a church here before the time of John of Beverley, because 
it is expressly said that he rebuiU it" The edifice would probably be constructed 
of no better materials than the timber of the grove in which it stood, with a cover- 
ing of straw or reeds; a building erected without expense, and well adapted to 
those troublesome times, when the new religion, received with reluctance, would. 

•* Mr. Davies asserts, that the dmidioal reUgion was preserved without mtermptioii, and 
oherished by the bards in the time of the Welsh princes down to the veiy latest period of their 
political existence. Myth. Druids, pp. 25, 282. Nay, Dr. Jamieson relates a sing;alar fact, which 
goes to the point of proving, that the impressions of the ancient religion are not even yet obliterated 
in the northern parts of Scotland. ''Mr. Ferguson, minister of Moulin, who died about twenty 
yean ago, assured a friend, from whom I had my information, that there was in his parish an old 
man, who, although veiy regular in his devotions, never addressed the Supreme Being by ai^ 
other title than that of Archdruid ; accounting every other derogatory to the divine majesty.^* 
Jamieson's Hist Account of the Culdees, p. 29. 

^ Marc. Sabell. in Ennead. 1. 5. ex Bale, vol. i. 1. 2. 

^ Speed. Brit p. 222. ^^ Vid. Wharton. Ang. Sacr. 1 1. 
^ Vide infra, ch. iv. 

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ofa iiat yety 6rst d^oge of cimmutenceg, mnk imckr thB predopiaatuig ioflueBOi^ 
of the ancient mode of worship. 

Th6 site <>f the edifice was tenned die Bedd-areOi^* which forms an additional 
proof of the existence of the droidical superstition on thio particular spot ; and that 
the worship Was dedicated to Hu» the arkite deitf of Britain* BSdd-^en^ meaiia 
Uterally, the resting place of the ark, or emblematical Beaver; which being drawn 
cmt of the Xiake, during the performance of die ancient rites, was placed on this 
eminence in triumph, amidst the anth^na and estultatioiis of the assembled 

Burii^ the reign of the Emperor Severus, the northern nations ma^e frequent 
inroads into South Britain, and committed their rarages on the inhabitants, now 
gMwing ayerse to the fatigues of war, with equal insolence and impunity. The 
emperor, though a martyr to the gout, and far past the meridian of life, deter- 
mmeA to chastise the invaders in p^son; and for this purpose undertook a painful 
wyage to this island in the year 207. His energy exceeded his strength ; yet he 
aucoeeded in driving the Picts and Scots back into their own country; penetrated 
with his victorious troops into the heart of Caledonia, reduced tha natives to per- 
kot submission, and returning to Britain, took up hia residence at York, which 
had been constituted a municipal city;^ and as he found the pative Britons so 

' ^' At present there Is but little appearance ef a hiH <»i wiiMi the ndnster it sttnated ; but I 
iiave M doubt of its having been originally erected on a commanding eminence; for the most 
undeniable proofs exist that the surrounding ground has been considerably raised. In the year 
1812, a hedge fence was foand perfect in Minster-Moorgalciy at about six feet beneath the pfesent 
JHirtuBe; and it is reasonable to suppose that the minster yard has been lowered^ because some 
stone sarcophagi which have been recently founds were only a very few feet beneath the surface^ 
when their primitive interment would probably be at a nuicb greater depth* 

** Welsh. Arch. vol. i. p. 79. Bryant. Anal. vol. ii. p. 328. Dav. Dm. 193, 194. Mr. Drake 
jthr^ a diflbrent etymology. Ke says^ <'we need -l ook n o f a rtheF 4>aek than our JSaaton ancestovs 
for the ehrmology of this word, which is plainly deduced from the Anglo-Saxon Beade, oratio, 
'an4 that nom the Maeso^Getfaio veii> HeiiiMf preeari, rogare. Hem or Herm is a cell or her- 
mitage, as Potheme, Whitheme> so that it sigt^s no mere than a cloister built and set apart 
for a number of religious to dwell in.^* Drake's Kbor. p. 572, But for the reasons already 
assigned in ch. I, I am incKned to think, that fcr the derivatioii of this word we mast go back to 
the primitive language of the country ; besides, in the time of the Anfpk^-Saxons, if we mmy believe 
Leland, the site of Beveriey icdnster was spoken of as a place «ii«t«at/y oaUed the Beddera. 

^ Municipia were towns whose inhabitants possessed in general all the rights of Roman citisetts, 
except those which could not be enjoyed without an actual residence at Rome. They followed 
their own laws and customs, and had the option of adopting or rejecting those of Rome* Rossini. 
Antiq. Rom. b. 10, c. 23. ap. Hatcher. R. of Cirencesi. In a word, they were in the nature of 
corporations or enfranchised places, wbere the inhabitants were allowed the privilege of being 
govemed by ^eir own laws and magistrates, wfiile they ranked as dtisens ot Rome. Kennet 
Rom. Ant Notit. p. 232. 

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kreneio nrmn, he built a rabcrtiintiy wall from Solway Frith to the T^ynemout^ 
ibr the purpose of preveuting anj future incursions of the northern harbarianSi 
This distinguished Emperor died at York, A. B« 211. 

About the year 287, Carausius usEurped the regal powar in Britain, and was 
murdered at York in 298, by Alectus, according to some authorities ; while others 
t^y> by Chlorus, who was sent against him. Alectus, his successor, fixed his ren* 
dence at York, and at the end of three years was succeeded by Chlorus^ who 
allowed the Christians fiill liberty of conscience.^' He also died at York, in dOtf. 
His son Constantine was in this city when his father died, and he there assumed 
the purple, which was so highly ornamented by his shining virtues. 
' The peace which this island enjoyed, under the reign of Constantine^ was highfy 
&Tourable to the interests of religion. An appointment of bishops was announced ; 
and in the year 314, we find a deputation firom Britain at the conncQ of Aries, 
consisting of the bishops of London, York, and Lincoln.^ About this time also 
churches were erected in difierent parts of the country, aud even the splaidid fiene 
of Yerulum dates its origin firom the period we are now contemplating.^ All waa 
peace and harmony until about the middle of the fourth century, when scenes of 
calamity were exhibited, which put an entire stop, for a long continued period, to 
the progress of our holy religion in Britain. 

The empire of the world, vexed with party cabals, distracted by the clash of 
ccmtending interests, harassed by repeated insurrections, and threatened by hordes 
of barbarians firom different parts of its unwieldy extent, now began to totter 
under its own weight The island of Britain was drained of its population by 
successive conscriptions, and its bravest inhabitants were transported to the eo»* 
tinent, to fight the battles of their masters, until at length the sinews of British 
strength were totally relaxed by the loss of its most valiant youth, and the alienation 
of its treasures ; and at this unhappy period, Rome finally sank into comparative 
insignificance. Unable to defend itself, it could not attend to the cries and groans 
of the wretched islanders,^' who were exposed to the incursive ravages of their 
more valiant neighbours, without possessing the means of defence. 

To iuCTcase the calamities of this unhappy country, the newly planted religion 
was infected with a grievous heresy, emanating firom the ccmaplicated mythology 

*« Uah. Ant Brit p. 88. « SWIingt Ant Brit p. 75. 
*^ Britton. Archit Ant App. viU. » Oildas. Sect 17. Bede. EocL Hist 1. 1. c. IS. 

B 2 

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af the ancient mode of worship. Many of the native eoclesiasticB sighed &r tiba 
fiiadnating splendours of fondly cherished superstitions^ as we learn from their 
still remaining works ; and the pagan bard was often seen habited in the sacred 
robe of a Christian priest^ About the b^^inning of the fifth century, a public 
attempt was made to blend the two religionsi and Pelagius, abbot of Bangor^ a 
man of strong mind, but altogether wedded to the allurements of druidism, set out 
on his travels, with the bold intention of propagating these principles throughout 
duistendom. From Britain he proceeded to France, where he made many con- 
verts, partly fix)m the influence of his irreproachable life and conduct, and partly 
from that innate love of novelty and innovation, which reigns predominant in the 
human mind. Thence he passed to Rome; and afterwards travelling into Africa, 
his doctrines underwent a rigid scrutiny before several councils, and found many 
zealous and and able defenders, but the final decision was so unfavourable, that he 
was publickly excommunicated by the pope. But his opinions were deeply planted, 
particularly in Gaul and Britain; and to their prevalence may be attributed the 
preparation of the public mind for those dreadftd adulterations which Christianity 
sustained in this country by the successful progress of its pagan adversaries. Agri- 
cola, a Pelagian bishop, exerted himself most strenuously to propagate his doctrines 
in Britain;^' and subsequent occurrences will shew that he was but too successfiil; 
and for more than a century after the irruption of the Saxons, Christianity appears 
to have been almost wholly extirpated. 

The situation of the native Britons was now truly pitiable. Their country 
was overrun by the northern barbarians, and themselves, agitated by religious 
disputes, and weakened by political convulsions ;^^ addicted to luxury,'^ and stained 
with vicej*^ they saw before them no alternative but certain destruction, or an 
alliance with some other power, possessed of more courage than themselves. In 
this emergency, their leader, (dux Britannorum) Vortigem, assembling the chiefe,** 
urged the immediate necessity of adopting some plan which might tend to their 
security; and it was agreed that a band of warriors fix)m some foreign nation 
should be engaged to assist them in warding off the impending danger.^' He 
cast his eye upon the Saxons, a people brave and ferocious, but addicted to habits 

«> Dav. Druid, p. 386. 
^> Collier. Eccl. Hist. vol. i. 1. 1. " Gildas. Sect. 19. »« Bede, 1. 1. c. 14. 
«« Gildas, sect 19. Nennins. p. 105. ^^ Gildas. sect. 22. 
«• Gildas. sect. 23. 

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ai^ propensities wlack were equally barbarous and disgusting;^ And at tliis veiy 
ymaat of time/ a roving band of exiles from Saxony having made a descent on tile 
coast of Britain A. B. 449, with Hengist and Horsa at their head,^* two chieft 
who deduced their descent from Odin or Woden/^ they were immediately engaged 
by the degenerate Britons as fri^ids and defenders.^ 

&^ %$^xonii,. 

The Saxons hate bath Druidism and Christianily — Seize an the kingdom — Commil 
desperate ravages — Destroy the church in DevmnM — AhoJish Christianity — 
Pope Gregory — Is struck with the beauty of same yanthfid doves from Deira — 
Commissions Augustine to convert theAnglo-Saxans — Ethelbert converted — Saxon 
temples converted into Christian churches — King Edwin convenes a solemn 
assembly in Deim^ld, to deliberate on the propriety of embracing the Christian 
religim— Arguments of PauUnus— successful— Coiffi^ the pagan High Priest, 
desecrates the Temple of Thar at Godmanham— Edwin baptized— The people 
converted by thousands, and baptized in the river Swale. 

The Saxons were a brave and warlike people, trained to arms from boyhood, 
and stimulated to courage, and even cruelty, by every incentive that could impress 
a young and ardent mind. At the age of fifteen years, the youthful warrior was 
eligible for admission into his noviciate for the profession of arms; and such were 
the severity and hardihood of early education, that at this age the Saxon youth 
usually acquired all the nerve and vigour of a full grown man. 

Notwithstanding the primitive barbarism of the Saxons, they are the people of 
whom we have the greatest reason to be proud. The Romans introduced into this 
island the arts of civilization, and the comforts of domestic life, but the Saxons did 

^'^ Amm. MarceL 1. 28. o. 3. 
w Taliesin. Owen's Diet v. Cw. Tnm. Angl. Sax. vol. i. p. \S\. 
*• Snorra Stnrl. Chron. iforweg. p. 4. «> H. Hunt p. 309. 

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bore. Tkey not only gave to this kingdom salutary laws, by which the rightf atfd 
fitrerties of its inhabitants were defined and made secure, but they laid the founda* 
Son on which the fabric of our glorious constitution is built j and by the union #rf 
wisdom and piety they succeeded in gradually forming the minds and manners of 
society to an intercourse of superior polish, and eonduciye to the best interests ^f 
morality and virtue. 

Previously to this consummation, however, we have to record scenes and tran- 
sactions in which perfidy led the way to violence, and produced a sanguinary con- 
flict, which almost deprived the inland of its ancient population. 

When the Saxons made their first descent upon the coasts, they came in the 
character of friends. Having performed the duty for which they had been engaged, 
and driven the Picts and Scots to their native fastnesses, they had leisure to con- 
sider the religious and political institutions of Britain, and were soon impressed 
with a sovereign contempt fer both. The pusillanimity of the people when opposed 
to a foreign enemy* excited their disdain ; while the domestic quarrels and civil 
discord which convulsed the island,^ only exposed to the perfidious ally their habitual 
insubordination, and consequent weakness ; and if they turned to the sacred rites of 
religion, addressed to a god of peace, it was only to be impressed with the sneer 
of contempt. The island was divided between the Christian and the druidical 
religions, though at this period the latter was predominant. Accustomed in their 
own country to rich temples and superb statues of the gods,^ they were struck 
with astonishment not unmixed with scorn, to find in Britain no appearance of an 
image; no indication of a present deity. Neither Druids nor Christians admitted 
statues of the Supreme Being into their temples, for on this point they held one 
common belief, that God is invisible, and would be dishonoured by any attempt to 
personate him in a gpraven image.^ 

The Saxons, struck with this remarkable singularity, concluded that Britain was 
abandoned by the gods, and that hence the peo{Je were unnerved and divested of 
natural courage. These reflections were the first germ of that bold and decisive 
step which ultimately gave them possession of the island. Its beauty and fi*uitful- 
ness excited their cupidity, and they determined to extirpate both druidism and 
Christianity, and to plant in their stead the military superstitions of their own 

> Gidas. Sect 17. ' Aiymes PiydAia Vawr. Camb. Reg. 1796, p. 554. 

4 Olaus Mag. Hist Septent p. 104^ Verst Rest o. 3. Mai. N. Ant vol. 1. p. 127. 

' Tacit do mor. Germ. c. 9« IiiiiQaB. L 3. BorL Ant Com. p. 105. 

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Having resolved on a breach of fajth, thejr sought not a cloals; £>r their perfi^^ 
JEIengist invited the assistance of his countrymen under the high expectation of 
i^gr^amdizement; spake of the fertility of the soil, and the disaentions of the inha* 
lutantSy^ affording the means of eafPf conquest and abundant reward; and ihey 
oame ov^ in shoals at his simunons/ The two brothers began the quarrel by 
complaining, that the stipulated subsidies had not been regpilarly paid,' and 
tkreatemng to discharge the account by ravaging the country.' He invited a 
meeting of the. British chiefs at Stonehenge, and there committed that horrible 
slaughter which has excited the universal indignation of posterity.'^ The Britcm^ 
flew to annSy indignant at this deliberate act of treachery, and under the command 
of Yortimer, gave the Saxons battle* Success for a time fluctuated between the 
invaders and the rightful owners of the soil, but the former had undoubtedly the 
advantage, for the British clans, still distracted by intestine disputes, wasted their 
strength in their own petty quarrels^ instead of firmly uniting against the commoa 
foei and hence the Saxons, brave by nature and inured to war, cemented by union, 
and intuit on one great object^ the complete subjugation of Britain, carried 
devastation and death wherever they went Horsa was slain in a battle at Eggies- 
ford i and Hengist, who is characteristically denominated by the bards, ^ ^ 
freckled intruder," (dyvynawi vrych)" to revenge his death, proceeded with the 
rapidity of an incensed fiend through every province in Britain,'^ burning and 
destroying towns and villages j slaughtering the defenceless; sacrificing the priests 
of druidism, and the bishops of Christianity on their ovra altars," and spreadinj^ 
terror and carnage throughout the country. It was during this terrific progress 
that he appeared with his army in Deira; the country was ravaged, the inhabitants 

« Ethelwerd. 83a ^ Nemif os. e. 37. > Nennias. c* 36. »fiede.LLo.U. 

^^ Anenrln. Goddodin. Webb. ArohftoL voh i. p. 1«-«14. Nennits. o. 48^ 

" Anearin. Gododin* Dav. Draid. p. 359. 

"« Gildas. sect 24. Langhome. p. 33. Usher, p. 226. Hame. vol. i. p. 21. Mr. Tamer, 
however, proaottiioes that Hengist never penetrated for beyond his kingdom of Kent; and that he 
foaght no batUes in any other part of the island. Anglo-Sax. vol. L p. 167.. 

" Bede. 1. I.e. \5. Tacitus de mor. Germ says, that this people sacrificed human victims; 
and Sidonius. Appoll. Ep. 6. 1. 8. adds, that they decimated their captives. Verstegan. p. 81. 
from Crantz. Hist Norw. 1. 3. c. 3. speaks of a king of Norway who sacrificed two of his own sons 
to procure a storm at sea, which might destroy the fleet of Harold, king of Denmarkvwhd 
toreatened to invade his dominions. Vid. also Snorre. StnrL 1. 1. p. W. Veist. Be0t. p. Xf 
MalL N. Ant. vol. i, p. 184. and Turn. AngL Sax. vol. iv. p. 24. 

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ptit to the i^ord, and ihe Christian edifice at the Bearer-Lake, in Sylra Beirormiv 
y^BS reduced to ashes." 

The Saxons having at leng^ acquired a permanent dominion in this island^ 
their first object was to settle the national religion on the principles of the Gothic 
superstition; and to abolish the Celtic worship by the substitution of their o¥^ 
jgods. Thus was a new system introduced, founded indeed on the isame princi- 
ples, but embracing a different object; for whilst the votive sacrifices of the 
Britons were addressed to Hu, the god of peace, those of the Saxons were 
offered up to Woden, the deity of war.'* These rites were undoubtedly 
celebrated in the wood of Deira;'^ and the Saxon religion remained in the 
ascendant throughout the greater part of Britain for more than a century. The 
first blow which it sustained was inflicted by Pope Gregory, sumamed the Great, 
about the year 507. This excellent personage sustained a character of much 
estimation, both as an ecclesiastic and a politician ; and ample justice has been 
done to his merits, as well by his contemporaries, as by succeeding generations. 
To his extraordinary zeal and perseverance the Anglo-Saxons were most essentially 
indebted for their conversion firom the horrible system of idol worship j and the 
whole tenor of his conduct, with few exceptions, was exemplary as a Christian 
bishop, beyond that of any other Roman pontiff. He was a gentleman by birth^ 
education, and manners; being nobly descended, and the great grandson of a 
pope.'^ His distinguished talents had been improved in the best manner of the 
times; and he devoted his earlier services to the public in a civil station, as 
governor of Rome. In that high office, he acquitted himself with reputation and 
applause. Early in the prime of his days he formed an irresistible bias towards 
monastic retirement How well calculated soever he might have been for civfl 
employments to which his inducements were more numerous and weighty, he 
voluntarily relinquished the splendid offers of ambition, and attached himself 
solely to the calm pursuits of learning and religion. His paternal fortune, which 

>« Lei. ex. MS. Dam. T. Herbert Warbnrton's MSS. Lands. B. Mas. 896. viii. fo. 2da 
Turner places the conqnest of Deira and Bernicia, nnder Ida, in 547, and says, on the authority of 
the Welsh Triads, that the names of the British sovereigns of these states were Gallj Dyvedel* 
and YogwnelL AngL Sax. voL i. p. 174. 

"* Gr. ab. Arthur. Owen's W. Diet v. credu. 
'« Bede. 1. 1. e. 13. Camd. (Gibs.) col. 738. Ling. Ang. Sax. Ch. p. 17. Alonin. pont et 
iaiiot. Bocl. Sbor. v. 186. 

>^ Felix IL who died A. D. 492, the 47th bishop of Rome. 

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was very C0]i8id6rdl>le9lie diftribnted with a liberal hand amongst his kindred^ and» 
with the small remams of his property^fae built and endowed churches and monaa* 
teries. His gradations fix>m monkish seclusion to the papal throne were few^ but 
honourable to himself^ and beneficial to those who employed him.'* 

Passing through the market place at Bome^ just before his elevation to the pon- 
tificate, he saw some Saxon children eaqKised for sale, according to the custom of 
the Northumbrians,'* and being struck with their uncommon beauty and symmetry 
of ftmn, he eagerly enquired the name of the countiy which could produce such 
perfect specimens of the human fi-ame. Being answered that they were Angles, 
he exclaimed in an ecstacy, that they ought to be called angels. On a more 
particular enquiry, he found that they came from the province of Deinu ^ Be ira,*^ 
said the benevolent monk; ^ ihey shall be called from the nrath to the mer^ of 
God. What is the name of their kingP' "" EIW was the reply. '< AUelujah,'' 
r^umed Gregory, ^ the praise of the true God, shall henceforth be re-echoed in 
their own land;" and firom that moment he determined to undertake, in person, a 
mission into Britain.^ His popularily at home, however, prevented this benevo- 
lent project from being carried into effect, though it was with much difficulty that 
he was dissuaded from executing his intention. Being exalted to the papal throne, 
Gr^ory despatched his friend Augustine on this important errand,^' by whose zeal 
Ethelbert was so(m converted to the Christian faith. His example was efficacious. 
His subjects embraced Christianity in great numbers,'^ and Augustine was consti- 
tuted bishop of Canterbury, and received the pallium from Gr^^ry, with fiill 
authority over all the diurches which he should be the means of founding in 
Britain.** . 

To render Christianity palatable to the Anglo-Saxons, Augustine was directed 
by the pope to allow them the indulgence of some of their ancient peculiarities, by 
incorporating into Christianity, in every practical point, the less offensive tenets ci 
their o^^m superstition. He directed him to convert their temples into Christian 
churches,*^ by merely destroying the idols, and consecrating the altars, that the 

i> Ex. MS. Rev. J. Watts. i* Malms. 1. 1 . a 3. 

» Vid. Verst Rest p. 141. » Vid. Weever. Fan. Mod. p. 62. 

» Bede. L I. o. 26. ^ Chron. Sax. p. 2a 

^ This was not a new expedient, for it had been already practised on the first introdaction of 

Christianity into Britain ; and it is onrions to observe, that in eveiy quartar of the globe the same 

plan has been pursued. In Mexioo, the ancient pyramids were denominated by the idolatrooa 

worshippers, teocaUU^ or temples of the gods, and were esteemed pecoUarly saored. When 


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^^ple migkt enta* ^their abciKtomed pfautes «f wtndbip'witfioat mofieum, and oSer 
Hli€^ rowB mikmore cmn&dmoetf^ the thze obA •iivihg Qadf' And he dimcted 
-iifko/4hat 'Chmtion feasts tiAiduld -be instituted in lieu of the saodficka festivals 
which usually aceonipanied the fdgan (worship, ioA that Idiey should be celebrated 
in 'the immediate neigMbourh«M of the ihitrch.^ 

Christianity now began to preTail'throp^ont^the southern diyisions of the king- 
dom ; vAiepef in fact> it had partially existed in a dii^iiised form during the 
prevalence of 'idolatry f ^ and its blessings were soon oominunicated to Nctrthunibria. 
fidwuiythempnatrdh of this province, had beeu educated m the /principles of the 
Sason idolatiy, and in the former part of his life evinced no traits of dbaracter thilt 
appeared' favourable to the cause of truth** Al>aut the beginning of the seventh 
^cetttury he married Ethelburga, ithe daughter of Elhelbert, who was a sinc^^ 
Ghristiasi, and through her influence He was indd^ed to embrace the true faith. 
^Mer f^ step was a simple request^ diatt she herself mi^t be protected in the 
exercise of her own religion, which was granted without reluctance ; and ^e im- 
^mediately appointed Paulinus, a learded ecclesiastic, to be her ccmfessor,*' She 
'Aiea proceeded to use arguments for die purpose of inducing her husband to 
embrace the siame religion; she enumerated ail its superior advantages; eAie 
pressed upon him the peculiar interest srhe had in bis spiritiual welfare; ai^d sudi 
wa^ her anxiety and ze&J, seconded and enfiirced- by the rhetoric of Paulinus, that 

chrfEftiaQity was established^ cbnrehes and chapels w^eiM nnxbiniy erected in these holy pfoces. 
The greBi pvramid of Cholula had an altar on its top, dedicated to Qnetzalcoatl, or flie .serpent 
with green leathers. ''A small chapel, surrounded with cypress, and dedicated to the Virgin de 
los Reinedios, has snpeeeded to the t^ple of the' gQ(| of the air. Ah eoclesitstic of the Indian 
race, c^lebcates mass every day on the top of the antique monument. In the time of Cortez, 
Cholula was considered as a holy city. No where existed a greater number of teocallis, of priests 
and religious ordets*; no spot displayed greater magnifioenOe in the oeleblration of public worship, 
or more austerity in its penances and fasts^ Since the introdnctioA of Christianity, the symbols of 
a new worship have not entirely effaced the remembrance of the old* The people assemble in 
orowds from distant quarters at the summit of the pyramid, to celebrate the festival of the virgin. 
A mysterious dread, a religious awe, fills the soul of the Indian at the sight of this immense pile 
of bricks, covered with shrubs and perpetual verdure*'^ Hnmboldfs Researches in America, 
vol. i. p. 98. 

^ Bede. 1. I.e. 30. Collier. Eecl. Hist. vol. 1. p. 73. From this custom there is one instance 
on record of a Saxon temple in East^Anglia which contained two altars ; one for the use of the 
Christians, and the other an altar dedicated to the pagan triad Woden — Thor — Frea. Bede. 

^ 8pe). Cono. p. 89. These feasts of dedication were probably the origin of otir pr^ent 
annual coantry w w^s or feasts. 

«'Bede. 1. I.e. 25. " H. Hunt. 1. 3. 

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Edwili at length' contented to take the advice of his priests lUiddotknceUovs di the 
question; ftnd if, oa mature examiimtion^ he should be satisfied wi& the argimients 
a4tanoed in fayour. of the new ridigioo,f.he woidi embraeo it widifsvit hesitation.^ 
This GDurse Wcas open and candid, as it placed the t^o systems 6li the fomtdation 
gI their respective merits, and left ihemito stand or fall by th^ truth or falsehood of 
their. (Hretensions. 

A formal mieeting was oouvened in the wood of I>eira^ the centre of the 
idolatrous. worship, and the pagan priests. and ministers were invited to assist in 
the deliberations. Goiffi» this high priest of* Woden, was heard in behalf <^ the 
Saxon worship ; and it may be supposed, that in an assefenbly of his own followers, 
his words and influence would excite* a gweral attention ; and sone degree of 
astonishment .manifested itself amongisrt the multitude, wh^i in giving an account 
of his own religion, he. pronounced it im^fitable und usdess. On the odier hand 
appeared Paulinus, clothed in all the. grace and dignity of truth, and attended byr 
many« zealous . Christian divines, bearing thfe sacred emblem of their religion. 
Paulinns addressed the assembly with all the sdemnity of pure devotion ; he spaks' 
of God's unity as opposed to the numerous divinities of the Saxon creed; whidi, 
if equally powerfiil, would be at constant variance as conflicting^ interests might • 
prompt; and if not equally powerful, of consequence, not efl5BCtive duties;'^ he 
spake of the absurdity of worshipping as. a god, a mere mortal, wAiom their 
ancestor? had seen alive; whose representatives were images of wood and stone, 
and whose only merit consisted in his personal courage, which was equalled, if not 
exceeded^ by many living chiefs ; and whose banners now trampled unda foot by 

» Bede, !• 2. c. 9. 

. '^ In the fin^ times of the Saxon monarchy, idols and visible representatives of the deity were 
absolutely prohibited, and he was directed to be worshipped in the lonely solitude of sequestered 
forests, .where he was believed to dwell invimble and in solemn silence. Tacit de mor. Germ. 
1. 9. c. 35. But after the irruption of Odin and his followers, numerous objects of adoration were 
introduced, Edda. Snor. Fab. 10. and personified by statues ; Verst Rest. p. 69. to each of which 
was assigned a particular dominion y and hence every part of the creation was placed under the 
protection of its peculiar divinity.' Woods, houses, mountains, the elements, sun, stars, and 
even thunder and lightning, wind and rain^ were each assigned to the oare of a presiding deity ; 
who were thus unitedly or individually enabled to visit their friends with benefits, their enemies 
with destruction. These inferior deities, considered at first only as mediators, were, in process of 
time, invested with a fearful authority ; and as courage, valour, and superior strength were the 
chief traits of excellence in this rude people, the first cause soon became esteemed as the god of 
war^ and was depicted as a sanguinary being, terrible even to the good and virtuous ; clad In 
vengeance as with a garment, and delighting in desolation and carnage, slaughter and blood. 
MaL N. Ant vol. i. p. 86. 


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the Mowers of tlie Cross in almost every otber covoktty, induced this iiievitable 
oondusion, that his aid was perfectly inefficacious^ either to convey blessings, or to 
avert misfortime ; — ^he spake of the extension of the paternal tie cemented by the 
rite of Christian baptism, and enlarged on the benign natm« of a religion which 
abolishes the unnatural system of slaveiy to which the child vrns subject, by their 
laws, to its parent; softens the human heart, ameliorates the disposition, and con- 
verts all mankind into a universal society of friends and brothers ; — ^he spake of the 
general judgment, the felicity of future reward, the dreadful misery of future 
punishment, both of which were clearly revealed in the gospel of Christ; — con- 
trasted the wild and ridiculous notions which they held on this awful subject, with 
the genial tenets of Christianity; and concluded with an eloquent appeal to their 
reason, founded on the universal reception of Christianity, by the wisest and most 
polished nations of the eartk'* In a word, he so successfully pleaded the cause of 
this pure and perfect religion, that the chief priest, Coiffi, put an end to the ceremony 
by declaring himself a convert; and to shew his sincerity and zeal, he mounted a 
war horse, seized a javelin, and proceeding vrith the multitude in his train, to the 
temple at Godmanham, which was then situated within the wood,** with a ma- 
lediction to his god, he cast the spear so violently into the fane, that it remained 
firmly fixed in the opposite wall.^ The people expected that this impious act 
would elicit the summary vengeance of the offended gods, and that the intrepid 
Coiffi would become an instant victim to their fury. But nothing of the kind 
happened; and the assembly were impressed with a necessary conviction of the 
impotence and nothingness of deities composed of wood and stone ; and in the fury 
of their newly excited zeal, levelled this magnificent*^ temple with the ground, 
and set fire to the surrounding groves.** 

This triumphant illustration of the superiority of the true religion was decisive 
of the question. Edwin was baptized at York, on Easter day, A. B. 627.** This 
event was attended with the most advantageous consequences, and Christianity now 

)i Bede. 1. 2. o. 10. 1. 2. c. 13. 

'^ Vid. Ling. Ang. Sax. Ch. p. 17. Burt. Mon. Ebor. p. 433. 

'' Bede. I. 2. c. 13. Gibs. Camb. col. 738. Ling. Ang. Sax. Ch. p. 17. 

»* Whittakep. Manches. vol. ii. p. 360. » Bede. 1. 2. c. 14. 

^ Ing. Sax. Cbron. p. 34. Tbis is a brief and rational account of Edwin's conversion. The 
monkish legends related by crednlons anthors, are too maoh tinctured with the snperstions of the 
times to be entitled to oar belief. 

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spread rapidly throughout the whole of Edwin's dominions. Inducements of a 
temporal natare were, doubtless, held out to the priests of idolatry, for the purpose 
of inducing them to embrace the Christian &ith; for Paulinus well knew that if 
they came over, the people would immediately follow;^ and even the fiery Coiffi 
is represented as being out of humour with his own religion, because it had failed 
to accelerate the designs of his ararice and ambition.** Whatever were the moving 
causes however, it is certain that Christianity from this lime flourished abundantly 
in Beira. The royal example was followed with avidity by his subjects, and so 
clamourous were the people for legitimate admission to the benefits of the Christian 
covenant, that Paulinus was obliged to baptize the crowds of postulants in the 
river Swale.** 

^ Fabyan. Chron. p. 1 12. << Ling. Ang. 8ax. Cb. p. 16. 
^ Speed. Brit p. 313. 

^^ ^xim^ 

Hie Saxons acquainted with the elemenUtry prmc^ks of nrchUeeture^Christianitjf 
flourishes in Devra — Probable that the church at Beverlac was re-ed^ed hy 
that people — Invasion of CadwaUo and Penda — Edwin slain — Druidism re- 
stared at Beverlac, hy CadwaUo and his Druids — Splendid rites of worship 
cekhrtOed there — Excesses at these festimis — Oswald patronizes the Christians 
— The wood of Deira polluted— John of Beverley born— Acquires a high 
degree of reputation — Jurisdiction of the Pope — WiyHd appeals to his holiness 
against a decree of the synod — The pope supports his causCf and pronounces 
judgment in his favour — John of Beverley consecrated bishop of Hagulstad — 
His singular activity in that high situation — Miracles attributed to Mm — 
John devated to the archiqriscopal see of Yorh — Visits Beverlac — Charmed 
with the beauty of its situation — RdmUds the church — Founds a double 
monastery — St. Martin's church — Style and character of the buildings'— En- 

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dmments — Qmrch, i^i^ Nu}hdlo»^7!his>e$U^lkhwmt h^^ ad^tmtaffeaus to 
the muse of chtistumity-rrrOr^ cfimche^— Temporal JurisdiGtum 

of thB kIA(a8—£k)mtSrr-Berm^^^ indmtfy (f the reliffimis orders— John 
vacates his seSf and ^retires, to Be^erl^-r^DieSf and is buried therer-Inftuenee 
iatached to the name of Johu of Beverley. 

Thb SasooA were not. wholly, igaocant of the scienjoe of architecture when they 
first invaded this country ; tibough while every effort of their genius was profusely 
lavisbed/on the structures of religion^ their pciyate habitations were little superior 
to the den of a savage beasts All the nations who used the Gothic worship, are 
said to have erected splendid temples to the honour of their gods/ while their 
domestic residence consisted chiefly, either of wretched huts, or burrows in the 
earth, where they existed in a state little superior to the brutes ; and discovered no 
animation or energy of mind, except when roused to action by the prospect of 
some warlike expedition. In conformity with this principle, every habitation con- 
structed in such a manner as to exclude the air, if it contained but one apartment, 
was dignified with the name of a hall;^ if it included seversd rooms, it was styled 
a palace. The account of the palace of Thor, mentioned in the poem of Grimnis, 
and quoted in the Edda of Snorro, which is perhaps purely mythological, may be 
considered as illustrative of their vast conceptions of a magnificent religious struc- 
ture. ''The most illustrious among the gods, is Thor. His kingdom is called 
Thrudwanger. He possesses there a palace, in which are four hundred and forty 
halls. It is the larger house that is known. There are five hundred and forty 
haljs in the winding palace of the god Thor ; and I believe there is no where a 
greater fabric than this of the eldest of sons."' 

During a continuance of that happy period when Christianity flourished in 
Northumbria, under the auspices of Edwin, the ecclesiastical establishment at the 
Beaver-Lake, in the woo4 of Deira, would imdoubtedly extend its influence, and 
share in the honour of making, converts to the faith of Jesus« The knowledge of 
architecture, which the Saxons inherited from their forefathers, however limited, 
would be much improved by the study of Boman. magnificence, in th^ numerous 
remains which that polished people left behind them j* and their acquirements 
would be displayed in the erection of religious edifices* Amongst these, it is highly 

' Olans. Mag. c. 6. » Bede. 1. 2. c. 13. 

^ Edda. Suoi:. Fab. II. ^ Bede. 1. 5. c. Z. Gyrald* Camb. p. 14. 

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probable^ althongh we have no direct evidence to confirm the cenjectUrey that the 
ruined fabric at the Beaver-Lake was repaired, and converted once more iiilo a 
place of Christian worship.^ The rductance with which the trath had been foir- 
merly received by the -people, appeared to have passed away; and the robe of 
innocence, which, on a former bccasionliad been assumed Vitfa evident r^^ret, wa's 
now eageHy solicited, and worn with etnotiohs of ap^suient gratitude and joy. How 
fond of novelty is man; and how mnch is he enslaved by the force of example. 
A royal precedent now incites these barbarians to renouhce "their prejudices, and 
clothe theinselves in the garment of righteoiiisness. A few years lidnce, when liie 
authority of the royal convert has been superseded by death, we shall find the se- 
same people returning with renewed avidity to dieir ancient errors, and even 
i-aising their arims against those sacred edifices, which had been the scene of thejr 
public reception into the church of God. 

The conversion of the king, and l3ie spread of dniiMianity, soon became knoW 
to his pagan neighbours; and the hated truth inflamed them with the desire of 
vindicating the injured honour of their gods.* Penda, king of th6 Mercians, 
formed a league with Cadwallo^ king of Wales, though a iiominal Christian, and 
they collected their forces, and invaded Northumbria, with the avovtred intentio!h of 
laying waste the country, and extirpating every Vestige of the new religion. Edwin, 
animated with ardent courage, in defence of his altars and the cause of his God, 
met these infuriate invaders at Hatfield Chase, and a dreiadfiil conflict ensued, 
which terminated in favour of the pagan chiefs. The king was slain, and his army 
completely routed.^ It is impossible to describe the devastation that followed this 
victory. Fire and sword attended the course of the invading army. Neither age 
nor sex were spared, but all who had embraced the Christian faith were singled 
out for objects of indiscriminate slaitghter.' The missionary Paulinus fled with 
precipitation into Kent, taking with him the queen, and Elfleda, her daughter f 
and also the consecrated vessels bestowed on the church by king Edwin.*® Num- 
bers who professed this faith, now openly abandoned it, and with a predilection 
for their ancient habits, joined the enemy, and lent their aid towards destroying 
the consecrated oratories, which had many times resounded with the harmonized 
voices of pious worshippers, while ofiering up fto heaven the incense of a contrite 
heart, in a celestial anthem of love and gratitude. 

« Greg. Ep. 71. « Bede. 1. 2. c. 14. ^ Ibid. 1. 2. c. 20. Ing. Sax. Chron. p. 35. 
« Geoffery. 1. 12. c. t. » Fabyan. Chron. p. 1 12. ><> Butl. Lives of the Saints. 

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It is well known that all the rites of the anciait British superstition^ such as 
Cadwallo and his followers practised," were performed in tihe open air; and it was 
a maxim amongst them, that the deity was profiined by the rites of worship offered 
in a building with walls and a covered roof.^ Hence the Christian churches would 
be amongst tihe first objects of druidical iury, and tihe edifice at Beaver-Iiake, of 
what nature soever it might be, would not escape pollution; and the lake itself, 
surrounded as it was, by a consecrated grove, would be again resorted to, as a 
convenient theatre for the performance of druidical rites; and these were accord- 
ingly celebrated by Cadwallo and his Britons, with all the pomp and solemnity 
of ancient times. 

The daring marauders did not retire fi<om the scene of action when they saw an 
idolatrous prince seated on the throne, and the superstitions of polytheism exalted 
upon the prostration of Christianity. Eanfirid, as king of Bemicia, and Osric, 
king of Beira, the immediate successors of Edwin, had renounced Christianity ; and 
continued, during their brief reign, a systematic persecution of their former brethren 
in the faith. In the absence of Paulinus, the district of Deira was fidly abandoned 
to the exercise of idolatrous profanations. The unconverted pagan priests, now 
emerging from their hiding places, claimed their former dignities, and united with 
the triumphant Britons in celebrating the downfall of Christianity by a sacrifice of 
llianksgiving, accompanied by the immolation of their prisoners on a desecrated 
altar ; the bards, with the celebrated Uywarch Hen at tibeir head, by the melody 
of iheir harps, brought back the recollection of times long past ; and men's hearts, 
always inconstant, fond of change, and wedded to the meretricious blandishments 
of idolatry, were soothed to peace, and received joyfally the imposing rites of a 
fascinating worship long banished from the Beaver-Lake, which charmed by its 
magnificence, and awed by its solemnity, and its appearance of invincible decorum. 

'1 Speed and some other writers have assured ns, that Cadwallo had embraced christianibr ; 
but it is evident firom the crnelties which he exercised on the professors of Aat religfion, that he 
was under the influence of his Dmids ; and they^ at this very time^ made nse of the following^ 
language. << Trust in God that those are no Dniids, who prophesy that the privUege of Ddn 
Brifon will be violated/* Meugant Diin Briton was the supreme mount of druidical judgment. 
Again, Golyddan, another bard says, << Druids vaticinate — a multitude shall arrive ; from 
Menevia to Armorica shall be in their hand : from Demetia to Thanet shall they possess. It is 
Merddin (Merlin) who predicU—this will come to paw.*' Dav. Druid, p. 7. Besides, Cadwallo 
was the intimate friend and associate of the venerable Llywarch^ who was a genuine banl| and 
strongly impregnated with a predilection for the druidical lore. 

» Cic. de leg. 1. 2« c. Z. 

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Gould we penetrate 'through the veil which ooixceals past ihings from our view, 
we might contemfdate the scene which wu exhibited at this period, on the spot 
where the town of Beverley now stands, unconscious of the pollutions which once 
disgraced its precincts. There, beside the Beddaren, or hill where the minster 
is situated, stood the venerable Druid, supported by his magic wand,'' clad in a 
white and flowing robe, a red tiara on his head^ a beard descending to his waist," 
and his person decorated with the angninum ovum,*' golden chains, and amulets, 
and rings of the same inetal.** With eyes uplifted towards heaven, the very portrait 
of innocence and integrity, we might behold this sanguinary minister of a polluted 
faidi, and mistake him for a living pattern of every pure and perfect virtue, while 
in his heart the evil passions of pride, cruelty, and self-importance raged uncon* 
trolled, as the welcome attendants on such a horrible system of religion. On his 
right hand ware ranged the bards, clothed in shining robes of cerulean blue, bearing 
their well-tuned harps, and ready at the well known signal, to raise a solemn chorus ; 
on his left the Eubates, habited in sober green, and Ihe aspirants in robes of inter- 
mingled green and white and blue; while the devoted people, stricken with an 
indescribable awe, stood trembling round at a respectful distance,'^ to witness the 
restoration of the primiitive religion of Britain, yet dreading to behold some horrid 
Mcrifice.*' At their head stood the chieftains, distinguished by their round bonnets. 

" Frick. in Buloeo. p. 143. BotL Cornw. p. 121. Toland* p. 20. The wand was an indis- 
pensable appendage to the appearance of the Draid. It was alike the staff to support his steps in 
long and wearisome jonrneys, and the agent in all his magical operations. 

1^ The beard was a remarkable charaoteristic of the draidioal priesthood. It gave the Dmld 
a venerable appearance, which struck the uninitiated with awe and tespect; and the length and 
comeliness oi the beard was not a trifling qualifioafion for the highest oiBces of the priesthood, 
which were usually conferred by public election. Strabo describes the inhabitants generally as 
being bearded like goats ! 


^^ The ornaments of a Druid consisted of chuns and rings of gold» and amber beads; the 
magical amulets^ and many little gold^ amber, and ivory trinkets, each possessing some mystical 
property, or some protecting influence, which conveyed a sacred character to me wearer, fliat 
rendered his person inviolate. Great numbers of these trinkets have been discovered by our anti* 

Iuaries in their researches, and by none more than by the indeCatigable Sir Richard Clolt Hoare, 

" Lucan. 1. 3. v. 402. 

^' Strabo. 1. 4. Diod. Sic. p. 308. ^ In some places this custom was observed, which, I 
suppose, was common to the Druids of Gaul and Britain. They made a statue or image of a man 
in a vast proportion, whose limbs consisted of twigs, weaved together in the nature of basket- 
ware. These they filled with living men, and after that, set it on fire, and so destroyed the poor 
creatures in smoke and flames.'' Sammes. Brit p. 104. 


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and plsdded garments, and omamented with torqaes,*' or chains of gold, brassi or 
iron. In solemn silence we might behold them waiting with breathless anxiety 
for the moment when the augur should proclaim the will and pleasure of the deity ;^ 
then, when the victim was ceremonially placed on the fire*altar/* we might hear a 
simultaneous burst of harmony. The sacred hymn to Hu was, at this moment^ 
chaunted in full chorus by a thousand voices, accompanied with the bardie harps ;^ 
and the arch of heaven resounded with the polluted harmcmy. The softer sex was 
melted into enthusiastic veneration and religious awe; and even the half savage 
barbarian, subdued by the force of superstitious feeling, involuntarily cast his war- 
like weapons to the earth, and fell prostrate before the being whom his imagination 
had clothed in terror, and whose vengeance he wished to deprecate, by unfeigned 
humility and abfect submission. Then was the Beaver drawn from the Lake, and 
placed triumphantly on the Beddaren ; then followed another hymn of joyful ex- 
ultation, in which the people joined; and at length the assembly was dismissed 
with prayers and benedictions, to partake of the festivities which always succeeded 
to a public sacrifice.** 

Such, and so captivating, were the rites of druidism ; and thus were they cele- 
brated during the brief period of idolatrous domination, with more than pristine 
magnificence; that early habits and propensities, which had but slept under the 
prevalence of Christianity, might gradually develope themselves, and return with 
ftdl vigour to the practice of ancient superstitions. 

>' A torqnes was fonnd by the Rev. E. Stillin^eet and fi. Clarkson, Esq. in a tumulns at 
Arras, in the year 1817, placed on the neck of a skeleton, which was doubtless that of a British 

» Tacit. Annal. 1. 14. o. 20. «> Pliny. 1. 16. o. 17. 

^^Gododin. Song. 24. Taliesin. Mio. Dinbych. Welsh. Arch. p. 67. A translation of this 
hymn may be fonnd in Manrice's Hindostan^ voL ii. p. 174> from Valiancy, de Reb. Hib. 

^ These festivals were nsaally churacterized by intemperance and excess; and the people 
being left at nncontroUed liberty to follow the dictates of inclination^ seldom departed till in a 
state of absolute inebriety. The untutored Britons were not singular in the indulgence of these 
excesses. Even the polished Greeks practised the same enormities before the altars of their goAn, 
at the celebration of the Dionusiaca. At the approach of night, when the sacrifices were com- 
pletedj the revellers fled into the woods, some with torches, others with cymbals, making the air 
resound with frantic cries of Evoe ! Bacche ! Hues ! Attes ! Hues ! and the rites of religion 
ended in drunkenness and debauch. A banquet was prepared in the temple ; at which it was 
necessary that great quantities of wine should be consumed ; excessive drinking being esteemed an 
irrefragable proof of superior piety ; and to retire from a sacrifice perfectly sober, was considered 
an indelible disgrace. This practice, however, was condemned by Plato. Speaking of the 
abominations of the Dionusiaca, he says, that being present at the celebration of one of thesa 
festivals, he saw the whole city of Athena in a state of beastly intoxication ! de leg. 1. K 

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But though thfes^ saA the Saxon rites were alternately celebrated with all the 
pomp and ceremony which ccruld be assumed to give weight and stability to poly* 
theism, it was quite impossible that their predominancy could be of long continuance. 
The cause of Christianity was too deeply implanted, notwithstanding this partial 
apostacy, to fall for ever before the efforts, however strenuously employed, or highly 
countenanced, of pagan idolatry. The tree shook, but the axe was not at its root; 
and therefore, as if refreshed by a temporary persecution, it was again excited to 
action, under the genial protection of Oswald,'* and regained a limited dominion 
in Northumbria.^ The priests of idolatry endeavoured to impede its progress ; and 
such was the unsettled state of the kingdom, that each in turn obtained and en- 
joyed the pre-eminence ; but Christianity was not sufficiently reinstated to procure 
the full restoration of her church and privileges. She again languished; and the 
death of Oswald, who was slain in battle with Penda, gave the false religion once 
more the advantage. Churches were polluted by altars dedicated to superstitious 
uses, and Thor and Woden were now triumphantly substituted for the worship of 
the true and living God; for Cadwallo had been slain in a battle fought with Os- 
wald, near Hexham, and his Britons totally dispersed; and with them the relics 
of druidism finally vanished from the wood of Deira. This melancholy change 
maintained its influence for the space of thirty years; after which Christianity was 
universally restored by the preaching of Wilfrid, who entered on this arduous 
mission under the influence of Egfrid, king of Northumbria. His success was 
abundant; he was installed archbishop of York,** and the people joyftdly embraced 
the glad tidings of salvation. 

The Beaver-Lake in the wood of Deira had been so openly polluted with the 
abominations of idolatry, that no attempts were made to restore the Christian 
establishment within its dreadfrd inclosure. The honour of this work was reserved 
for a shining character in the history of these times ; on whose merits and re- 
splendent virtues we shall dilate with sentiments of the purest satisfaction. 

John, afterwards sumamed, of Beverley, was bom at Harpham,*^ A. D. 640. 
He was of a noble Saxon family, and his father had contributed much to prevent 
the utter ruin of Christianity in the places where lay his territorial possessions. 

>« Bede. 1. 3. o. 23. 
ts Oswald set ap the emblem of Christianity before his decisive batUe with Cadwallo, to which 
circumstance the victory was attributed ; and this is said by Speed to have been the first Cross that 
was erected in Britain. Hist Brit. p. 353. 

^ Bromp. apnd Dec. Script col. 79a ^ Lei. Coll. vol. lit p. 100. 

G 2 

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His inflnence, liiotigh immfficient ta avert the calraditieB to which his religion was 
exposed, still fanned the smonldering* embers, and preserved them from uttar 
extinction. His authority was freqn^itly interposed to prevent the insolent ex-^ 
pression of reproach by which his persecuted brethren were too often goaded to 
submission ; and if he could not openly establish the rites of Christian worship in 
all those places which had once been consecrated to the true and living God, he 
did much towards preserving the principles of it alive in the hearts of his people, 
and inspired them with the patient expectation of a favourable and triumphant 
change. He educated his son in the strict principles of Christianity, and he lived 
to be an honour to his country, and a shining ornament to the religion he professed. 

This great man flourished in troublesome times ; and to this circumstance, his 
celebrity may have been, in some respects, indebted ; for it is in such periods of 
difficulty that brilliant talents have an opportunity of displaying themselves, and 
stability of character, imited vrith the exercise of manly virtue, do not fail to receive 
the honourable testimony of public approbation. The church at the Beaver-Lake 
now lay in ruins, and some extraordinary concurrence of circumstances was ne- 
cessary to furnish the impulse for its restoration. The Saxon nobles were rapidly 
degenerating from the hardy valour which placed this island at the disposal of their 
forefathers, and appear to have yielded up their minds to the influence of sloth and 
superstition. The body of ecclesiastics, from the practice of a stem self-denial, 
strengthened by much real sanctity, gradually succeeded in impressing on the 
minds of the people a profound veneration for their own persons f^ and the laity 
were at length taught to believe, that the most meritorious actions men could per- 
form, were, reverence to the saints, monastic vows, and the building and endow- 
ment of churches and religious houses. 

Before this period the pope had no absolute jurisdiction within the realm of 
England. An opportunity now presented itself, which his holiness did not fail to 
improve, of investing the papal throne with the ecclesiastical sovereignty of this 
kingdom. Wilfrid, a man deservedly eminent for his learning and piety, and 
sedulous in the pastoral care of his flock, held the sees of York and Hexham ; and 
this had been pronounced by a national synod, over which Theodore, archbishop of 
Canterbury presided, too extensive an undertaking for the superintendence of a 
single bishop. It was therefore decided, that they should henceforward form two 

»s Bede. 1. 3. c. 26. 

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sepwate diooeses. Some writers add, that Wilfrid was altc^ether ejected.^ Hie 
pr^ate however, whose great virtues were adulterated with an unbounded ambition 
and fondness for luxoryy*^ hai^htily protested against this decision ; arraigned the 
jurisdiction of the synod, and appealed to the pope* He contended, that his holi- 
ness, as the successor of St Peter, alone possessed the supreme antfaority in 
spiritual affairs over the whole Christian world ; and that therefore he only had the 
power of depriving a bishop, or suspending the exa*cise of the episcopal function. 
The pope received his appeal with joy j and as he justly saw that this precedent 
would lay the foundation of the papal authority in England, he not only admitted 
the question to be tried in Bome^ but after having protracted the proceedings 
during many months,'^ at length gave judgment in Wilfrid's favour. 

During the absence of Wilfrid, tibe synod constituted Bosa archbishop of 
York;** and Eata, who was soon succeeded by John of Beverley, bishop of 
Hagulstad or Hexham.^ Here his splendid talents had frill scope for their exer- 
cise. His severity of discipline was increased, and he laboured incessantly for the 
conversion of that part of the population of his dioeese which still remained 
enveloped in the fatal cloud of pagan superstition. At this period, it is doubtful, ^ 
whether the northern parts of England were divided into parishes.'^ Every diocese 
was in effect but an extensive parish, over which the bishop in person was the 

» Bede. 1. 4. c. 12. 
^^ Eddias. in vil. Wilf. o. 20. «i R. of Hexham, c. 6. aays, two yean. 
^ Bede. I. 5. c. 12. » Lei. Coll. vol. iii. o. 100. 
M Parishes are thought to have heen first formed by archbishop Honorins^ Stow. Chron. . 
p. 77. Parker. Ant. Brit. Eool. p. 77. who fionrished abont 636, as a necessary appropriation of ec- 
clesiastical duties to certain responsible pastors, to prevent those irregularities which might and did - 
arise from the interference that frequently occurred by the intrusive visits of strangers on the scene 
of other men's labours, to the manifest injury of religion. Selden, liowever, on Tithes, c. 9, thinks ^ 
that parishes were not formed at this time; and, in his opinion, Blackstone seems to concur. Com. 
vol. i. p. 1 12. In 673, Theodore, archbishop of Canterbury, convened a synod; at which, amongst 
other regulations, this was agreed on. . Nullus Bpiscoporum parochiam alierius invadaU And frota 
this circumstance probably arises the opinion expressed by Lingard, that to archbishop Theodore 
belongs the merit of introducing the parochial division into the greater part of the kingdom. Vid. 
Lingard's Ant. of the Anglo-Saxon Church, p. 65, where is also an account of the origin of lay 
patronage. In the first ages of Christianity, every man was at liberty to contribute his tithes to 
what parish or church soever he pleased; Blaokst Comment vol. i. p. 112. but this privilege 
served as an existing means whereby any pique against the priest might be gratified by the alien- 
ation of his income. This inconvenience merefore was obviated ; first, by the censures of the • 
council of Calcuith; then by the famous charter of Ethelfwulf; and most eflTectuaily by the laws 
of Edgar, which provided, that all tithes should be paid in the parish where they arise; and that ^ 
any lay proprietor who should build a church on his manor, with a house of residence for the 
clergyman, and endow it with lands and tithes, should be invested with the perpetual right of; 
advowspn. . 

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principal ecclesiastical overseer; and the inferior clergy residing near him» wet0 
despatched, as the occasion might require, to the different parts of his jorisdictiony 
for the purpose of confirming the fiobk, and imparting to thetn, spiritual oon^ 
solation.^ Hence, it is evident, that the more remote parts of the diocese would be 
very imperfectly supplied with religious instruction. But John of Beverley em« 
ployed his whole time in personally visiting his churches ; and Mith the most laud- 
able zeal, seconded by indefatigable attention, he conciliated the affection of his 
pagan opposers, and brought many of them into the fold of Christianity ; and even 
those who retained their former opinions, could not avoid feeling a respect for the 
man who appeared so sincere in his endeavours to promote their welfare. His 
austerity of discipline, when the subject of correction was himself; and his mild- 
ness and engaging deportment to others, soon exalted him in the public opinion, 
and he was reg^ded as a being of a superior order. Miracles, without number, 
were attributed to his holy agency, many of which have been transmitted to us by 
his friend and pupil — ^tiie venerable Bede.*^ 

Bosa, archbishop of York, dying probably before the restoration of Wilfrid, 
John was selected by the synod as the most proper person to supply his place, and 
he was solemnly consecrated by his friend Theodore in 687. This distinguished 
preference speaks loudly of the public estimation to which his virtues had exalted 
him; for he was neither luxurious nor ambitious; he took no part in the con- 
temptible disputes which, at that period, agitated the Christian church;** but on 
the contrary, he was humble in his deportment and manner of life, and unassuming 
in his general conduct These were the qualities, which doubtiess recommended 
him as the best calculated to heal the bleeding wounds of the church, and cement 
the interests of Christianity by the tie of brotherly love and cordial affection. 

Soon after John's advancement to tiie archiepiscopal throne, Wilfrid returned in 
triumph to his diocese, bearing in his hand the pope's credentials for reinstating 
him in the whole of his former honours, and ecclesiastical dignities ; and denoun- 

» Warton. Ang. Sac. p. 427. nafosxia and AioxfunV in these times, were equivalent expressions. 

^ Eccl. Hist 1. 5. c 4, 5, 6. Vid. etiam Malms, de gest. l. 3. f. 153. et infira par. 3. e. 8. par. 4. c. 3. 

»• The Christians of the present day will he astonished to hear, that all Christendom was at this 
time distracted and rent in pieces by disunion on two questions, which were considered of such 
vital importance, that either of the contending parties would have suffered martyrdom, rather than 
renounce their opinion. The first,— on what day the festival of Easter should be celebrated 5 and 
the other,— in what manner the ecclesiastical tonsure should be worn ; or^ in other words, how a 
priest should shave his head ! 

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cing degradation and anathema on all who should dare to oppose them. Impressed 
with a spirit of genuine Christian meekness, John tendered his resignation, which 
Wilfrid was not permitted to accept, and John still continued to occupy his high 
situation as bishop of York and Hexham until the year 705, when he resigned the 
latter to Wilfrid on his reconciliation with the bishops.^ 

The zeal of our good archbishop now expanded itself; and Christianity began to 
assume a more flourishing appearance in the north, under his benign auspices. 
He extended his visitations to every comer of the province ; superintended the 
building and reparation of churches, and the foundation of monasteries i and his 
example stimulated the nobilily to similar exertions. In one of these visitations he 
came to the town of Beverlac,^^ in the wood of Deira, a beautiful and secluded 
spot, fitted for the holy offices of prayer and contemplation, and abounding with 
every useful gift of a kind and bounteous providence. The sublime impressions 

^ The authorities for these events are exceedingly obsonie and irreconcilable. Lingard says, 
that Wilfrid was restored to Hexham, Lindisfame, and York, and adds in a note, that Cnthbert 
of Lindisfame resigned; and if Bosaof York^ and John of Hexham or Beverley did not follow 
his example, they were deposed. Richard of Hexham, Stnbbs, and some later writers, on the 
contrary, sav, that Wilfrid never again oocapied the see of York. Vid. Lingard's Anglo-Saxon 
Charch, p. 177. From the Saxon Chronicle we leam^ that when Wilfrid was driven from his 
bishopriok in 678,. Bosa was consecrated bishop of the Deirians, and Eada of tbe Bemidans; 
and that John remained bishop of Hexham till Wilfrid was restored; when, on the death 
of Bosa in 685, he was translated to York. Burton. Mon. Ebor. p. 20, says, that for twelve 
Tears subsequently to this event, Wilfrid held the see of Leicester, having been obliged to quit 
Northumbria, after its monarch had refosed to acknowledge the authority of the papal bull. 
In 705, he was restored to the see of Hexham and the monastery of Ripon, which he held till his 
death in 709. The statement in the text appears to be the true one. 

^ Bede terms it Inderwuda; but it is evident, that the Anglo-Saxons had already designated it 
by the name of Beoferlie. Vid. Camden's and Lingard's maps of Saxon England. The various 
names of this place are subjoined. 

Uyn yr Avanc — The primitive druidical name. 

£^-«^} Welsh Triads. 

Peruana-— Camden, Drake, Ac 
Sylva Deirorutn7j>,^ t^1o«^ 
ifeirwMe J Bede, Leland. 

Onderwuda — Bede. 
Beverlaga-^Camden, Gough. 
Beverlae — ^Alcuin. 
Beoferlic — Camden, Lingard. 
Beverlike—AihehstBJOL^B Charter. 
Bevreli — Domesday. 

B6V6r%ef Inquis. Post. Mort-^Rot. Pat. and almost all the public records of the 
Beverlac L^ kingdom, whether in the Tower, the Exchequer, or elsewhere.— 
Bevlay j 
Whence Beverly, 

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'Wiiiitdi'i^OQtaiiMiisIy inti^ theniidvcs into the nv^rend prdate*s mind^ as hU 
eye^wandeted in rapture over the various scenery .of this delightful place; the 
kcesistible dievation of his soul fima fte profuse decorations of nature vp to 
nature's God ; the simple devotion of the heart ^ivhich uras inspired by the scenes 
around him, bespoke this situation as .marked out by tiie divine hand for a monas- 
tic retreat. The honest archbishop instantiy imbibed a predilection in favour of 
this sylvan town, which was never effaced; and his comprehensive mind became 
overwhelmed with an ardent desire of re^establishiii^ the ancient Christian churchy 
and of conferring on it some peculiar marks pf distinction. It has been tasserted, 
that even at this early period of his acquaintance with tiie town of Beverlac, he 
cmitemplated it as a place suited to the retiremeiit of his latter days» when the 
oppressive cares and duties of his exalted situaticm .should be too weighty for his 
declining age; that here, in the charming solitude farmed by nature, he might 
have leisiu^ to soothe the ogi u tiopo of a hxisy life;«length» when his race 
was run, calmly resign his soul into tiie hands of him who gave it. . 

To give every possible effect to the plan of improvement thus formed; orders 
were inunediately given for re-edifyii^^ the structure^ which was rapidly acccHu- 
plished under his own immediate inspection, for the science of architecture formed 
an indispensable study for an Anglo-Saxon ecclesiastic. This completed, he 
founded a monastery for black monks, and an oratory to the south of the church 
for religious nuns, which he dedicated to St Martin.^* This afterwards became a 
parish church/' The archbishop added to the establishment seven secular priests 
and other ministers for the service of the altar, and placed the entire establishment 
under the superintendence of his friend and disciple Brithunus, whom he consti- 
tuted the first abbot of Beverley.** This was effected in the year 704.** 

The slyle and character of the buildings are unknown, and all opinions on the 
subject must be merely conjectural. ^ It may suffice to refer to the ruins of the 
conventual church at Ely, a reference of peculiar propriety, in an attempt to inves* 
tigate tile nature of tiie original form of our church, as they must have been nearly 
cotemporary buildings. The church at Ely was built under the direction of Wil- 

«i Leland says, he re&icttt the choir; ColL vol. iU. p. 100. the nndonbted inference then is, that 
the remains of a church existed at the period of his visitation; and Dngdale and Tanner both 
assert, that John converted the charch into a monasteiy. Duff. Mon. vol. ii. p. 126. Tan. Notit. 

« Lei. Coll. vol. iii. p. 34. « Gent Ripon. p. 74. 
^ LeL ColL vol lit. p. 84. ^ Bede. L 5« c 5. Lei. Coll. vol. i. p. 1 18. 

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frid, who had been akeacfy mentioaed as one of &e predecessors of St John, ^sad 
at a very short interval from him* It was, as aj^ears £rom its remains, an oblong 
building of two stories, with aisles on each ittde, but without tower or transept; 
divided by a cross wall into two parts, which communicated with each other by a 
low arched opening. The pillars which suj^rted it are alternately circular and 
octagonal; the arches circular, and highly ornamented with the characteristic de- 
corations of the Saxon slyle. The dimensions, c<Mnpared with subsequent buildings, 
of a similar nature, are inconsiderable. The whole length of the nave being only 
158 feet 3 inches; of the choir, 53 feet 3 inches; the width of thenav^ 41 feet; 
its height 33 feet ; height of pillars in the nave, 10 feet ; in the chancel, 8 feet 4 
inches. That the character and dimensions of the building originally raised by St 
John, were similar to what has been above described, we have no evidence to prove, 
at the same time it is a very natural and rational conduskm that they were, at 
least that they could not be very essentially different*'^^ The windows were un- 
doubtedly glazed, in imitation of a specimen rec^itly introduced into the cathedral 
at York, by Wilfrid.^' 

The establishment being completed, the archbishop's next object was to endow 
it with revenues competent for its maintenance and sujqfXNl:. This was soon ac- 
complished; and the manor of Ridinge, with the adjoining wood, were the first 
ofierings deposited on the altar of St John^ On this manor the archbishop built 
the church of St Nicholas/^ Circumstances socm added to the wealth of a foun- 
dation edified and protected by the chief dignitary of the province. The wife of 
earl Puch was attacked with a dangerous malady, and the daughter devoted herself 
for the mother's recovery. In an age when miracles obtained a general belief, it 
will be supposed that the supernatural aid of the archbishop would be called in, 
celebrated as he was for the performance of miraculous cures. He had just been 
engaged in the consecration of South-Burton church, where the earl resided, and 
prayers and holy water were alike administered to the alfflicted patient His 
prayers were heard, the mother recovered; and the daughter, of course, became a 
nun in the new establishment at Beverley, and the manor of Walkington was 
assigned to it by the grateful thane, as a peace offering to heaven.** St John 
himself purchased lands at Middleton, Welwick, Bilton, and Patrington, and 

^^ Coltman'g Short Hist of Beverley Minster, p. 27. 

*^ Ling. Ang. SaX. Ch. p. 141. *^ LeL CoU. vol. iii. p. 100. 

<» Bede. 1. S. o. 4. Lei. Coll. vol. iU. p. 101 . 


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gave them to the same church. Hit influencie with the Saxon nobility appears to 
have been miceasingly exerted in behalf of this his fayoarite institution. Tho 
manor and advowson of North-Burton were presented to it by earl Addi ; and the 
chapels of Leckonfield and Scorburgh were soon erected by the pious exertions of 
the same nobleman, which^ in process of tinie, became parish churches.^ 

The most transient view of this establishment will show its advantages to the 
cause of Christianity at this precise period of time* The newly converted Saxons 
were many of them ignorant of its nature and design, and, wedded in their hearts 
to ancient errors, did but feebly support the character they had assumed, and 
remained in a state of neutral apathy, which was generally unfavourable to the 
new faith. The villages being unfurnished with resident priests, would have tibeir 
religious services irregularly performed, notwithstanding the unceasing efforts of 
the bishops and clergy ; and the inhabitants would become indifferent to the belief 
of Christian doctrines, and the performance of Christian duties. This evil was 
most sensibly felt, and a partial remedy was applied by the erection of monasteries, 
in imitation of the episcopal institutions attached to a cathedra] church.^' In the 
immediate vicinity of these edifices, religion would be vigourously dispensed ; the 
people would enjoy every benefit derivable from ecclesiastical activity and zeal, and 
Christianity, in such situations, would take deep root, and flourish with so much 
strength and vigour as to defy all the efforts of its adversaries. Such advantages 
were too obvious to escape the penetrating eye of the zealous ecclesiastic ; and the 

M Lei. Coll. vol. iii. p. 101. Gent Ripon. p. 74. At this time it was oustomaiy for the holy 
sacrament of the Eucharist to be administered to the whole congregation once in every weel^ 
which produced much inconvenience in such places as were attended by the numerous congregBf- 
tions which would assemble from a populous district, furnished with only one church. These 
religious edifices had yet been erected only in places of consequence; but now, as christtanity 
began to prevail generally throughout the island, when a parish became too thickly inhabited for 
the magnitude of the church, accommodation was afibrded to the worshippers by the erection of 
oratories, or chapels of ease, in which the rites of divine worship were duly administered, without 
intruding on the privileges of the mother church. It was soon found, however, that some degree 
of confusion ensued by the introduction of this measure, to remedy which, it was at length pro- 
vided that large and populous parishes should be subdivided, and each part placed under the 
exclusive direction of its own responsible minister. 

'I In almost every episcopal see, contiguous to the^athedral was erected a spacious building, 
which was distinguished by the name of the episcopal monastery, and was derigned for the resi- 
dence of the bishop and his clergy. The original destination of the latter was the celebration of 
the divine services, and the education of youth ; and that they might with less unpediment attend 
to those important duties, they were obliged to observe a particular distribution of their time, to 
eat at the same table, to sleep in the same dormitories, and to live constantiy under the eve of the 
bishop, or in his absence, of the superior whom he had i4>pointed. liing. Ang. Sax. Cb. p. 48. 
Speed. Bede. 1. 1 . a 27. WiUc. pp. 147, 293. 

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idea wbs suggested of fennmg similar establishments, which might produce the 
same advantages to the community, without being subjected to the immediate 
inspection of the bishop. This was, doubtless, the origin of collegiate churches. 
Tfa^ benefits derivable from their institution were unquestionable; and in the 
particular instance of the establishment at Beverley, the triumph of Christianity, 
for many miles round, was marked by the erection of many new churches and 
chapels within a very short period from its foundation. Here, the community were 
provided, not only with permanent ministers of religi<m, and consequent regularity 
in the performance of the duties of public worship; but also with a seminary of 
able instructors, to educate the rising generation in the pure principles of the 
Christian faith, and to implant systematic habits of devotion, addressed to the true 
and only God. 

In these times, the monarchs, to give effect to their religious donations, frequently 
granted high privil^es to the monastic foundations. The superior was usually 
invested with a temporal jurisdiction, which enabled him to receive tolls on the 
sale of merchandize, to try criminals, and to administer justice within the limits of 
his own territories. This power, in the liands of the ecclesiastics, was generally 
reputed to be exercised with such undisting^uishing partiality, that the merchants 
and tradesmen chose for their residence the precincts of this mild jurisdiction, 
where they found themselves protected from the tyranny and rapacity of the great 
landed proprietors, from whom strict justice was not to be expected, as they 
frequently sat in judgment upon those Mvho were accused by their ovm retainers. 
This may account for the rapid increase of the town of Beverley from this period ; 
for the establishment of religious houses, in addition to other public advantages, 
certainly produced to the country the benefit of well cultivated lands, and a 
civilized population. To the monks was principally owing the general improve- 
ment which now began to display itself in every part of the country. The forests 
were cleared, and vegetation was seen to smile upon the barren heath. The land 
usEOally appropriated to the monasteries, were uncultivated tracts of wood, moor or 
morass; but they soon became productive by the persevaing industry of the monks, 
who were the first to set an example of practical diligence and patient toil.^ 

St John prottded, with unprecedented success, over the see of York thirty-three 
years three months and thirteen days; and at length, borne down by age and 
infirmify, and disgusted with the divisions which prevailed amongst professing 

*Tani. Angl. 8ax« vol. hr. p. 206. 


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€hristiait8y he resigned Iiis paUic dutieB to Wflfrid II. ill 717 ; and, according to 
the prevailing custom of those tames, he retired to the monastery of Beverley; and 
afier a few years spent in a«ts of pi^ and devotion, he died on the 7th of May, 
721, ML of days, and with his memory overshadowed by the benedictiims of mas^ 
kind. His remains were interred in the portico of the church of his own fiMinda- 
tion f^ and miracles were said to be wrought at his tomb. 

Though deposited in the earth, the influence of this extraordinary man was not 
diminished. His memory was revered through successive generaticms; and even 
operated with renewed efficacy, when ages upon ages had rolled over his grave. 
To this influence the town of Beverley is gready indebted for many of its chartered 
privileges; and to the same cause its ultimate prosperity may be safely ascribed* 
In the days of monkish superstition, mankind, from the prince to the peasant, 
were affected with a weakness, which, while it tended to secure their devotion to 
the ecclesiastical hierarchy, was a fertile and never*fiuling source of emolument 
Hence, an implicit veneration for the memory of saints who have departed this life 
in all the odour of sanctity, was assiduously inculcated ; and an invocation of their 
aid was considered supremely efficacious,^ not only for procuring ultimate salvation, 
but for insuring present success, or averting present calamity ; and it will soon be 
seen how much the town of Beverley is indebted for its welfare to the influence of 
this superstitious feeling. 

^* Lei. CoU. voL iii. p. 34. The portino wba the nihial place of interment for distingnished 
personages at this period, for there existed a law to prevent the dead firom being deposited in the 
charcfau This howoFor, was soon afterwards permitted; for innovation, onoe indulged, never stops 
short till it has attained the utmost limit of its desires. The primitive mode of sepulture used by 
heathen nations, was to convey their dead to a convenient distance from their place of residence, 
and inter them hi the fields. A law of thd Twelve Tables ordained, — ^In urbo ne sepelito, neve 
urito, that the bodies should neither be buried nor burnt in cities. Cic. de leg. 1. 2. The first 
Christians followed their example in this respect, and St Peter was buried beyond the river Tiber, 
Hieron. de Script c. 1. and St Paul at the distance of three miles from the city* Ibid. c. 5. A 
si/bsequent regulation was made by the emperor Theodosins, prohibiting the practice of buiying 
iii towns. Cod. Theod. 1. 9. tit 17. de SepuL violat leg. 6. But the places where martps and other 
distinguished Christians were interred, soon becoming consecrated in the opinion of the people; 
altars, and afterwards churches, were erected on the spot; and monarchs, who had rendered es- 
sential services to Christianity, were allowed to be interred in the church porch, Euseb. vit Const 
1. 4. a 71. Chrys. Horn. 26. a privilege which was soon extended to bishops and other eminent 
ecclesiastics; and even to laymen who had borne a gdbd testimonv to the Christian faith, either 
by their sufferings or their liberality. Council of Nantes, can. 6* This law was violated in behalf 
of archbishop Theodore, whose body was buried in the ehurekf Bede. L 2. c. 3; and the custon^ 
once allowed, soon became prevalent throughout the whole kingdom. 

^' The instances of this are numerous, even in private cases; I select one as a specimen. John 
Carre, Lord Mayor of Yoii(, by his will, which was proved 20th April, 1488, commended his soul 
to God Almighty his Saviour, to St Mary, tQ 8U John of Beverley, to Mary Magdalene, and to All 
Saints. Torre^s Ant York. p. S5. 

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g^ mnmii an^ ^X0n0^ 

The D(me9 — Comparative view of ihe JRonunh Saxofh ^^^ Danmh chamder^^^ 
Danes in the province of Deira — their ravageB—MowMery of S^ John of 
Beverley destroyed — Partiaay restored — Athelstan — Gives a charter to ffte 
town of Beverley— Privilege of sanctuary to the dmn^ — This privSege 
HtHstrated—Fridstol— Origin of the privU^ if sanctuary — A^lstan pledges 
kis knife at the altar of St. John — Victory over the Scois^Grants to tAs 
Ckarch — aind Town — Archbishops of York reside at Beverly — Riches of 
St. JohCs tomb — Three new offices constituted in the church^Hospital of 
St. Giles huiU at Beverley — St» John canonized, and his hemes enshrmed^ 
Fairs established — Ancient laws respecting fairs-^Tower hmU to the nmster, 
and bells introduced — History of BeUs — Minster decorated by Aldred — Cha* 
racier of the fabric before the Norman Conquest. 

The Saxon octarchy had no sooner fonnd an union under Egbert, than a horde 
of northern invaders appeared on the coasts of Britain in hostile array. The de^ 
generacy of the British Saxons was now at its lowest ebb, and the country was 
soon exposed to all the horrors of indiscriminate slaughter. We have arrived at a 
period of calamity, which cannot be contemplated, even at this distance of timci 
but with sentiments of regret and horror. The land was deluged with blood, and 
no corresponding benefits were produced to the community. 

There are points in the Roman and Saxon character, which the historian may, 
and must approve ; but to counterbalance the evils introduced into this country by 
the Danes, we do not find a single redeeming virtue. Expunge the name of one 
king from their records, and their political existence in England exhibits nothing 
but a deformed mass of perfidy and slaughter, profligacy and crime. The Romans 
and Saxons commenced their encroachments by the infliction of severity, and their 
progress was marked by streams of blood; but the arts of civil and social life. 

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which were subsequently introduced by eadi of these infadars in their tum^ amply 
compensated to the country for the injuries it had previously sustained* If they 
destroyed public edifices^ they erected others of greater magnificence; if they over- 
turned existing institutions^ diey founded others more congenial, and of a tendency 
more beneficial. The Romans are worthy of praise for the introduction of arts 
and civilization; the Anglo-Saxons must be applauded, notwithstanding the un- 
propitious impressions excited by their first appearance, for their superior genius, 
wisdom, and piety, which laid the foundation of all our liberties, civil, religious, 
and political. But the conduct of the Banes merits severest reprdiension. Their 
courage was cruelty; their ambition, avarice; their a^;Tessions proceeded from 
rapacity, and their conquests, were but another name for ruin and devastation*' 

The first appearance of this band of freebooters on our shores, was about the 
year 787 f but they did not succeed in forming a permanent establishment until 
867, when the party divisions of the inhabitants during the inauspicious reign of 
Ethelred, enabled the invaders to penetrate with complete success into the northern 
districts of England, and secure to themselves the sceptre of Northumbria. During 
their unnatural progress, ^language cannot describe their devastations. . It can 
only repeat the terms plunder, murder, rape, famine, and distress. It can only 
enumerate towns, villages, churches and monasteries, harvests and libraries, ran* 
sacked and burnt. But by the incessant repetition, the horrors are diminished; 
and we read, vrithout emotion, the narration of deeds which rent the hearts of 
thousands with anguish, and inflicted wounds on human happiness and human 
improvement, which ages with difficulty healed."'* In the indiscriminate and uni- 
versal dstruction which was thus inflicted on the province of Northumbria, by 
Hubba and Hinguar, the two avenging sons of Ragnar Lodbrog, the establishment 
of St John of Beverley, embosomed in the wood of Deira, difiusing its blessings 
in secret and unostentatious prodigality, like the sylvan violet, which sheds its 
bsgrance amidst silence and seclusion, was again included, its walls and battlements 
were levelled with the ground, its books and records destroyed, its inmates wounded 
and dispersed,^ and the establishment for the present totally annihilated.' Amidst 
the conflicts that ensued between the Danes and the English for political supremacy, 
it lay neglected and in ruins until the year 870, when the marauders having aban* 

1 H. Hant p. 847. M. West p. 388. >* Hovedon. p. 410. M. West p. 282. 

* Torn. Ang. Sax. voL ii. p. 130. 

« Angl. Saor. vol. I p. 602. < Let Colt vol. iii. p. lOL 

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doned the provinoe of Deira, which Ihey had utterly impoverished^ to commit 
new ravages in the southf the dispersed monks^ clergy, and nnns,* v^ituring to 
re-assemble in their accustomed habitations, restored the buildings to a state fitted 
for the performance of divine worship, and the residence of the monks and nuns 
on the foundation/ In this state of insecurity and comparative uselessness it re- 
mained' till the time of Athelstan, the grandson of Alfred the Great 

This famous monarch, though a natural son,^ succeeded Edward his father, to 
the exclusion of his more legitimate brother, because of his mature age and shining 
abilities. He received the honour of knighthood from the hand of his grand&ther, 
while yet an infant,* and discovered in his youthful days, unquestionable tokens of 
bright intellect and a vigourous mind; qualities which afterwards. displayed them* 
selves with such unsullied splendour in a wise and judicious administration of 
public affairs.'^ 

Athelstan is styled by Alured of Beverley, ^ primus monarcha Anglorum/' And 
he is right Egbert laid claim to this honourable title, but without just grounds; 
for he did not incorporate with his own kingdom, those of Northumbria and East- 
Anglia; and it is even doubtful whether he successfully asserted an absolute 
supremacy over Mercia. And Alfred, highly as his virtues and his talents exalted 
him in the estimation of mankind, was not the monarch of all England, although 
in his fluctuating reign, the glory of the Anglo-Saxon dynasty began to shine with 
unveiled effulgence; because he only silenced, and did not destroy the Danish 
power in England It was reserved for Athelstan, the benefactor of the town of 

^ The monks of Beverley were of the order of St. Colamba, and followers of the celebrated 
Aidan. They are described W Bede, 1. 3. c. 17, as of the most pious, patient, and charitable 
diaracter; as men possessed of aU the practical virtue recommended by their religion. 

^ Tan. Notit York XII. Fabyan, p. 129. says, that the monasteiy was not restored till many yean 
afterwards; and then « by y* helpe of Seynte Dunstan in y* tymes of Edmond and Edgare, it was 
agayne sufficiently repayiyd, and so cotynued tyll y* coming of y* Normans.^^ But I flbad no other 
authority to countenance this opinion, and have therefore rejected it 

* Yid. Ling. Ang. Sax. Ch. p. 386. Sim. Dunelm. Dec. Script Col. 206. 
* The author of the life of Athelstan in the Biographia Britannica, vol. i. p. 60, says, that 
thouffh his mother was only the daughter of a shepherd, she was the wife and not the oonoubino 
of Edward. 

» Malmsb. de Reg. p. 49. Spelm. Life of Aid by Heame, p. 201. 

>o The title of this monarch is said to have been attested by the decision of heaven. One of his 
nobles, accused of having disputed his right to the crown, offered to prove his innocence by a 
sdenm oath in the presence of the pope; a test, which, in those times, was deemed i^ such 
supreme efficacy, that falsehood was always punished by a judicial dispensation fiom above. 
Atfielstan accepted the appeal. The oath was administered, and the perjured thane was seised 
with sudden convulsions which put an end to his life. Maknsb. 1. 2. c. 6. Hume. Engl. voL 1. 
p. 103. 

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Berorley, to unite tbewhol^e kingdom tmder one head by the annihiktion of the 
Oeniflh sova^igntjTf and thus become. £eurly entitled to the distinction of primus, 
^(marcha Anglonnn." 

In the first year of his reign, he gave a chartw of liberties to the chnrch and 
town of Beverley;" whidi placed it at the head of the East-riding of Yorkshire;'^ 
conferred upon the town the privilege of exemption from all unposts and tolls of 
stallage/^ lastag^^^ tonage,'* wharfage,'^ keyage,'* passage/* and all similar exac- 
tionsy payments, and duties, by land or by water, throughout the realm of England ; 
that they might take distresses for their debts, defend themselves from all appeals, 
&c.; and that no man should disturb them under pains and penalties; in a word^ 
he redeemed the inhabitants from a state of vassalage, and placed them in the 
situation of free tenants. He fruiher endowed the church with sac and soc;^ and 
thoP' and theim,^ and granted a perpetual college of secular canons, consisting of 
seven priests to celebrate masses, and perform the rites of divine service in the church, 
and endowed it with four thraves of com for every plough in the East-riding ;^ 
with other privileges and immunities, which will be found in the charter itself.^ 

>' According to White of Basingstoke, Athelstan claimed a sovereignty extending from the 
Oroades to the Pyrenean mountains. Speed. Brit p. I^.. Dagdale produces a chaiter of £dgar» 
which describes Athelstan as primus regum anglorum omnes nationes qui Britanniam incolunt 
sibi armis subegit. Monast, voL i. p. 140. And again, on p. 154, the Chronicle of Tewkesbury 
styles him Adektani regis qui primus monarcha fuit 

12 Vid. the Charter. Lansd. MSS. B. Mus. 269. xii. fo. 213. 

>' Riding; from the Saxon trithingf because the counfy had three divisions. 

1^ Money paid for erecting a stall in a fair or market. 

^ A duty on goods sold by the laet^ as com, wool, herringSi &c.. 

>* A duty on goods sold by the tan. 

1' Money paid for shipping or landing goods at a wharf. 

>' A toll paid for loading or unloading goods at a key or wharf. 

'® A duty paid for passing over or through a river. 

^ Sac and soo, means the jurisdiction of holding pleas, and imposing fines, and the right 
which a lord possesses of exercising justice on his vassals, and compelling them to be suitors at 
his court Kilham. Domes. lUnstr. p. 320. Bawd. Dom. Boc. Gloss, p. 18. 

'' A liberty to take, as well as to be free fit>m toll. 

^ The prerogative of having, restraining, and judging bondmen, naifs, and villanes, with their 
children, goods and chattels in his court Cowel. in Kelh. Domes. Illustr. p. 349. 

^ A thrave was sometimes twelvef and at others twenty-four sheaves ; and land for one plough 
was about 160 acres; therefore, though the privilege might be productive over such an extensive 
tract of country, it would not &11 very heavy on the land. 

^* Vid. App. A. Reasonable doubts have been entertained respecting the genuineness of thik 
charter. It might probably be proved, from internal evidence, that it was not written until tiipes 
long posterior to the age in which Athelstan flourished. 

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• The nglit of sanctuaiy was no#. fo 

pious mnnificeace of AthaUtan,: and a Frid^, or cbair of peacei ma pkuifid in a 
consjpicuouB »itaation near the altar, as an emUem of pcotectum to the refiigee/' 
The limits of the sanctaary, called Leuga/' were comprehended within llie durcnm-s 
ference of a circle, of which the church was the centre, andwhose radius was aboaot 
a mile.^ It was defined by hnr crossesf, one of which stall remains in a dilapidated 
state. These crosses were placed on die four principal roads leading to the town* 
One was called Molescroft cross, and stood near Leckonfield Park ; another towards 
North-Burton ; a third towards Kinwalgrares ; and the last to the south of Bev^ey, 
on the road which led to Ihe ferry across the Humber.^^ ^ If a malefactor flying 
for refuge was taken or apprehended within the crosses, the party that took or had 
hold of him there, did forfeit two hundreth ; if he took him within the town, then 
he forfeitedyour hmdreth ; if within the walls of the diurchyard, then six kandrelh i 
if within the church, then twehe handrelh; if within the doors of the quire, then 
eighteen, hundreth^ besides penance, as in case of sacrilege ; but if he presumed to 
take him out of the stone chair near the altar, called Fridstol, or from among the 
holy relics behind the altar, the offence was not redeemable with any sum, but was 
theii become sine emendatume, botdeSf and nothing but the utmost severity of the 
offended church was to be expected, by a dreadful excommunication, besides what 
the secular power would impose for i^e presumptuous misdemeanor."^ 

The following inscription, which has been preserved by Camden,'® is said to 
have been engraven on the original Fridstol. Haec sedes lapidea Freedstool 
dicitur; i. e. Pacis Cathedra, adquem reus fugiendo perveniens omnimodam habet 
securitatem. This chair of peace was a full refuge and safety from the immediate 
infliction of punishment for any crime whatsoever.'' In general it afforded pro- 

w Dugd. Mona«t vol. ii. p. 128. ^ Kel. Domesday. Illustr, p. 250. 

^ The king's peace extended 3 niila» 3 farlongi 3 nceia brode^ 9 fote, 9 scefta mnnda» 9 bere 
oorna. Wilk. Leg. Ang. Sax. p. 63. 

M Lei Coll. vol. ill. p. 103. 
» Pegge. in Archsol. vol. viii. p. 44. « Mr. Stavely observes, and has it from his anthor, 
citingr Richard Prior, of Hagnlstad, that the hundreth contained eight pounds; so that the last 
penalty was most immense, nearly as much as the weregild for killing a crowned head in Wales ; 
and indeed, every act of violence committed against the right of sanctuary, was esteemed a breach 
of the churches peace, a high crime, and a species of sacrUege.^^ Ibid. 

^ Gibson, col. 738. 
'1 A statute of Edward II. provided that '' so long as the criminals be in the church, they 
shall be supplied with the necessaries of life, and exire libe pro obceno pondere deponendo. 
9Edw.II. 1315— 16. Stat L Art Cler. 0. 10. 

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taction wIkQ^ the natore and drcumstancea of ^ arime were isreriagSB^ 
the church always placed in the most finroorable point of view, and while its 
protection was continaed, the culprit remained in perfect safety within the limits of 
the sanctuary. And this course continued until the ofiending party was reconciled* 
In all case&f^ the life of the criminal was safe at Beveriey, be his crime whatever it 
nught** The fugitive having taken the oath of fealty to the abbot;'* and being 
placed in the chsdr of peace, might compel his adversary to accept of a pecuniary 
compensation* And this privilege was an additional cause of the high d^^ree of 
respect paid in these times to the ministers of religion j for it is thought by somci*^ 
that persons obtaining sanctuary, who had been guilty of capital crimes, received 
their pardon on the condition of becoming slaves to the abbots or lord of the place 
where the privilege was claimed.^ 

The peace of the kingdom being continually disturbed by the Danes who had 
settled in Northumbrian Athelstan brought his powers upon th^n, and they were 
soon dispersed. But one of their chiefs having taken refuge in Scotland, a formal 
application was made to the king of that country to surrender the rebel to justice. 
The refusal of Constantine brought on him the heavy vengeance of the English 
monarch. He marched into the north with a numerous army of veteran soldiers, 
determined to inflict a signal punishment on the man who had thus dared to set 
his power at defiance. But amidst all his warlike preparations, Athelstan was 

» Vid. SpeL Gloss, v. Fridstole. ^ Append. B. 

M Vid. Maseres. Ant. EngL Pari, in Archttol. vol. i. p. 313. 

^ The introdnction of this extensiFe privilege into the Christian church took place about the 
time of Constantine ; although no laws respecting its regulation exists which are more ancient 
than the time of Theodosius. Bingh. Orig. Eccl. vol. iii. p. 291. It had its origin in the laws of 
Mosesy whO| at the divine command^ appointed six cities of refuge, as a protection to the 
Involuntary homicide, against the summary vengeance of his incensed pursuers. Numb. c. 35. 
It was used also in the times of pagan superstition. In the druidioal grove some particular tree 
wad a sanctuary; Evelyn. Sylva. p. 614. and according to the authority of Jefiery of Monmouth,^ 
ii. c. 17. the circular temples were all sanctuaries, and also the principal roads leading to them 
within a jprescribed distance. Vid. Archeeol. vol. viii. p. 16, 17. The altars of idolatry were deco* 
rated with horns, which were always reputed a sanctuary for crime; so that even murderers fleeing 
for safety to the horns of the altar, esteemed themselves perfectly secure from the danger of ap. 
prehension; for such was the sacred veneration in which the homed altar was held, that to violate 
this sanctuary was accounted most impious, and the highest degree of sacrilege that a human being^ 
could commit. The protection thus afforded, became at leng£ so notoriously prostituted from its 
original purpose of sheltering offenders until Uieir crimes were legally investigated, that the temples 
of the gods were polluted with the residence of the vilest malefactors, who reitmined there with 
impunity, and set at defiance the operation of the laws. Tiberius Cesar abolished the protectioa 
afforded by these sanctuaries, and confined it to the two temples of Juno and Esonlapius* 

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fiifly impressed with the certainty, that human strength and hmnan policy lupe 
imavailing if not accompanied with the blessing of heaven. In accordance, there* 
fore, with the customs which at that period universaHy prevailed, he endeavoured 
to propitiate the divine mercy by prayer and religious observances. Directing his 
army to proceed without delay to York,* he went himself to Beverley, and wilb 
humble prostration before the altar of St John, prayed with unassnmed eamestnesi 
for his favour and protection. But prayers were thought to be of no efficacy unless 
accompanied by donations commensurate with the quality of the petitioner^ 
Athelstan, however, was in too much haste to be provided with the means of doing 
ample justice to the saint, and was therefore obliged to have recourse to a v^ 
whimsical expedient He left his knife on the altar as a pledge, vowing that if he 
returned victorious, he would redeem it with a noble price.*" Then taking with 
him a consecrated standard, which had been deposited in the church,*^ he marched 
in full confidence against the Scots; gave them battle, and totally routed Ihem 
with gfreat slaughter. And from a principle of respect and gratitude to the patron 
saint of Beverley, to whose influence the victory was attributed, he named a village 
near which the battle was fought, St John's Town.^ Hovedon says,** that he 
compelled Constantine to do homage for his kingdom; and other historians assert 
with much less regard to probabilily, that wishing to leave some permanent mark 
or token in that country of its subjection to his sword, he prayed to God, and St 
J(^ of Beverley, for assistance, and smiting a great stone or rock, near the castle 
of Dunbar, with his sword, he made an incision both wide and deep,^ which, says 
Fabyan, ^ in the tyme of Edwarde the thirde was there remaynynge to be sayde 

After this signal success, Athelstan returned to Beverley in triumph, and 
deposited the meritorious banner in its former situation. And to redeem his 
pledge, he founded a college of secular canons, and endowed it with lands in 
Brandesburton and Lockington; gave to the church his right to Horstafia, or a 
commutation for the pasturage and forage of horses, which was paid annuaUy 

^Crensey, in his Church Histoiy^ p. 832, says that AthelBtan entered Beverley with his anuy. 

But this is donbtlesB an error, as all other authorities are nnanimoos in their opinion that the kinr 

elfteredthetown privately, toofferhisvowsatthealtarofSt. John. Vid. Rym. F»d. torn. ii. p. 566« 

** Dagd. Monast vol. ii. p. 127. Rym. Faed. torn. ii. p. 666. Fabyan. Chron. p. 183. 

^ Lei. CoU. vol. iii« p. 101. » LeL CoU. vol. ill. p. 101. *» Hoved. p. 422. 

«IjeLC!olLvoKii»p.8|4« Rym. Fsd. torn. ii. p. 884. Ethelr. de Oeneal. Reg. AngL p. S57« 

• 41 Fabyan. Chron. p. 188. 

I 2 

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liwougliout tbe whole Eia^riding^'V JNTor idid bis libenifity eod here. To the 
tawjL he coiiveyed stbstantial tokens of his favour; not only by confirming his 
Ibrmer grants, but by adding new privileges, from which the inhabitanta qoon 
veaped the most extensive benefits. Thus by an act of royal munificence the town 
progressively assumed the appearance of mercantile rank. Opulent merchants 
were induced to make Beverley their place of residence, because here they enjoyed 
superior advantages; and from this auspicious period we may date die rising 
prosperity of the town. 

The archbishops of York, in honour of the memory of St John, often resided in 
Beverley, for the convenience of paying their devotions at his tomb ; and Athelstan, 
to encourage the observance of these religious duties, assigned the manor of 
Beverley to the see of York; which was henceforward held by the archbishop in 
right of his office, until deprived of it at the general dissolution of the monasteries 
by king Henry VIII." 

. The merit of the saint being now indisputably established, people flocked to his 
tomb for assistance on the most trivial occasions, and always departed fully sensible 
of his gracious interposition in their behalf. And, as all applications were neces- 
sarily accompanied with presents, the saint's tomb soon became enriched by the 
pious offerings which were so liberally showered upon it The accumulation of 
wealth usually produces a desire for increasing magnificence; and this productive 
mausoleum was now deemed vrorthy of being gorgeously enshrined. In 1023% 
therefore, Alfricus Puttoc, the twenty-second archbishop of York, erected a costly 
shrine over his holy predecessor's grave, and decorated it so highly with the superb 
offerings of those holy devotees, who had been attracted by the fame of his mira- 
culous performances, that it actually glittered with gold and precious stones.^^ 

The archbishops of York, who claimed the immediate patronage of the collegiate 
diurch,^ appear to have uniformly bestowed upon it all the attention which fond 
and affectionate parents devote to a beloved child. Archbishop Puttoc constituted 
three new officers in the church, a chancellor, a precentor, and a sacrist, who were 
allowed to wear the canonical habit; and converted the hall and dormitory in the 
place anciently called the Beddem, into a house of residence for the provost He 

«> Dugd. Monast vol. ii. p. 128. LeL CoL vol. iii. p. 101. 
4' Willis on Cathedral Chnrches. Drake. Ebor. p. 544. 
'« Lei. in vit. St John. ^ Tan. Notit York. XII. 

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ei^owed the newly appointed offic^ with estaied at Middleton^ Holm^ and Frida;^- 
thorpe^ which he purchased for that express purpose of a wealthy man named 
Fortius i^* and commenced building a refectory and dormitory, which however he 
^d not live to see completed.^' While thus engaged in conferring benefits on tbe 
dhturch, he did not wholly neglect the interests of the town, for about this time, ^a 
hospital, dedicated to St Giles, was founded at Beverley, by one Wulfe, belonging 
to die archbishop of York," for the maintenance of poor and indigent people/^ 

It is with sentiments of amazement, not unmixed with regret, that we, in this 
refined age, contemplate the absurd devotion which our remote forefathers ad- 
dressed to the memory of holy men. Although at this distance of time, to arraign 
the motives which produced such an excess of superstition may be esteemed invidious, 
yet, amidst all the imaffected though mistaken piety undoubtedly possessed by some, 
it is impossible to divest ourselves of the idea, that, in others, there was much of 
artifice and delusion mixed up with the professed veneration for deceased mortals, 
how high soever their character might have stood for superior virtue while living in 
the world. To the memory of St John of Beverley these useless honours were 
abundantly multiplied* As if the distinctions already assigned to this eminent 
man came entirely short of his transcendent merits, an expedient was now adopted 
by which his name might be brought once more before the world, and its pretended 
influence be magnified to the utmost extent On the 8th day of Noveniber, 1037, 
the remains of St John were formally disinterred, under the authority of a papal 
bull of John XX. in the presence of the archbishop and the chapters of York and 
Beverley; his bones were translated, and placed, together with his archiepiscopal 
ring,^ and the fi-agments of a book of the Four Gospels which were found in his 
tomb, within the splendid shrine which had already been erected to his honour ;^^ 

« LeL CoU. vol. L p. 118. <» LeL Coll. vol. ill. p. 102. « Lei. Itin. vol. i. p. 40. 

* ArohflDol. vol. iv. p. 60. 
^ Dugd. Hist St PaaPs, p. 2. p. 5S. Lei. Coll. vol. iii. p. 102. The ceremonv oftrandation 
was thns perfonned : — ^A certain indefinite number '< of years after the death of the man, the 
object of their veneration, when it might be presumed that the less solid parts of the body had 
been reduced to dust, the monks or clergy assembled to perform the ceremony of his elevation. 
A tent was pitched over the grave. Aronnd it stood the great body of the attendants, chanting 
the psalms of David : wiihinf the superior, accompanied by the more aged of the brotherhood,, 
opened the earth, collected the bones, wadied them, wrapped them carefully in silk or linei^ and 
deposited them in the mortuary chest With sentiments of respect, and hymns of exultation, they 
were then carried to the place destined to receive them $ which was elevated above the pavement, 
and decorated with appropriate ornaments. Of the shrinecf, the most ancient that has been 

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and he was publickly canonized at Home, by die same pope^ with nrach pomp and 
ceremony, in St. Peter's churdL'^ And to add further to the posthmnous honour 
of his favourite saint, the archbishop made Bn ordinance, that the most respectable 
inhabitants of Beverley and the neighbourhood should follow the relics of St JohUf 
barefooted and &sting, in solemn procession throughout the town, and round 
the extremest limits of the sanctuary, three times a year/' 

This good archbishop appears to have had a strong partiality tor the town of 
Bevarley. Not content with the extensive benefits already conferred upon the 
church, he gave his attention, during the latter part of his life, to the wants and 
wishes of the inhabitants, respecting the general prosperity of their trade and com* 
merce. They were not backward in suggesting the means of improvement, and 
by his influence with king Edward the Confessor, he procured for them the privilege 
of holding three annual fidrs,'* which, in these times, was of the utmost importance 
to the prosperity of the town ; for no trade of any consequence could be carried on 
without a chartered fair, except in the burghs ; because the Saxon laws forbad the 
transaction of any business above the amount of four-pence, but within the limits 
of these privileged places ; and there only in the presence and under the sanction 
of the chief magistrate, or some other responsible person.^ The institution of fairs 
tended to increase the means of inland communication, and conveyed the advantages 
of mutual traffic to places which had been previously interdicted by Anglo-Saxon 
policy. Thus, by royal munificence, the town of Beverley was invested with rights 
and privileges, which secured to it the blessings of a free and unrestricted trade ; 
protected and encouraged by the immunities with which it was already endowed 
by the charter of Aihelstan.^ 

dflsoribed to us, contained the renurfns of St. Chad, the apostte t>f Merda; it was built of wood, inr 
fonn resembling a house, and was covered with tapestry. Bat this was in an age of simplicity 
and monastic poverty ; in a later period, a greater display of magnificence bespoke the grater 
opulence of the church, and the shrines o? the saints were the first objects which invited the 
rapadty of the Danish invaders.'^ Ling. Angl. 8ax. Ch. p. 264. 

<o MS. Benet Coll. Camb. «> Lei. Coll. vol. iii. p. 102. 

^ Ibid. These were probably the primitive marts; for I find it asserted in *^ The Curiositfea 
of Oreat-Britain/^ vol. iii. p. 332| that there were only five ancient fairs in this country dis- 
tinguished bv the name of mart; those of Beverley, Hedon, Boston, Lynn, and Gainsborough. 
** The word Marte seems to have no less bounds than cwitas, which signifieth a whole Common- 
wealth.'* Oldworth. Cur. Disc. voL i. p. 99. 

M Wilk. Leg. Sax. p. 2S6. 
^ Sir Isaao Newton gives the following ingenious account of fairs, Ac. which I think worth 
transcribing. «< Before the Phoenicians Introduced the deifying of dead men^ which was about the 

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An important eent in the early history of the minster churchy now presents itself 
to our consideration. The primitiye churches of the Saxcms were nsually oblong 
buildings, without the elevation of any one part to a greater altitude than the rest 
The use of towers had indeed, in some particular instances, been adopted by that 
people, yeiy soon after their conversion to Christianity ; but it appears clear that the 
church of St John, at Beverley, was not yet distinguished by that stately ornament } 
and consequently had no bdls; the want of which, in a town of this magnitude^ 
would be sensibly felt by the inhabitants. Archbishop Eansius resolved to apply a 
remedy for the evil, by erecting a tower at the west end, and furnishing it with 
bells.^ This was accomplished soon after' his consecration; and it gave to the 
sacred edifice a solemnity of character, and general dignity of appearance which it 
had never before exhibited. 

The decorations of this edifice recdved their final improvement at the hand of 
Aldred, the last Saxon prelate that was permitted to hold the see of York. This 
distinguished personage finished the refectory and dormitory, which had been comr 
menced by archbishop Puttoc. He rebuilt the choir; decorated the whole church 

time of king David, fhe Greeks bad a ooancii of elden in eveiy town, for the government thereof; 
and a place where the elders and people worshipped their god with saorifioes ; and when many of 
these towns for their common safefy onited under a conunon council, they erected a Piytaneum 
in one of the townsy where the council and people met at certain times, to consult their common 
safety, and worship their common god with sacrifices^ and to buy and sell; the towns where these 
councils met, the Greeks caUed M/m/, peoples, or communities, or corporation towns; and at length 
when many of these HgiAi for their common safety united by consent under one common council, 
they erected a Piytaneum in one of the infMt for the conunon council and people to meet in, and 
to consult and worship in, and feast, and buy and sell ; and this Sn/Aor ttiey walled about for its 
safety, and called it rmr voX/y the city; and this I take to have been the ori^n of villages, market 
towns, cities, common council vestal templeis, feasts, and fairs in Europe.'^ Newton. Chron. 
p, 158, 174. 

^ << The history of bell^ as used in collecting a congregation to divine service, is involved in 
some obscurity. Mr. Whittaker displays great learning in shewing that bells were in frequent 
use among the Romans, and even probably introduced by them to the Britons during their sway 
over this island. Their first adaptation to the uses of the Anglo-Saxon church, is not so clearly 
to be ascertained from written testimony.^^ Brewer. Introd. to the Beaut of Engl, and Wales, 

L263. Some say, they were introduced there by pope Leo I ; and pthers by Paulinus. Dr. Milner, 
cles. Archit of the Middle Ages, p. 34, observeSi that the use of small bells, nolce, in this 
country, if we may credit William of Malmsbury, may be traced as high as the fifth century. 
And it is clear from Bede, that even those of the larger kind, campana, such as sounded in the 
air, and called a numerous congregation to divine service, were employed in England as early as 
the year 680, being that in which the abbess Hilda died. Brewer, ut supra.. It is clear, however, 
that the towers of churches were not constructed solely for the use of bells, but partly to direct 
the weary and benighted traveller to a place of human habitation ; for which benevolent purpose 
lights were frequently burnt in them during the darkest nights. Wolst. in Act S. Ben* p« 631. 
Mr. Lingard thinkisy that in these times the tower was distinct firom the church. 

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fixm tfaence to the tower with paintmg;. and adorned the pulpit with el^fant 
devices in gold, ^ver, and brass.^ He constituted the seven canons, prebendaries j 
and added an eighth to the numb^, appointing vicars for them f^ and incited the 
king to endow his new establishmetit with a IwdeMp in Leven. In a word, arch- 
bidiop Aldred appears to have been as great a benefieu^tor to Beverley, as any of 
his predecessors. 

The character of ^'the noble fabric,"^^ as it. now stood, appears to be justly described 
by Mr. Coltman, in the pamphlet already referred to. ^ On the whole,'' says this 
gentleman, ^' we may suppose that at the time of the Norman Conquest, it was an 
oblong stone btiilding of two stories, having a low tower at the west end, probably 
without any transepts, divided into two parts, a na,ve and a choir, each having side 
aisles, supported by massive columns of moderate height, surmounted by circular 
arches, with thick walls, pierced by small, circular-topped windows, adorned, as 
we may suppose, with all thq usual Saxon omaments/'^^ 

«« Lei. Coll. vol. 1. p. 1 18. «» Ibid. p. 337. •• Ibid. voL ii. p. 1 10. 
«» Coltman'8 Short History of Beverley Minster, p. 34. 

V0S^l^^f^**l4t-'pt%. - ■ ^ 

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e^ 0^VWMP^ 

WUUam the Conqueror rewhes to reduce the ponder ^of ihe church — Oppresses the 
clergy — Insurrection in the north — Qu/eXled — Hke king issues an order to ravage 
Ihe countg of York — Extraordinary judgments inflicted on the party who were 
deputed to desecrate the minster at Beverley — Tike property of this church 
exempted, by royal prockmuUionf from injury — Archbishop Aldred dies — 
Provostship constituted — 7^ island divided among the Normans — Tenures — 
Inconveniences of the system — Terms in Domesday explained — Property of the 
archbishop of Yorh in Beverley and the neighbourhood — Property of the 
canons of St. John described — Disputed daims — Observations — Population 
of Beverley at this time — Wood of Deira — Town of Beverley^ how divided 
and occupied— Ferme—MiUs— Extent. 

The most authentic acootmt which we possess oif the town of Beverley, its 
mhabitants, and the appropriation of its soil to lords and vassals, in times im- 
mediately subsequent to the Norman Conquest, is in the record ^compiled by the 
command of William the Conqueror, and now generally known by the name of 
SomttRlSS ; which, independently of its uses to the Conqueror, ^ is to this day a 
record of no small importance to the historian and to ^be antiquary, for the light it 
throws on the different classes of persons into which the English people were 
divided; the different denominations of lands, their culture and measurement; the 
different denominations of money, and the persons and places that enjoyed the 
liberty of coinage; territorial jurisdictions and franchises; tenures and services; 


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criminal and civil jurisdictions ; ecclesiastical and historical matte's therein noticed, 
besides many cmrious illustrations of ancient manners."' 

From this invaluable record we learn some very important particulars respecting 
the town of Beverley and its dependencies at the Conquest, and during the twenty 
subsequent years. In Saxon times, t]^e greater part of Beverley belonged to the 
archbishop of York, and under him the canons of the collegiate church ; the latter 
of whom held the tolls, the mills, and the fishery ; for happily the hand of power 
did not despoil these holy men of their possessions, in common with the greater 
portion of the religious orders, and the principal Saxon families in every other part 
of the kingdom. This apparent partiality in favour of St. John of Beverley, pro- 
ceeded not from any respect which the Conqueror entertained for religion generally, 
but it was elicited solely by the effects of superstition. 

To secure his conquests, this monarch resolved to harass and oppress the clergy, 
by vexatious processes and arbitrary exactions, that the enormous influence they 
undoubtedly possessed, might be reduced to a standard consistent with his views, 
and subservient to the supreme authority which he himself was determined to 
maintain over all ranks and descriptions of people. He began his system by im- 
posing heavy fines and burdensome tallages, under colour of defraying the expenses 
of his wars; and at length proceeded to seize their shrines and sacred vessels;* 
issued orders to destroy some churches, and despoil others of their treasure and 
chief ornaments;' he alienated tithes; deprived many divines of their personal 
liberty; and placed in the vacant bishopricks, abbacies and benefices, his own 
followers, on whose integrity he could safely depend/ The church at Beverley 
appears to have formed an almost solitary exception to the general system of plunder 
which had been instituted against the church, and was frequently executed, even 
on the superior monasteries,^ under William's own personal inspection. 

In the third year of his reign, the Anglo-Saxons in the north, under the impulse 
of a deliiium, arising from the deadly injuries they had sustained, roused themselves 
from their stupor, and determined to make one desperate effort to regain their 
legitimate possessions by force of arms. They possessed themselves of the city of 
York, put the governor to the sword, and massacred the whole garrison, consisting 
of three thousand men.^ But this was only a momentary burst of impotent rage. 

" British Review, vol. xviM. p. 1 15. « Speed. Brit. p. 428. 

' Cfaron. Spot. p. 1 14. ^ Johnson^s Eccleg. Laws, vol if. 

^ Alared. Bev. p. 130. ^ R* Hoved. p. 45 L Mat Par. p. 5. 

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for they were unable either to advance^ or to secare the advantage they had ^ned* 
The m^ciless conqueror of England soon reduced them to submission, and they 
flank into their former apathy, but to endure the infliction of still greater miseries 
and privations; for the tyrant, that he might effectually paralyze their efforts, and 
disable them from any fiiture attempts of tbe same nature, issued hi^ orders for 
laying waste all the country between the Humber and the Tees/ His armies 
covered the district, like the locusts of Egypt, and spread equal desolation and 
dismay. William crossed the Humber to superint^id the work, and to feast his 
eyes on Saxon misery, in its most aggravated form ; and fixing his camp at about 
seven miles distance from Beverley, despatched a commander, with a party of 
soldiers, to destroy the church, which he saw with elevated pinnacles proudly 
rising before him, and desolate the neighbouring villages. The country people 
took the alarm, and fled towards Beverley, to inform the inhabitants of their danger; 
but the soldiers were speedily in the town ; and one of them, named Thurstinus, 
pursuing a veteran, who fled towards the church for safety, proved that no sanc- 
tuary was a protection against the sanguinary designs of the infuriated Conqueror. 
The Norman knight did not overtake the ftigitive until he arrived within the church, 
and there he raised his sabre to destroy him. But the insulted justice of heaven 
interposed, to prevent the sacred edifice fix)m being polluted with human blood. 
The knight was immediately paralyzed, and struck with an incurable disease; 
and in this situation was carried by his attendants to the camp. A judgment so 
striking could not remain unnoticed; and it was followed by another equally 
signal, inflicted on the commander of the party; who, in the course of this expe- 
dition, falling by some accident from his horse, his neck was dislocated in such 
an extraordinary manner, that the position of his head was completely changed, 
and his face turned backwards. The king was forcibly impressed with these 
unexpected occurrences, and considered them as a celestial intimation that the ter- 
ritories of St. John were under the immediate protection of heaven. He therefore 
announced, that these possessions were from hencefordi wholly exempted from the 
general interdict pronounced against the counly of York, and that in what situation 
soever they were found, they should be preserved from violation.* 

Prom this time, the whole county of York lay nine years uncultivated,* Saint 
John's land only excepted; so that the inhabitants were reduced to the necessity 

'Sax. Chron. p. 174. 
• Brompt X. Script, col. 966. Knighton, b. 2. c. 2. Fab. p. 241. edit 1811. » Sax. Chr. p. 174. 


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of subsisting on the most loathsome vermin^ and endured die hardest extremities 
of famine/^ 

Archbishop Aldred, who had placed the crown on William's head, and really 
felt a very high degree of esteem and attachment towards his person, beholding 
the desolation of the country, and the distressed state of the church, from the effects 
of his jealous policy, ventured to expostulate with the tyrant, on his rigorous and 
unjust measures. His admonition was disregarded; for the Conqueror was too 
intent on his scheme of filling all offices of trust and influence with Normans," to 
be diverted from it by the protest of an English archbishop, whose views might 
be dictated by the selfish considerations of interest, or the aggrandizement of his 
own countrymen; or who might probably be actuated by the dread of personal 
suffering, from the active measures which had been adopted to reduce the power 
of the church, and deprive the English, clergy of their possessions and influence* 
If William had bawed in silent acquiescence to the remonstrance of the archbishop, 
it would have been considered, in his opinion, as an open acknowledgment of that 
very power, which he thought it his interest to curtail and destroy. But William 
miscalculated the archbishop's motives ; they were dictated by the honest feelings of 
humanity, for the suffering population within his own diocese, and an ardent zeal 
for the cause of religion ; and the king's marked indifference to his reasonable 
request, was an unexpected blow^ which he did not possess sufficient strength to 
encounter. He denounced a bitter curse against the tyrant and his descendants^ 
for such an open violation of his coronation oath, and almost immediately expired, 
heart-broken at the prospect of the woes with which the British church was threat- 
ened ;" and by his deaths the town of Beverley was deprived of one of its greatest 

Thomas the Norman, a canon of Bayeanx„ was nominated- to the vacant see;, 
and, some time afterwards, on visiting the church at Beverley, he constituted a 
new offik^e in favour of his nephew Thomas the younger,* on pretence that the 
canons were involved in perpetual disputes, which could only be prevented by the 
actual presence of an officer possessing secular authority over them; and therefore^ 
with the king^s consent, Thomas the younger was made the first provost of 
Beverley; a dignity, which, in many instances^ has led the Way to a bishopriek. 

><> Fabyan. Cfaron. p. 241. ^ Ingnlf. p. 70» >« Malms, de gest Pont p. 154. 
* Ei. Reg. Prop. BeF. 1. 1. p» S6. 

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A iwidence was erected for him on die i^ite of the ancient Bedem^ and he was 
invested with lands and rents for his maintenanoe, but was restricted from either 
voting in the chi4>ter9 or possessing a stall in the choir.'* 

Whether we consider the Norman Conquest in its success or in its consequences, 
it is still an event equally stupendous and unprecedented. It was effected almost 
without a struggle. Never were such important results accomplished with so little 
sacrifice on the part of the conquerors. The rash attempt made by a provincial 
duke to reduce this powerful island, would in any other age have been deemed 
preposterous, and its success contrary to all the chances of political calculation. 
William himself could scarcely anticipate, or even hope for that perfect good for- 
tune with which it was accompanied. The native inhabitants appear to have been 
completely paralyzed by the unexpected result of the battle of Hastings ; which 
feeling, the superior genius of William well knew how to convert to his own 
advantage, that even the sacrifice of their liberties, their property, and innumerable 
lives was insufficient to rouse them to any effective resistance against the tyranny 
which trampled them underfoot, and reduced their ancient nobility to a state 
of servile thraldom. 

To confirm his authority, William on his part, adopted the most bold and 
active measures. He expelled the English from their estates, and reserving to 
himself about one thousand four hundred manors, divided the kingdom amongst 
his Norman followers,^^ who held their new possessions of the king on the tenure 
of homage and fealty and military service; by which they were^ bound to attend 
him in the field with a certain number of retainers, armed, mounted, and pro-^ 
vided for a specified number of days in every year. And this was the reddUus or 
return made to the monarch for their estates in lieu of renf The lands thus ac- 
quired and maintained, they again subdivided into knights' fees, and let them to 
tenants on a similar tenure; and thus all the principal manors in the kingdom, 
except those which the king had reserved to himself, were held of him by tenants 
in oapite, or in other words, by his barons; and these consisting of about seven 
hundred persons, were the legitimate parliament'* or council of the realm; but in 

i> Leland. Coll. vol. iii. p. 103. >^ West's Enqaiiy, p. 24. 

'« Vid. Blackst. Com. vol ii. p. 62. 

'' Some say tiiat the word parliament does not oeciir untU the reign of Heniy II. and that 

before that time it was usaally denominated the king's oonrt or great coancil; and the first waa 

heldat York, 1160. Drake, from H. Boet. Ebor. p. 93. Camden^howerer, thinks that this word waa 

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♦ . 


pM^eH of tim^^ fts theii* numbers i&ereased to a prodigious multitade, the great 
barotis only were summoned by the king, and the others assembled at the writ of 
the sheriff, and were placed in a separate house. This was the origin of the two 
houses of parliament'^ 

All land held of the king, by bishops, abbots or priors, was also held on 
military servicej'* and abbots who thus held by barony, or whose abbeys or monas* 
t^es were of royal foundation, possessed the unalienable right of a seat in the 
council. Bat the abbot of Beverley, although possessed of twenty thousand acres 
of land, well provided with tenants and occupiers of every description, besides the 
advowson of churches and other property, had no claim to a seat there, because he 
held of the archbishop of York, who, himself being a member of the council- 
could not introduce this dignitary, who was, in fact but as one of his retainers j 
for it appears not to have been so much the amount or value of property, as the 
nature of the teniu^, which constituted a baronial right ; and a chief tenant in 
oopite of the king, whether ecclesiastic or layman, was undoubtedly a legitimate 
baron.*' Thus, if the king tallaged his barons j they in return, to raise the money, 
tallaged all their tenants; and if the king demanded military service, it was 
provided for th^ lords by their retainers, who held of them by a tenure, somewhat 
sitnilar to that by which they were bound to the monarch, and who always fought 
under their banners, and conquered or bled as they shewed them the example. 

The operation of this syst^n was such, that in every province of the kingdom, 
tlie monarcii had an army ready on the shortest notice to repel any attempts which 
the native English might be disposed to make for the purpose of regaining their 
liberties, or recov^ng possessicm of their confiscated estates. This scheme of 
policy, though useful, and even necessary to secure to the invader the peaceable 

M«d le. Hen. I. Cat. Disd* vol. i. p. 304. Blacksfone says, it was first applied to general assem- 
blies of the States, under Louii^. VII. in France, about the middle of the twelfth century; and that 
the first mention of it in our statute law, is in the preamble to the statute of Westm. 1. 3. Edw. I. 
A. D. 1272. Com. vol. i. p. 146. Ingulphns used the word parliament for a meeting of the chapter 
of a convent, and he died 1109. — veniens coram conventu in publico Parliamento nostro similiter 
Jurameutum pnsstitety Ac. 

>' Seld. Tit of Hon. 2. 5. 21. Blackst Com. Archb. vol. i. p. 398. 

'" Maseres. Anc. Const. Pari, in Archseol. vol. 1. p. 307. 

»• Some baronies consisted of but 4 or 5000 acres, and others of 100,000 or more. The Honour 

of Ey-was contained 900,000 acres. Maser. Ant Pari, in Archaeol. vol. i. p. 334. Gale, p. 613, 

asserts, that no person holding less than 40 hydes of land, could rank as a legitimate member 

of the great oouncil* And unam hydam per sexies viginta acras. Ibid. p. 472, 

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possession of his dominionsy yet was fatal to his posterity ; for the physical power^ 
thus inconsiderately placed at the disposal of the baronsi became in a few genera-* 
tioiiSy more than sufficient to counterbalance the authority of the crown; and so 
early as the reign of John, absolutely erected itself into an oligarchy^ which super- 
seded and overthrew for a time, the monarchial form of government in this island. 

It appears from Domesday, that the church of St John possessed at the time 
of this survey a very considerable extent of property, if the carucate be taken at 
one hundred and twenty acres, as is admitted by almost all the authors who have 
written on the subject^ A knight's fee was estimated at six hundred and eighty 
acres f^ and the quantity of land sufficient for one plough in a year, was one 
hundred and sixty acres*^ For the better understanding of this record, it may be 
further remarked, that by a manor, was meant a certain extent of ground occupied 
by the lord himself, or by servants for the express use of his family ; a beretvick 
meant a hamlet, or partial manorial right lying within a greater manor. The land 
was occupied by three denominations of tenants, distinguished by the names of 
sokemen, bordars, and villanes* The sokeman was a free man, who held his lands 
of his lord freely on payment of rent or service ; the bardar was a free cottager^ 
who held his limited possessions on the tenure of providing the mansion of his lord 
with a stipulated quantity of poultry, eggs, or other small produce ; and the villane 
was a menial servant or slave^ who was attached either to the soil, or to the person 
of his lord. Each of these orders was liable to military service.^' 

The archbishop of York possessed the manor of Beverley, which appears to have 
suffered depreciation fix)m the Norman inroads, as it was valued in king Edward's 

M Coke on Littl. Inst. 1. Blackst. Com. vol. ii. Selden's TiUes of Honour, p. 622. Agard. 
Cor. Dig. vol. i. p. 47. M. Par. Gloss, m voc. Carucata. I have in my posses^tion an old extent 
book belonging to the borough of Grimsby, made A. D. 1286, in which the carucate or hyde is 
rated at 120 acres, and the bovateor oxgang at 20 acres. 

«> Maser. Ant. Pari, in ArohaBol. vol. i. p. 332. Coke, on LitU. Inst 1. p. 69. The knighrs 
fee must have varied considerably; perhaps, like the oxgang and other dimensions, it was estimated 
in proportion with the fertility of the soil. Vid. Surtees. Hist Durh: vol. i. p. 217. Sir John 
Dodderidge thought that a knight's fee contained 1600 acres; and Mr. Holland set it down at 
800 acres. Cur. Disc. vol. i. p. 40, 42. Blackstone. Comment, vol. li p. 62. says, that the knighf s 
fee was originally 12 plough lands. In the time of £dward I. it was rated at £20. a year. 

» Fabyan. 

^ ^ From a scarcity of capital, it was usual for the landlord to provide both a stock of cattle and 
the necessary implements of agriculture for his tenant, who accounted for them at the expiration 
of his term." Surtees. Durh. vol t p. 224. 

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time at twenty-four pounds^ and at present it was worth only fourteen ponncU« 
He held also the berewicks of Skidby and Burton, which formed a part of the 
manor of Beverley. It is, indeed, a melancholy task to record the history of this 
period* Property of all kinds was considerably reduced in value; and in many 
instances the land was entirely waste, particularly in this piurt of the country. The 
&vour extended to the canons of Saint John, might and did convey benefits to that 
community to a certain extent Their possessions in the town of Beverley had 
suffered no diminution of profit; but the calamity was too deeply inflicted on the 
country, for any individuals to escape without injury. A religious establishment 
Was bound to administer to the wants and distresses of others ; and it may be 
fairly calculated that in this season of unprecedented misery and wretchedness, 
when absolute famine raged amongp»t the population of Yorkshire, the canons 
would apply the whole of their superfluities as a remedy for the evil, and regret, at 
the same time, that it was so completely inadequate to the calls which would 
necessarily devolve upon them. But it appears that the land of the archbishop was 
not spared, although he was a Norman of William's own appointment King 
Osrick, out of the love he had to Saint John, had presented to his successors the 
manor of Dalton,'^ but it was now reduced in value one half.^ The archbishop 
held also, in conjunction with the canons, about three hundred and sixty acres of 
land in Molescroft, a moiety each, with servants to keep it in cultivation. He 
held also the following berewicks in Beverley and Holdemess : — 

Berewick. In Wagene (Waghen) two carucates of land, and two oxgangs to 
be taxed. Land to one jdough. Eleven villanes and two bordars have there 
three ploughs. 

Berewick. In Weld (Weel) to be taxed two carucates of land. Land to six 
oxen. Six villanes and one bordar have there one plough. 

Berewick. In Ticketone (Tickton) twelve oxgangs of land to be taxed. Land 
to six oxen. Three villanes have there half a plough. 

Berewick. In Asch (Eske) two carucates of land to be taxed. Land to one 
plough. Six villanes and one bordar have there two ploughs. 

Berewick. In Estorch (qu. Stork) one carucate of land to be taxed. Land to 
two oxen. Two villanes have there one plough. This is not in Holdemess.** 

^ Lei. Coll. vol. iii. p. 101. » Domesday. 
*< Bawdwen'8 Dom. Boo. p. SS. 

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The extent of the possessions wliich were retained by the canons of Saint John 
of Beverley^ nnder the archbishop of York^ amounting to about twenty thousand 
acres of land, is preserved in the following record. 

In Bevreli (Beverly) the canicate belonging to Saint John has always been 
free from the king's tax. The canons have there in the demesne one plough and 
eighteen villanes; and fifteen bordars having six ploughs; and three mills of 
thirteen shillings; and a fishery yielding seven thousand eels. Wood pasture 
three mUes long and one and a half mile broad. The whole four miles long and 
two and a half miles broad. Value in king Edward's, time to the archbishop^ 
twenty-four pounds, at present fourteen pounds. At that time to the canons 
twenty pounds, the same at present 

These Berewicks, Schitebi, Burtone (Skidby, Burton) belong to this manor. 
In these are thirty-one carucates to be taxed, and there may be eighteen ploughs. 
The canons have there in the demesne fi)ur ploughs; and twenty viUanes with six 
ploughs; and three knights three ploughs. 

In Delton (Dalton) to be taxed twelve carucates and there may be six ploughs. 
Archbishop Eldred held this for one manor. Saint John now has in the demesne 
one plough ; and twelve villanes with seven ploughs. The whole one mile long and 
a half broad. Value in king Edward's time four pounds* at present forty shillings. 

In Flotemanebi (Flotmanby) the clerks of Beverley have an oxgang of land. 

In Risbi (Risby) to be taxed six carucates and there may be three ploughs. It 
is waste. 

In Locheton (Lockington) to be taxed two carucates and a half, and there may 
be two plouglw. Saint John had and has it Value in king Edward's time ten 
shillings, at present eight shillings. 

In Ettone (Etton) eight carucates to be taxed, and there may be four ploughs. 
This manor was and is Saint John's. Eight villanes have there five ploughs. 
Value in king Edward's time ten shillings, at present eight shillings. 

In Rageneltom ( ) three carucates to be taxed, and there may be 

two ploughs. Saint John had and has now in the demesne one plough; and 
three villanes one plough. Value in king Edward's time ten shillings, at present 
twelve shillings. 

In Burtone (Burton) twelve carucates and six oxgangs to be taxed, and there 
may be seven ploughs. Uluiet had one manor there. Now Saint John has in the 
demesne three ploughs; and twelve villanes with three ploughs. Value in king 
Edward's time fifty shillings, at present forty shillings. 

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In Molescroft three carocfttes to be taxed^ and there! may be two plougfaf. One 
vaxAety is (he archbisbop'^y aikd the othor Saint John's. Two villanes have there 
one plough. 

In Galgestorp (qu« Kellingdiorp) Saint Jdin has two ozgangs to be taxed and 
(me mill. 

In Clinibioote (Kiplingcote) to be taxed two carucates and a half, and there 
may be two plough* Saint John had and has it It is waste. Chetel holds it. 

In Middletnn (Middleton) five carucates and six oxgangs to be taxed, and there 
may be three ploughs. Archbishop Eldred held this for one manor. Saint John 
has now in the demesne one plough; and eight villanes two ploughs and a half. 
There is a church and a priest there. Value in king Edward's time forty duUings, 
at present twenty shillings. 

In Lochinfield (Leckingfield) Saint John has two oxgangs of land. 

In Chelche (Kdk) with the Berewicks Ghemelinge (Gembling) Bictone 
(Righton) are thirteen carucates to be taxed, and there may be seven ploughs. 
Uluiet^ held this for one manor: now Saint John has it, and it is waste, except 
^t three villanes have there one plough. Value in king Edward's time forty 
shillings, at present twelve-pence. The whole manor one mile long and a half broad. 

In Gartune (Garton) nine carucates to be taxed, and there may be five ploughs. 
Saint John had one manor there, and Uluiet another manor. Saint John now has 
both, and they are waste. Value in king Edward's time forty-five shillings. 

In Langetorp (Langthorp) with the berewicks Roreston (Ruston) Ascheltorp 
( ) there are twelve carucates and a half to be taxed, and there may 

be seven ploughs. Saint John held this for one manor, and it is now waste, 
except that one farmer pays eight shillings. 

In Benedlage (Bentley) to be taxed two carucates, and one plough may till it 
Saint John had there one manor. It is now waste ; yet there is wood pasture 
one mile long, and four quarentens broad. Value in king Edward's time twenty 

These berewicks are St John's, and are in Holdemess, Soutli Hundred. 

Berewick. In Welvuic (Welwick) four carucates of land to be taxed: and in 
Wideton (Whitton) to be taxed two carucates of land and five oxgangs. Land 

^' Ulaiet was a nobleman who possessed lands in Holderness^ and was probably a descendant 
of that Ulpbns, who endowed the chnroh at Yorli^ with lands and other proper^, and sealed his 
endowment by drinking oat of a bom, at ttie holy altar; which horn is still kept in the archives of 
York cathedral. 

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to six plt>«gh& There is in ibe demene oui pkagh and a Iial^ and tbirty^two 
TiUaoeSt wd tbsleen bwdws haard nine plotighi> Tkm iB a cbveh and a priest 
and tweDly acres of ogtoadow. 

Berewicki In Qrimestone (Grimston) two earUMtes of land to be tased. It 
is waste. 

Berewidc In Monettnic ( ) two eanieates of land to be taxed. 

Land to two ploughs. Six yillanes have there three plon^t and they poty ten 

Berewick. In Otringeha (Ottring^iam) six ewncates of land and a hidf to be 
taxed. There is a chim^h and a priest Ihere. A cwtain knight turns it and pays 
ten shillings. 

Mith Hnndret (Middle Hundred.) 

Berewick. In Billetone (BUton) three carucates of land to be taxed. Land to 
two ploughs. Thirteen villanes have th^re two ploughs and five oxen. 

Berewick. In Santriburtone (Pidsey^Burbm) five carucates of land to be taxed. 
Land to five ploughs. One knight has one plough in the demesne there. 

Berewick. In Neutone (Newton) three carucates of land to be taxed. Land 
to two ploughs. There are twenty acres of meadow. 

Berewick. Ip Flintone (Flinton) six oxgangs of land to be taxed. Land to 
four oxen. Three villanes and one border have there one plough. 

Berewick. In Danetorp (Danthorp) one carucate of land to be taxed. Land 
to one plough. There is there one border. 

Berewick. In Withfomewiec (Witfaemwick) one camcate of land to be taxed. 
Four villanes have there one plough, and twenty acres of meadow. 

Berewick. In Rutba (Rudby) fifteen oxgangs of land to be taxed. Seven 
viHanes have there two ploughs. There are twelve acres of meadow. In the same 
village two carucates of land^ which Brogo took away from Saint John^ and it is 

Berewick. In Sudtone (Sutton) nine oxgangs of land to be taxed. One free 
Man (francus homo) has there three villanes with one ploi^h and a half. 

Berewick. In Sotecote (Southcote) one carucate of land to be taxed. In 
Dri<pol (Drypool) three oxgangs, and soke upon five oxgangs. This is waste. 

Nort Hundret (North Hundred.) 

Berewick. In Coledun (Cowden) nine carucates of land to be taxed. Land 
to seven ploughs. One knight has one plough there, and twelve villanes with 
three ploughs. 

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Thomas had king William's writ, by which he gnmtod the undistarbed possession 
<tf that soke to Saint John of Berarley.*^. - 

The observations which occur' on the perusal of this record, are not nnmeroiu^ 
and relate principally to the population. ' We find no waste land in the lorddiipy 
and comparatively little in any of its dependancies. Hence it appears that the 
rights df Sftint John were respected, during the devastations which reduced the 
county of York to a desolate wilderness, in other idaces, as weU as in the immediate 
vicinity of Beverley. His churches were adl qpnred, and generally, his property; 
for thei'e Appears less Waste land upofl his possessions, than on any which belonged 
to other' lords. As fiur aH regtids the ecclesia^cal edifices, little injury was sus« 
tained in Holdemdss^ which is rath« extraordinary ; as William, in a paroxism 
of fury, had devoted the whole of Yorkshire to utt^r extermination *y and his troops 
demolished the city of 'York, and maHy towns and villages in the county, and 
put to the sword one hundred diousand of the inhabitants; in some places even 
the sacred edifices did not escape the lawless rage of the desolating army. But 
William, frotn causes which have been dready enumerated, not only abstained 
from injuring the property belonging to the church of Beverley, but actually be- 
stowed on it some substantial marks of his royal fevour, by endowing it with the 
manor of Sigglesthome.^ The protection afforded to this property everywhere, is 
evident fi*om the record before lis. In Beverley itself, the archbishop's land was 
reduced in value more than one-third, while that of the canons remained uninjured* 
In some instances^ the value of their property had increased from the time of king 
Edward. Thus, in Ragenelton, the value in the time of the Confessor, was t^i 
shillings, and now twelve shillings. It is true the canons had waste land at some 
distance firom their residence; for it was not possible that their large possessions 
should entirely escape, amidst the indiscriminate ravages of an army intent on 
spoil ; because it would be very difficult to determine the precise boundary lines, 
which might distinguish the exempted patrimony of Saint John. Still the churches 
escaped, for it appears from the preceding record, that in addition to the churches 
at Beverley, the canons possessed those of Leven, Welwick, Sigglesthome, and 
Middleton, which were all provided with officiating ministers, and had the divine 
services of Christianity regularly performed. 

^ Bawdwen. Dom. Boe. p. 
« Lei. Coll. vol. m. p. 103, 

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We find here also some remami of the v^fy exte^ 
were appropriated to the canims* Oteat quaqtities of M^ood land were distributed 
orer the whole district, which origmally formed oae immaise aiid trackless forest 
known only to the saperstitions priests of the great gods, Hu and Ceridwen. At 
Cottingham two hundred acres of wood still remained,^' and prodigious masses 
were found in other contig^uims places* Much of the original woods was destroyed 
by the jealous policy of the Bomansy who employed the captiye natives in the la- 
borious occupatioil of clearing woods and draining marshes, (in sjfkns et pdkdibm 
emmendiSj) that they might be prevented from concerting schemes of insurrection 
and revolt; and in this state of menial servitude, they wore out their bodies and 
enslaved their minds.'* Much more was burnt to ashes, during the indiscriminate 
ravages ai the Saxons and Banes. The wood extended, in the times of the Saxons, 
to Godmanham ;^ and was partially destroyed when Edwin was converted; for 
the people not only levelled the temple of Thor with the ground, but also burned 
the surrounding groves/^ 

The town of Beverley was at this period divided into tofts^ on which tenements 
were erected, for the accommodation of merchants, tradesmen, or burgesses, and 
the occupiers of the land. A part of the inhabitants held their houses on burgage 
tenure, carrying on mechanical trades, under the protection of the canons and 
devoting a part of the profits to them as tenants at will; others tilled the ground, 
and occupied small cottages, yielding such rent or service as the canons might 

^ Maseres. Ant Pari* in ArchsoL vol. i. p. 326. 

^ Tacit Tit. Agric. 31 . Herod, vit. Sever. 1. 3. Yid. Dug* Imbank. p. 16. 174. 

^ Barton, in the Appendix to his Monasttcon Ehoraoense p. 433, says, that this division of the 
county contained several thousand acres of waste land, which formed part of the ancient forest, 
althoQgh great quantities have been inclosed. The boundaries of this extensive forest are now 

It was the opinion of Dela Pryme, that the forest extended over the whole of Hatfield Chase, 
and that it was cleared away by the Romans; and he grounds his hypothesis on the abundant 
remains which still exist at a certain depth beneath Sie surface, oi trees, planks, roots, and 
brushwood, over the whole of this district If this reasoning be sound, the woods at Beverley 
were cleared by the same people; for similar appearances have been exhibited in every place 
where excavations of a suincient depth have been made. Oreat quantities were found in the 
oomnum pastor^ of Swinemoie and Figham, when the Beverley and Barmston drain was cut; and 
in many other marshy places in the neighbouriiood, particularly at Eske, about two and a half 
miles from Beverley, where not only great oak trees have been taken up, generally with the roots 
attached; but trees of a lighter description, such as haade, and on these the nuts have been found 
bk good preservation, which shows evidently the season of the year when they were destroyed. 
The depth at which these trees were found is usually from one to four feet 

^ Ling. Angl. Sax. Ch. p. 17. 

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from time to tiiiie iiiqK»e, These were the villanes and slayes. The merchanti 
or hwcgemesp although free in theiif, persons, still held their property as tenants at 
will, and paid a certain duty on every article of traffic* This was the origin o( 
tolls, the amoimt of which was entirely at the-men^ of the canons, as no fixed 
rate was yet determined by law, for the r^^ation ot this species of impost; and 
it was accordingly governed by existing circvmstances. The borough of Beverley 
having been enfranchised, its inhabitants ^oyed a sp^ies of liberty unknown in 
other towns which did not possess the same privilege; and therefore men who, by 
any means, had realized a little property, would endeavour to procure a residence 
in this town, where they were certain of protection, under the mild sway of the 
canons;^' for it has been universally acknowledged, that in these times, the con* 
ventual courts of justice were conducted on principles strictly honourable, and 
uniformly applied to the protection of honest men, against the intrigues ur aggression 
of villany. The inhabitants of Beverley possessed a merchant guild,^^ and houses, 
and had the privilege of free trade, though they still held their tenements on 
burgage tenure. 

The ferme of the town was in the canoiiB, who paid the quit rents to the arch- 
bishop of YorL This fee-farm rent was a compensation for the usual rents, tolls, 
fishery, and mills, the latter of which appear to have been a sort of public property, 
as they were usually attached to the ferm^ or manor ; and when the quantum of 
rent was accurately determined, the town became from thence a free borough. 
This rent waa fixed, by amhbishop Thurstan, at eighteen marks annually/* 

It was necessary, however, that this enfiranchisement should be confirmed, as 
the alterations which had been introduced by the Norman invasion, although 

^' ^' If the vUlane of any lord purchased a house in a borongh, and remained settled and 
unclaimed in his burgage for a year and a day, he absolutely commenced a freeman, and had an 
equal right with the native burgesses, to all the franchises of the borough/' Whittaker. Manchest 
vol* i. p. 204. apud. GlanvUle. L 5. c. 5. 

** << Gilda mercatoria, or Gild merchant, is a certain liberty, or privilege, belonging to merchants, 
to enable them to hold certain pleas within their own precincts. The word geldes, or gelhalda 
Teutonicorum, is used for the fraternity of Esterling merchants, in London, called now the 
StiUyard/^ Drake. Ebor. Append, zzxij. 

*^ The mark was an indeterminate sum, which varied in different ages. Some have stated it at 
six ounces, others, at eight ounces. Vid. Turner's Ang. Sax. vol. ii. p. 127. Madox says, a mark 
of gold was equal to six pounds, or six score shiUings. The mark ot silver, thirteen shillings and 
four-pence. The besan^ two shillings. Du Fresne, estimates the mark at half a pound. Gloss, 
p. 437. Tredecim solidis et quatuor sterlmgis protjualibet marca computatis. Ubi sterlingns, 
ejusdem valoris est cum denario Anglicano, quorum duodecim fiBM^iunt solidum. Mat Pav. Gloss* 
in voc. Sterlingus. 

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Beverley was exempted from the immediate consequences^ would render the validity 
of their Saxon charters questionable at least, if they were not altogether invalidated 
by a change of policy and laws. 

Still the power of tallaging the borough remained with the archbishop, in eases 
which demanded an extraordinary supply ; but these tallages were now in the 
nature of subsidies to meet any emergency of the state, and could not be legally 
imposed merely to supply the necessities of the archbishop himself* If he was tal- 
Hated by the king for his demesnes, he was then justified in calling on his tenants 
for a proportionate supply ; and all of them, whether free or otherwise, must of 
necessity contribute their lawfrd share. 

Another testimony to the abundant population of Beverley remains to be noticed. 
Before the Conquest it was customary for the people to grind their com by hand 
mills, and hence a public wind or water-mill was capable of supplying a moderate 
sized district with meal and flour, sufficient for all the necessary purposes of life. 
But Beverley was furnished with three public mills, which probably belonged to 
the archiepiscopal demesne, and were appropriated to the town as part of the £^rme 
thereof. And three mills would be amply sufficient for a population of several 
thousand souls. It is probable also, that Beverley contained at this period, a mo- 
netarius, or mint, because it is said in an enumeration of the places wheve the 
privilege of coining was exercised, that there was "one in every burgh."** We 
find no mention in the preceding record, of the merchants or tradesmen who at 
this time inhabited the town of Beverley; although we have abundant proof that 
business was transacted here to a very considerable extent, for the composition 
paid to the archbishop for tolls, amounted to a large sum ; and the town is termed 
by Bale, a city.** 

« Wilk. Leg. Aug. Sax. p. 59. <« De Script Brit. p. IS-T. 

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cribap* W. 

Comparison of ancient and modem manners — Thurstan grants a charter to the 
town — Canal from the river HuUj called Beverley Beck — Thurstan builds the 

A- chapel of St. Mary — His prtvikyes as the lord of the town — King Stephen's 
charter — Rebellion of Eustace Fitz-John — his ravages, in conjunction with 
the Soots — Battle of Cuton-Moor — Henry Murdac, archbishop of York, resides 
at Beverley — Stephen ^contemplates the fortification of the town — Is deterred 
from his purpose by a vision — Charter of Henry IL — Thomas a Beciet 
provost of Beverley — Town and minster consumed by fire — PubUc offices 
put to sale-^^Feefarm rents of Beverley — Disputes in the town — Disgrace of 
the atrahbishop — King John visits Cottingham — and Beverley — View of the 
iowny and its inhabitants — Miracle there — Commandery cf St John founded 
— Disputes between the archbishop and the canons of Beverley — Property 
conveyed to the church — Provost of Beverley — Streets paved — Fines and 
taxes — Arrangement respecting the navigation of the Hull — Chivaby-^Supe^ 
riarity cf the Beverley cloths — Charters of Henry HI. 

Such were the circumstances of the town of Beverley at the latter «ad of the 
eleventh century. Enfranchised by royal charters ; decorated by the architectural 
taste and munificence of succeeding* metropolitans^ and enjoying all the beneficent 
effects of a genial religion, it exhibited the appearance of an opulent and improving 
town. In forming an opinion, however, of its magnificence, it is necessary to 
divest the mind of all ideas of present splendour, because they will by no means 
apply to the case of ancient times. A common modern dinner service is composed 
of china dishes at the least, with forks, spoons, and other articles in silver; but an 
ancient dinner party ate with their fingers from wooden trenchers, or perhaps a 
whole company partook of the same viands out of a common bowl. How can we^ 
of these luxurious days, fi>rm a competent idea of the banqueting halls and ladies^ 
bowers of olden time, which are described by the poet and writer of romance iik 

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such fascinating colours ? Our odncoptions must entirdy fail^ fiom the very esaeatial 
difference which exists in the manners and customs of the two periods. An idea 
of modem splendour will embrace carpeted floors, beds of cygnet down, services 
of gold and silver plate, painted rooms, gilded cornices and stairs-cases, seats and 
sofas of satin damask, statues and pictures, vases and rich trinkets, chandeliers of 
glass, and chased gold and silver, with all the el^^cies. that wealth can purchase, 
or luxury devise. These expensive superfluities had no exist^tice in the times ei 
our robust forefathers. The limbs of the most delicate and high bom female wore 
extended at night upon a bed of straw ; and instead of Turkey carpets, her feet ia 
the day time trod, at best, but on strewed rushes. The banqueting room, with its 
small loophole windows, stone walls, rough oaken tables and benches, all dark* 
gloomy, and cheerless, would afford to a modem taste, but a heavy picture of splen^ 
dour and magnificence. Yet it was here that the high and chivalrous ^irit of our 
ancestors was nurtured and brought to maturity ; it was here that the weaker, but 
more lovely sex, impressed with romantic notions of honour and hardy virtue, 
excited, by its unbounded influence, an ardoiu* for. deeds of heroic prowess, which 
marked its superiority ; and a single nod from a high bom female, would either 
unnerve the stoutest warrior, or excite him to efforts fraught with such difficulty 
and danger, as appeared beyond the capacity of a m(»ial to perform. 

To form an estimate of an Anglo-Saxon town, we must reduce our ideaa even from 
this standard ; for though the public buildings of that people were massive and splendid^ 
and united the qualities of magnificence and durability, yet the common dwellings 
were very little improved from the tent or cabin of their ancestors ; and consisted 
of a cottage, thatched with reeds, with a fire place in the centre, and a hole in the 
roof to let out the smoke. Some of them were composed of wicker work; but 
generally timber frames, filled in with lath and plaster, and thatch for the roofi^ 
constituted the chief materials in the dwellings of die English at this period.' 

In the year 1109, an appointment was made which proved of essential service 
to the town of Beverley.* Thurstan, a canon of St Paul's, and chaplain to king 
Henry the first, succeeded Thomas, archbishop of York, as provost of Beverley. 
During his residence here, his comprehensive mind beheld the capabilities which 
promised to raise the town to eminence, and he resolved to g^ve it every encou« 
ragement which fortune should place within his power. He conferred with the 

> Britt. Arohit Ant vol. ii. p. 86. Fosbr. Encyo. of Antq. vol. i. p. 1 10. 
* Prov. Regist. 1. Kp. 57. 

M 2 

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most inteOig^nt mercliaiiti on dris inlmertiiig^ mbjec^ and Iwfk^ mformedUnudf 
of every requisite \Antli might tend to b^iefit tibie place, he laid a atalement of hia 
wished before the king, aiid eunestly entreated him to confer some maiks of fiivoav 
on the inhabitants, by confirming their former charters, and granting such new 
privileges, as might place them on an equality with other reputable mercantile 
towns. Henry, who had only just compromised his quarrel with Anselm, the 
primate, was wilHng to allay the ferm^it of party spirit, which raged throughout 
the country, by conferring privileges on his subjects, and therefore gave the town 
of Beverley, as well as many other places, a charter of confirmation.' 

The time however soon arrived, when Thurstan had power in his own hands to 
convey benefits to the town. On the death of archbishop Thomas, in 1114, he 
was nominated to the vacant see ;* and paid an early visit to his favourite town 
of Beverley, now under the government of Thomas the Norman, who succeeded 
him in the provostship. He held his court in the demesne ; and made enquiries 
into the conduct of his officers ; into the administration of justice ; and into the 
general state of the town, its inhabitants, trade, and morals. The result of this 
inquisition was a charter of liberties, in which he conveyed ta the men of Beverley, 
all firee customs granted to Saint John, by his predecessors. He gave them in 
their hanshus^ the same laws and privileges which the citizens of York^ enjoyed, that 
is, throughout the realm of England, Normandy, Acquitain, Anjou, and Poictiers, 
6cc. He gave them the tolls for ever, on payment of an annual sum of eighteen 
marks, &c. &c. as is more fiiUy expressed in the charter itself,'^ which was con- 
firmed by king Henry. And in 1 125, pope Honorius gave a charter of confirmation 
to the provost.* 

« ^y authority for this charter is rather doubtful. I have neither seen the charter itself, nor 
any authenticated copy ; and the only testimony I am acquainted with, is a manuscript In my 
possession, containing, amongst other things, the following words, "Charter of king Henijf I.; 
a confirmation of king Athelstan's charter, touching clerk of the market/' 

< Hoved. 271. Ex. Reg. Prsepos. Bev. I. 1. p. 57. 

^"Hansa, latinized, is derived from the German, hansz, or the Belgio hans, which is, says 
Skinner, cities or companies associated or confederated; so the kane towns fn Germany still retaim 
Ihe old name.'' Drake. £bor. p. 228. 

r The citizens of York were qpit of toll, lastage, wreck, ponti^f^e, passage, and enjoyed all fre# 
customs in the realm of England, the duchy of Normandy, i&c. and all the coasts thereof. They 
had liberty .to take distresses for their debts, to defend themselves firom.appeals» and no man was 
allowed to disturb them under a heavy penalty. 

^ Vid. App. C. • Ex. Reg. Prspos. Bev. 1. 1. p. 56. 

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Tiie distance of the river Hall from the town of Beverley, was more than half a 
mile, which rendered the conveyance of goods and merchandise very tedious and 
inconvenient. To obviate the embarrassments thus necessarily occasioned, Thurstaa 
encouraged the merchants to make a channel from the river, of sufficient depth *Ho 
carry boats and barges/'^ And this canal was of infinite advantage to the commerce 
of the town. The benefits of Thurstan's administration were long visible in th^ 
increasing prosperity of the town; and the holy man was much gratified in behold- 
ing the genial effects of his endeavours to promote its welfare. He had a palace at 
Beverley, and spent a portion of his time in that delightful retreat, where he could 
join in the services of religion, and employ his time in distributing justice within 
the limits of his jurisdiction, and maintaining a strict regularity and sound discipline 
amongst the people. Nor were the canons neglected, while he conferred favours 
on the inhabitants. He granted to them the privilege of bequeathing two-thirds of 
their prebendal profits, for the year following their death, to their heirs, reserving 
the remaining portion only for the repair of the church.'^ In a word, no description 
of people remained unnoticed by this excellent prelate; but all felt and acknowledged 
the benefits which he had conferred upon them. 

The increasing population of the town, now demanded a further accommodation 
for administering the sacred services of religion; and for this purpose, the chapel 
or oratory of Saint Mary was erected.'^ The original buildings partake equally of 
the Norman and early English styles,'^ and were doubtless constructed about the 
present period, before the former was altogether abandoned, or the use of the latter 
fully established. There is little hazard in the conjecture, that this edifice owes its 
origin to the active benevolence of Thurstan. 

At this time the archbishop exercised almost regal authority, in his baronies of 
Beverley, Ripon, Scirebum, Patrington, Otley, and Wilton, which were assigned 
to his predecessors by king Athelstan. He had prisons and justices in these towns, 
with full power to try, condemn, and execute criminals. King Henry, by his 
writ» had confirmed all the previous grants, and added new liberties and privilegec^ 
particularly that of infangtheof.*' He had returns of writs, pleas of withernam, 

« Laasd. MSS. B. Mus. 896. YIIL fo. 47. 

i<>Drake. Ebor. p.417. 

« Lanad. MSS. 896. VIII. fo. 47. >» Rickm. Engl. Arch. p. 172. 

*' Infangtheof. A criminal jurtedictioi^ by which thieves found on his territories^ might be 
punished without appeal. 

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the taking of estreats by the hands of his sheriffs^ for levying the king's debts upon 
those persons who had nothing without his liberties. He had a gallows, pillory; 
and cucking stool in all the above named towns. He had. also his own coroners 
on each side of the river Hull, who took prises in that stream by his authority.'^ 
He had assize of bread and beer ; and waif and broken wreck of the sea, with 
park and free warren, and all his land quit fi*om suit and service." > 

On the accession of Stephen, the canons of Beverley received a corroboration of 
their liberties, by another royal charter,'^ which confirmed the right of sanctuary, 
and all other rights and franchises granted by former monarchs ; together with the 
thraves of com, and their former privilege of holding fairs ; for the new monarch 
sought to remove the disadvantages of a defective title, by liberal concessions to 
the people. This course was, however, only partially successfril, and his bold 
usurpation produced a bloody war, before his title to a life estate in the crown 
could be formally acknowledged. 

Eustace Fitz John, a powerful Anglo-Norman baron, who was much esteemed 
by the late king, and consulted by him in all matters of moment, on account of 
his consummate wisdom and excellent judgment, had been arrested by Stephen^ 
contrary to law, and detained a prisoner till he had surrendered possession of the 
castle of Bamburg, and other places, which had been entrusted to his custody by 
king Henry. Highly resenting such a flagrant act of arbitrary power, Eustace 
fled into the north, and uniting his forces with those of David, king of Scotland, 
made an irruption into Yorkshire, with the intention of revenging the insult he 
had received, by a general ravage of tbat part of the kingdom. This rebellious 
baron now entered the county at the head of a numerous army, and miserably laid 
waste whole districts ; destroying the property of his inoffensive and loyal country- 
men, as he proceeded towards York ; intending to make the castle in that city the 
head quarters of the Scottish army. It is incredible, says Simeon of Durham,'^ 
to relate what flagitious wickedness the army perpetrated, in their unholy career. 
Wherever they appeared, fire and sword, plunder and desolation, marked their 
progress. They spared neither sex nor age; helpless infancy was alike sacrificed 

>< Rym. Feed. torn. iv. p. 272. '^ Placii Qao. War. in Scaco. 
>• Lansd. MSS. B. Mus. 896. Vlli. fo. 99. and 102. b. Corp. Rec. 1. Steph. No. 1. Ex. Dade. 
This charter b attested by Thnrstan, Alexander, bishop of Lincoln, Hugh, bishop of Ely, Adelm, 
bishop of Carlisle^ Roger the chamberlain^ Robert de Vere, Hagh Bigot, and others. 

1^ Deo. Script, col. 2^0. 

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with hardy manhood and decrepid old i^e. The tears of the unresisting^ female 
made no impression on their savage hearts; nor was the sacred robe of the eccle- 
siastic a protection from their cruelty- Pregnant women were ripped up, and their 
infants cut in pieces. Maids and matrons were stripped naked, and driven into 
Scotland as slaves. Such was the kind of warfare which Eustace Fitz John waged 
s^ainst his countrjonen and neighbours ; and ^t leng^ the whole army assembled 
and sat down before the city of York. 

During these scenes, which were transacted under his own eye, archbishop 
Thurstan, who had been constituted lieutenant of the noilh by Stephen, had not 
been idle. He summoned the nobility, who all assembled with their tenants and 
retainers, and we may reasonably conclude that the inhabitants of Beverley, his 
own demesne, were not backward in joining thie English army against the invaders. 
The archbishop addressed the troops, and recommended them to fight bravely in 
defence of their altars and their homes ; he recapitulated the miseries already in- 
flicted on the northern counties; miseries to which they themselves must inevitably 
be subjected, should the enemy gain possession of the citadel of York. Inspirited 
by this address, the troops marched forward to the contest with a determination to 
conquer or die. The Scots beheld their ardour, and fearing to abide the issue of 
a battle, retreated with the utmost precipitation ; for excessive cruelty is usually 
accompanied with pusillanimity and cowardice. 

The English army pursued and overtook them at Northallerton, and a decisive 
victory was gained at Cuton Moor over the Scots, and their king narrowly escaped 
being taken prisoner.'* This was called the battle of the Standard ; for a tall 
crucifix, composed of the mast of a ship, and decorated with many sacred banners^ 
had been elevated on wheels, as a signal of conquest and peace ;*' and the victory 
was attributed to the prompt and magnanimous conduct of our archbishop ; by 

i> Baker'8 Chron. p. 47. 

»• "King David look'd athwart the moor, 
With Prince Heniy his brave son; 

And they were aware of the English host, 
Nov n:ierrily marching on. 

Oh then eallM forth the King David, 

And loadly caUed he — 
'And who is here, in all my camp. 

Can describe yon host to me ?' 

Then came there one beside the tent, 

An Englishman was he; 
^Twas not long since from the English host. 

That traiterons wight did flee. 

'And whaf s yon glittering tower I see. 

In the centre of the ho^?^ 
O that is the hallowed Standard, of which 

The English make s^h boast. 

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whose agency also, Fitz John was pardoned^ on his sulmdssion to the king^ and 
allowed to retain his possessions. 

The success of this expedition was so gratifying to Stephen^ that he now.considered 
himself securely placed on the throne^ and began to exercise the severities which 
were suggested by his bold and aspiring disposition. Amongst other acts of misrule, 
he determined to suppress the castles of the English prelates, and actually im- 
prisoned the bishop of Lincoln until he had relinquished all his fortified places.^ 
The clergy were alarmed, and many of them paid heavy fines for the king's favour, 
or in other words, to be exempt from oppression. On this occasion, we find that 
Robert, the fourth provost of Beverley, and Ralf, the archdeacon, fined to the king 
in the enormous sum of three hundred and sixty-six pounds thirteen shillings and 
four-pence, de dano,*^ that they might be under the king's protection, as his de- 
mesne clerks.^ 

Archbishop Thurstan growing old and infirm, found himself incapable to enter 
into the bitter disputes which now agitated the kingfdom, and therefore resigned Ms 
bishoprick, A. D. 1141, and retired to a monastery. His successor, Henry Murdac, 
was consecrated by the pope, in opposition to the wish of Stephen, but when he 
attempted to take possession of his see, the gates of York were closed against him.'* 
He retired to Beverley, thundered out his anathemas against all his opposers, and 

A mast of a ship it is so high. 
All bedecked with gold so gay; 

And on its top is a holy Cross, 
That shines as bright as day« 

Around it hang the holy banners 

Of many a blessed saint; 
Saint Peter, and John of Beverley, 

And Saint Wilfrid there they paint. 

The aged folk around it throng, 
Witb their old hairs all so grey. 

And many a chieftain there bows down, 
And so heartily doth pray. 

Oh then bespake the King of Scots, 

And so heavily spake he — 
'And had I but yon holy Standard, 

Right gladsome should I be. 

And had I but yon holy Standard, 
That there so high doth tower; 

I would not care for yon English hoet, 
Nor all yon Chieftain's power. 

O} had I but yon holy Rood 
That there so bright doth show; 

I would not care for yon English host. 
Nor the worst that they could do." " 

Battle of Cuton Moor. 

^ Malms, p. 181. 

*' Donum was a general word, and was used with great latitude. Down to the time of Henir 
the second if it was paid out of the knighf s fees, it was denominated scutage, if out of lands which 
were not of military tenure, it signified hidage, and if it was paid by boroughs, it was tallage* 
Afterwards it was principally used in the latter signification. 

^ Mag..Rot Madox. Exch. toI. L p. 459. ^ Suqq. Dunelm. Drake. Sbor. p. 417» 

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laid llie city under an interdict Here he remained three years, and rendered 
' essentia services to the town. Fitz-John, having some compilnctions of conscience 
for the devastations and murders to which he had been accessary, consulted with 
die archbishop about his penances, and was directed to^ re-edify the monastery of 
Watton, near Beverley, which had been destroyed by the Danes in the year 870« 
A penance, in these times, that was considered to be an effectual atonement for 
crimes of any magnitude* 

To this monastery the archbishop was a liberal benefactor, and even after he was 
reconciled to the king, and had entered on the peaceable possession of his see, he 
did not forget its interests, but continued regularly to superintend the establishment. 
He enjoyed his dignity about seven years, but never again attempted to enter 
the city of York; and at length died at Beverley, which had been his chief re- 
sidence, in the year 115&.^ He was succeeded by archbishop William, commonly 
called Saint William of York, who gave to the town of Beverley a charter of 
liberties in the same year, in which the privileges granted by Thurstan are esta- 
blished, and a merchant's gn^ild, court of pleas, &c. are assigned to the burgesses.^ 
The turbulence and insnbordination which manifested themselves both amongst 
the nobility and the people, during the whole of this reign, kept the vigorous mind 
of Stepken on the alert He neglected no means of defence which might tend to 
bis own security; and, while he tried every expedient to induce his barons and 
dergy to place their castles in his hands, he himself erected many new fortresses 
in the most convenient situations, throughout every part of the kingdom. The 
town of Beverley appeared, to his penetrating genius, a most eligible situation for 
a atnmgly fortified castle, and here he determined to fix a permanent military 
g^arrison. The cancms were alarmed, and even the archbishop, foreseeing that his 
rigbts and liberties would &I1 a sacrifice to the unbounded licence of mercenary 
Mldiers, protected by military law — ^petitioned the king to desist from his purpose, 
but without success; for Stephen's affection for the church was not equal to the 
care he had about his own safety. Indeed, the clergy at this period, had few claims 
on his gpenerositjr, for he had recently been deserted by the ecclesiastical interests 

** John Hag^Ut. Dec. Script, ool. 282. Drake's Ebor. p. 418. 

M TBoL. MSS. penes me. Corp. Rec. No. 3. This charter is attested by William, earl of Albemarle, 
lord of Holdemessy Everarde de Ross, Robert de Stutevil, Herbert Fitz-Herbert, Gilbert de Nevil, 
Richard de VerlU William Dapjfer,.Turstia tha Reeve, Hyvon, abbot of Water, Simon the canon, 
Ralph the c^aaon. Master Alfrid the sacrister, William de Falais, Reginald Theoloner, and others. 


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of tte kin^dom^ and still smarted under the disgrace of those sabmissiims wilieh 
the papal power had obliged him to miake^ by laying, the whole realm undcar an 
interdict But though deaf to remonstrance and callous to die fedings of kindness, 
or the policy of conciliation^ this hardy monarch was trenblingly dive to tdhe effects 
of superstition. He had a dream or vision^ in which Saint Jdm, liie ftAraa saint 
of Beverley, appeared to him in pont^icalibus, and with stem lookj^ aii4 threatening^ 
gestures, denounced summary vengeance against him and his posterity, should he 
dare to have the temerity of polluting his peaceable establishment at Beverley, 
with a military garrison. The effect which this dream had on the miud of Stephen, 
who in battle would not hesitate to oppose himself, single-handed, to lot whote 
squadron, is incredible. He immediately countermanded his order for building a 
castle at Beverley, and never again indulged a thought of infringing on tb^ pri<* 
vileges of that sacred abode of peace and religious privacy.*^ 

At the commencement of his reign, king Henry II. granted a chaJrter of lib6rties 
to the burgesses, of which the following is a copy. 

Carta privileg^orum burgensibus de Beverlaco concessa. HenricoB* Dei gratift, 
A. D.— ^^ Angliae. Dux NormannisB & Acquitanise, comes Ande- 

ftti* Hmt* 11* gaviee, archiepiscopis, episcopis, abbatibus, archidiaoonis, decanis, 
in Vuw* ^intli« pi^^P^si^i^ comitibus, baronibus, justiciariis, vieeccmiitibus & 
iU 16. omnibus ministris 8l fidelibus suis, salutem. 

Sciatis me ccmsessisse & presenti cart4 mei confirmasse burgensilms de Bever- 
laco, omnes libertates & liberas consuetudines, qiias Turstinus aut Williebnns 
quondam Eborac* archiepiscopieis dederunt & ooncesserunt& cartis stiis Confima- 
▼erunt, & quas Bex Henricus avus mens, eis concessit & eart& su& confirmitvit 
Quare volo & firmiter praecipio quod praedieti burgenses de Beverlaco omnes ipinui 
libertates & liberas consuetudines, quas eis dederunt & confinnavenmt praedicd 
ElMHrac' archiepiscopi, habeant & teneant bend &; in pace liber^ & quitj^^ pltmdx^ 
integrd, in theloneo & in hansus, in liberis introitibus & eadtibus, in vill& 3c esctra 
villam, in foro^ in bosco & piano, in marisco & tubariS^ in viis & semitis, & in 
omnibus aliis locis sicut cartae praedictorum archiespiscoporum, Turstini & Wil« 
lielmi scilicet testantur. 

^ LeL Coll. vol. ii. p. 3M. Job. HagoL vp. Deo. Script col. 278. 

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G. EbfenSf >qri9C0pU. 
J. NarmoenSf^ 
G.fXo meo 8f canc^ario 
JcikaaKne. fiBo meo 
Ma^iibro W.De. Cnskmc 
Beghuddo de Curtenajf 

R. Bigot 

Huff de Crem 

Hug de Morme 

Alano de FumeU 

Roberto de WiUf 

Mich Relet 

Witto Ruffo dapifero. 


The disputes between the ciyil and ecclesiastical powers, beings carried on 
in England with a spirit of vindictive feeling, which was highly injurious to the 
cause of religion, were now drawing to a crisis. Thomas k Becket, who afterwards 
caused such troubles in the kingdom, by his unyielding obstinacy and intrepid 
boldness, was at this period high in favour with the king, who appointed him to 
offices of the first importance in the state, and thus cherished the dawnings of his 
mighty ambition, which incited him to aspire to sovereign rule and authority. 
Amongst other offices of power and trust, this celebrated man was made provost of 
Beverley f' but we are not possessed of documents to prove whether any transactions 
of importance occurred during the continuance of his provostship. He passed rapidly 
from one dignity to another, till he was placed at the head of the church, in the 
metropolitan see of Canterbury. In this high situation, his pride and arrogance 
accelerated his destruction, and he died a violent death at the altar's foot 

Hhe king was no sooner delivered, by the hand of violence, from this determined 

enemy, than he received intelligence that his own sons were in confederacy against 

him. His great abilities were, however, always his protection. By the adoption of 

rij^orpuA measures, and a judicious line of policy, he finally triumphed over all his 

enemies j took their ally, the king of Scotland, prisoner, and compelled his rebellious 

dtdldren to lay down their ?ums. The Scottish monarch was reduced to the ne* 

OBsnty of submitting to the most humiliating terms, as the price of his liberty; and 

« meeting was convened by the royal authority at York, to receive the homage of 

kii^ WijQian^ for his realm of Scotland. The barons, ecdesiastics, and canons of 


M^ ..u ' ^. . " ^jia 

* Biof . Brit.ML i4 p* <a0. Ex. fi«t« Sn^i. Ber. 1. 1. p. ^7. 

N 2 

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York^ Beverley, and other places, were summoned to give their attendance on this 
great occasion; but the canons of York refused obedience to the royal summons; 
which so highly incensed the English monarch, that they were glad to sppeuae 
his wrath by paying a fine of one hundred pounds." 

Nothing, however, could reduce these refractory young men to submission, or 
preserve their obedience inviolate to Henry, as their moAarch and their &ther« 
The king, therefore, was obliged to take decisive measures for his own safety. In 
the year 1181, an order was issued to train the whole population of Britain to the 
use of arms, under the ostensible pretext of preparing for a crusade against the 
infidels, whose successes in Palestine, it was said, had covered all Christendom 
with horror and dismay. The ordinance enjoined that every possessor of one 
knight's fee, should be provided with a coat of mail, a helmet, a shield, and a lance ; 
and that ^^every knight shall have as many coats of mail, helmets, shields, and lances, 
as he has knight's fees on his domain. Every firee layman who has in chattels or 
rent, to the value of sixteen marks, shall have the same arms as above; and every 
free layman having ten marks in chattels or rent, shall have an habergeon, a 
scull cap of iron, and a lance, pike, or spear; and all hurgfisses^ and the whole 
community oi freemen shall have a wambais, a scull cap of iron, and a lance.'*^ 
Commissioners were sent into every county, city and borough throughout the 
kingdom, to ascertain the number of persons able to serve, and to see that they 
were properly equipped according to the statute. Every description of people in the 
town of Beverley would be embraced by this ordinance ; and having received so 
many royal favours, it is but reasonable to conclude, that they prepared with alacrity 
to obey the mandate of their king. 

While thus actively engaged in military exercises, that they might give effect to 
the views of their sovereign, the inhabitants of Beverley were visited with a ca- 
lamity which overwhelmed them with severe affliction. At this period, as has 
been already noticed, the houses were mere temporary structures of wood, thatehed 
with reeds or straw ; even the city of London, according to Stowe, was principally 
composed of buildings of this description. The inconvenience and danger of thes^ 
edifices, unfurnished with chimneys to let out the smoke, which usually found vent 
by a large hole in the roof, became at length impressed on men's minds^ by thj^ 

*> Mag. Rot Scac. 22. Hen. II. Madox. Exch. vol. i. p. 103. 
^ Berisgton. Hist. Hen. II. p. 316. 

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^SectM of iatal experience. The feast of St Matthew the apostle^ 1188» had been 
celebrated at Beverley with die usual ceremonies; and whether from carelessness, 
turjMtudei or intoxication, a fire broke out during the night, which raged with such 
violence, as to consume the whole town, together with the minster of Saint John ; 
though every exertion was used to preserve this noble edifice from the flames.^ Si- 
milar calamities, in different parts of the kingdom, having proceeded fix>m the same 
cause, a law was passed, in 1190, to enforce the construction of stone buildings, 
which affi>rded a more certain security against the ravages of this devouring element* 
London was the first to commence a system of reformation, and the example thus 
afforded by the metropolis, was followed in every part of the kingdom, by the more 
wealthy part of the population, though the common people still continued to reside 
in huts of mud and thatch. About this time stone mansions were built in Beverley, 
and occupied by families of note and consequence. 

Richard, the successor of Henry, was a brave and warlike prince; and being 

inflamed with the desire of martial fame, which could be reaped only in the plains 

of Palestine, he resolved to lead his armies against the Saracens ; but his treasury 

being exhausted, he had recourse to every feasible expedient to replenish it He 

offered for sale all offices of trust and honour ; the situations of sheriff and justiciary 

were disposed of to the highest bidder; and he declared that he would sell the cily of 

London, if he could find a purchaser. The corporation charters were renewed on 

payment of heavy fines, and the borough of Beverley received fix>m him a charter 

of confirmation, for which doubtless he received a fiill compensation.'' And in 

1195, Geoffery Plantagenet, archbisbop of York, the natural son of Henry II. a 

man of bold and turbulent disposition, though no favourite with Richard, contrived to 

possess himself of the shrievalty of the county of York, on payment of a fine to the 

king* of 3000 marks.^ Having by this means united the temporal and spiritual 

Mitharities, Geoffery flourished with all the power and dignity of a sovereign prince, 

in the north of England. The situation of high-sheriff was in these times an o&ce 

of greet trust and responsibility. As the keeper of the king's peace, he was the 

I ■■ ■■■■■■ I II . ■■ ■■ , , , !■ I , ■« I I — ^—1 — *— P^-» 

*> Lei. Coll. vol. ii. p. 210. Stow. Chron. p. 157. Holinsh. Chion. vol. li. p. 196. ^ , 
»» Piyniie. Chron. Corp. Rec, No. 5. dated at Worms, 30 Sept. 5. Rich. I. attested by 8. 
bishop of Bath, H. bishop of Coventry, Mast Philip, and John the Provost of Dnai, and Safred; 
freasarer of Chichester, Baldwin de Betnn, <&c, and given by the hand of Wm. de Longcbamp, 
bishop €>f Ely, the chancellor. The hand writing of this charter is very fair; on^ seal is destroyed, 
the other imperfect, representing the king on horseback, brandishing a sword in his right hand. 
On the reverse, the king seated under a throne of pinnacle work. 

» Mag Rot. 10. Rich. I. 

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first man in the county, and superior in rank to any nobleman therein.^ To 1m 
cuetody was ^itrusted all the royal castles and mam»rs lying within the bailiwick. 
WLe provided the castles and fortified towns with ammunition and other necessaries, 
fmd slocked and improved the royal manors} in a word, the sherilF was the king^s 
fanner or bailiff, and the collector of bU the royal i^mts and reveHues within hii 
4iBtrict,'^ He was dignified with the title of viscount;^ and all the firedboktersof 
the county, whatever might be their rank, were obliged to give their personal 
Skttendaiice, to swell out the magnificence of his train; and to afibrd weight and 
authority to his periodical courts of justice. From this service, even the richest and 
most powerfol barons were not exempt.^ Hence the retinne of a provincial sheriff 
must have equalled that of a powerful monarch. Well might this ambitious prelate 
desire to occupy a situation of such splendour and influence; aud accordingly, we 
find him exercising its powers with an authority almost amounting to despotism. 
His rents, from the borough of Beverley, at this time aniounted to the sum of £62* 
14s. lOd. annually. For the fairs, £2. Os. Od.; for the tolls, £12. Os. Od.; and for 
the ferme rents> customs, lands, and appurtenances, £48. 14s. lOd.'' 

Several disputes, which existed at Beverley about this time, respecting titles to 
property, appear to have been decided by favour, rather than by the immutable rules 
of equity and justice. Fines and amerciaments constituted the most valuable part 
of the royal revenue; to induce the profuse payment of them, justice was openly per- 
verted, and decisions w&re principally r^ulated by the gross amount of the sum 
paid by way of present into the king's treasury. The example thus set by the 
Qiofiarchf was fdlowed with avidity by those who held inferior offices, particularly 
an ihmf also were the results of purchase. A dispute was tletermined m the court of 
WjBstminater, respecting some land in the fee of Saint John of Beverley, held by 
Robert Villiers, of that tX)Wn, on the deadi of Humphrey WaspaiL** Walter de 
Qn$ and his brother Thomas, fined to the king in forty shillings, t^it a writ might 
be issued to the provost of Beverley, direaing him to dealjusOg ivith them, respecHi^ 
$0bie land to which they had a dahn, in Beveriey, against Bichsfird Ftebenry and 
Hyda his wife, and that the proceedings may not be stopped, if "the r^its voA 
property sp claimed shall exceed the value of thdr fine.*^ 

^ Blackflt Com. vol. i. p. 342. 

'« Blaokst. Com. vol. i. p. 344. Madoz. E^^ vol. |. p. 9?6. 

» BerringrtoiL Hist Hen. II. p. 1 10. ^ Knrne. Eagl. vol. 4t. p. 1^. In noM. a. 

•^ Mag. Rot 6 Rich. L » Placit AJtibwy. 6 Rich. I. » Mag. Rot 7 Rich. L 

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The unrnly temper of archbisbop Geoffiery led him mto many exe€BS€9f dotitig 
t|te kiiig's absence from Ae eomitry« At his return^ the canons of Beverley were 
so loud in their comphiints against this pirdate, that a commission Was appointed 
to hear and determine the matters in dispute between them* The archbishop's 
men were accused ed robbery, imd the charge having been substantiated, the 
domhussioners ordered them to be imprisoned. The archbishop himself re*' 
fosed obedieiice to their summons, alleging that as he was the sheriff and custos 
of the county, it was impossible that he could be amenable to their tribunal, and 
therefture, he would neither acknowledge their authority, submit to their judgment, 
nor appear at their command. His contumacy was punished by a summary process. 
The commissioners disseized him of all his manors, except Ripon. Beverley was 
taken from him; and William de Stuteville, of Cottingham, and Geoffery Haget, 
were appointed custodes over him, and Roger de Batvent, over his under-sheriff.^ 
Thus were the honours of this prelate miserably faded; and being at this time 
under a papal suspension, the king also seized his spiritualities, for the recovery 
of which, his proud spirit submitted to the payment of a heavy fine.^' The king's 
death did not ml^terially improve his prospects, for John, the new momixd^ 
entertained no very frtvourable opinion of him; on the contrary, his possessions 
were once mwe sequertered by royal authorily,^^ and he was obliged to commute fcr 
their restoration, by the payment of a thousand pounds, after they had been 
dienated one whole year* 

During the period of 6eoffery*s disgrace, Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury, pro- 
ceeded to the very novd extremity of holding a council within the city of York, at 
which, the dean and chapter of York, the provost of Beverley, and all the principal 
tianons of that church, with many other dignified ecclesiastics in the same province^ 
were summoned to be pres^it At this council several laws were decreed, wluch 
became permanent ordinances of the church, and binding on postmty.^ 

John, whose reign began in turbulence and ended in disgrace, wielded the 
sceptre with an unsteady hand, and found the royal couch a bed of thorns. Ao^- 
cording to the custom of these times, when the monarch had no settled revoim^ 
it was usual for him to renew the borough charters at his accession, for the purpose 
of recruiting his treasury. John followed this example; for his title to the crown 
was disputed, and he needed a supply, to enable him to meet and defeat the 

^ Madoz. Ezoheq. vol. L p. 23. ^^ Drake. Ebor. p. 423. 
tt Ibid. p. 428. ^ R. Hovsdon. p. 430. 

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eoiifedency which had been finned against him in &Tacir of his nephew Arthur. 
At the oommwcement of his reign, this king, accompanied by his beantiful cobsort, 
Isabella, and many of the principal barons who had embraced his cause, made a 
progress into the north. After visiting the city of Lincoln, the royal party crossed 
the Humber from Grimsby, and proceeding to Cottingham, were entertained with 
great magnificence at Baynard castle, by William de Stuteville, who received 
frcNEu this monarch in return, many important privileges. He was constituted high- 
sheriff of this county, an oj£ce which he held at present only by substitution; 
obtained permission to fortify his castle, and received a charter for holding £urs 
and markets within his domain/^ From hence the monardi and his suite made an 
excursion to Beverley; and the king was so highly gratified with his reception by 
the ecclesiastics and burgesses, that he granted to the town two charters, in which, 
added to other privileges, the burgesses were declared free from toll of every de* 
scription throughout England, London only excepted; for which however, they 
paid the enormous fine of five hundred marks, and received their quietus.^ The 
king proceeded to York, to effect a compromise with the Scottish monarch, who 
had agreed to meet him in that city. It should appear however, that the citizens 
were not well affected towards John, for they refused to shew him any marks of 
honourable greeting, or to display the usual tokens of joy and congratulation at 
his presence amongst them. The irritable monacch was so highly incensed at this 
instance of neglect, which almost amounted to contempt, that he amerced the city 
in the sum of one hundred pounds.^^ 

A subsidy had been levied by the king, to enable him to carry on the war, 
which was generally paid, though in some parts of the country it excited mur- 
muring and discontent His brother Geoffery however, the refiractory archbishop 
of York, would not suffer it to be collected within his peculiar jurisdiction.. He 
forbad the king's collectors to approach his manors of Beverley and Ripon, at the 
peril of his resentment; which, as he possessed the power of life and death in thc^pe 
plabes, was no imbecile threat. The king, enraged at his presumption, commanded 
the sheriff to seize his lands. Geoffery replied to this proceeding, by thundering 

44 Lei. Coll. voL i. p. 293. 
4* Mag. Aot. 1. Job. Corp. Rec. 6 A. Dated at Porchester, 18 April, I. Johh, and atte^ 
by Geoffery Fttz-Peter, earl of Essex, and many others. The second dated two days aftervazds, 
and attested by WUHam Marshall, earl of Pembroke, William, earl of Salisbury, and others*— 
Marked 6 B. 

.4«Mag. Rot. III. Jiih. 

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Out his aniithemas vbA exeommnmcations upon all who should be concerned in the 
execution of these orders; hA directed his retainers to seize the officers, and punidi 
them by scourging ; and ultimately laid the whole province of York under an 
interdict But the king was not thus to be diverted from his purpose; and the 
archbishop, after an inieffectUal struggle, submitted once more to the royal authorily/^ 
These violent measures were not resorted to by the archbishop, out of respect to the 
inhabitants of his boroughs, nor could they have a reference to a supposed incapacity 
^n the burgesses to furnish their quota of the tax, for the canons of Beverley, 
though their church was in ruins, were very rich; nor were the merchants less 
opulent. They had recently rebuilt the town, on a scale of great improvement; 
and from the extensive and successful trade which they carried on by means of the 
river Hull, communicating as it did with the Humber, and thus affording facilities 
for external commerce, they had attained an elevation which gave them conse- 
quence in the eyes of their neighbours; for a wealthy English merchant, by a law 
of Athelstan, the royal patron of Beverley, who had made three voyages by sea 
into a foreign country, was thenceforth entitled to the rank and privileges of a 
gentleman, or thane/^ 

Imagination may carry us back to the remote period which is now under our 
omsideration ; and in the long perspective we may in fancy behold the town, how 
large soever in extent, still uncouth and unsightly, according to our improved ideas oi 
the beauty and magnificence of domestic architecture. The houses, composed of va^ 
rious materials, some of stone, others of brick or wall-tiles, and others of humble 
play, all cased in a heavy frame work of timber, stretched their overhanging roofs 
acros$ the street, as if they frowned mutual defiance. Each uppar story projecting 
beyond the lower, brought the most lofiy parts so nearly in contact, that opposite 
lieighbours were not only capable of conversing together from their uppa* apart- 
ments, but might almost give the gripe of friendship across the narrow space thus left 
v&cant between them. In fimcy, we may behold the worthies of ancient Beverley, 
strutting along the darkened streets with more than Spanish gravity, arrayed in 
costly clothing; bolstered with cushions, to hide all imp^ections of shape and 
penson ; their bug and curling hair dancing in the wind, and their high-peaked 
shoes fastened to their knees with chains of gold, and ornamented with rich tassels 
and fringes/^ A goodly sight! Pourtraying, in the most striking colours, the change 

<^ Speed. Brit p. 496. «* Hame. Engl. vol. i. p. 107. 
«* HolliOBb. Chron. p. 341 . Home. Engl vol. i. p. 307. Stratt Man. A Cast vol. H. p. 87. 


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which has taken place in the costoms of this eountry, resulting from its gradual 
approaches to refinement, and its present emin^M^e in the arts of civil and social 

Ahont this time, an extraordinary attempt was made, arising out of the super- 
stitions of ifae times, to curtail the hours of labour. A foreign ecclesiastic named 
Eustace, abbot of Flay, in Normandy, appeared in Yorkshire, with pretended 
divine credentials, authorizing him to put a period to all kinds of labour, fit»n 
three o'clock on Saturday afternoon, till the rising of Ihe sun on Monday morning. 
JXis exhortations on the subject, how gratifying soever they might be to his own 
vaniiy, were not sufficiently powerful to induce the poor mechanics to forego the 
honest profits of so many hours of labour,^ and he was obliged to have recourse 
to the usual mode of successfully enforcing obedience to his injunctions, which 
distinguished the ages of papal Christianity. He caused rumours to be circulated, 
that a divine interposition had been miraculously displayed in numerous instances^ 
to give effect to the particidar design of his mission. Many are the mirades which 
were said to have announced the will and pleasure of heaven, in the sunimaiy 
punishment of those obdurate wretches who had dared to slight or disobey the newly 
promulged ordinance. It was pretended that a* miller's com, at Wakefield, which 
had be^i ground on a Saturday evening, was changed into blood ; that a person 
at Naffecton, having profanely baked a cake within the interdicted hours, was 
jmahle to eat it, for when broken* streams of blood issued profiisely from the wound, 
and he cast it aside with horror; and that a poor shoemaker of Beverley, "pre- 
;Sun]^tuou9ly neglecting to lay aside his implements of trade at the prescribed hour, 
was struck with a dead palsy, .to the astonishment and terror of all the town !^^ 
. In the year 1201, Sibylla de Yaloniis gave to the knight's hospitallers of Saint 
John of Jerusalem, the manor of the Holy Trinity, on the east side of Beverley, 
with several tenements in the town, and also the manor of North-Burt(m, &c it 
became necessary therefore, that a preceptory, or commandeiy of the order, shotdd 
be establisl^ h^re, to take care of the rents and profits,'' for such societies were 
usually plaQed on their estates under the government of commanders, who werft 
allowed a proper maintenaixce oiit of the revenues under their core, and accomited 
for the remainder to the grand prior in London.^^ This order ** began and took its 

«> R. Hoved. p. 467. 
«i Diake. Ebor. p. 425. «> Tan. Notit. York. XII. 2. «» Qort. Monast. Ebor. p. e^. 

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fiatae fram an hospital, bailt at Jerusalem, ftr the use of pilgrims coming to the 
lioly land, and dedicated to Saint John the Baptist Fcur the first business of these 
knights was to provide for such pilgrims at that hospital, and to protect them from 
insult and injury on the road* The order was instituted about A. D. 1092, and 
yfery much favoured by Godfrey of Bullogne, and his successor, Baldwin, king of 
Jerusalem. The brethren followed chiefly Saint Austin's nde, and wore a black 
kabity with a white cross upon it They soon came into England, and had a house 
builk^for them in London, A. D. 1100. And from a poor and mean beginning, 
obtained so great wealth,f^ honours and exemptions, Ihat their superiour here in 
England, was the first lay baron, and had a seat among the lords in parliam^it, 
and some of iheir privileges were extended to their tenants/'^ Sudbi was ths 
orifpn of the ccmimandery at Beverley, which W9» of some magnitude, and must 
have possessed considerable influence in the domestic regulations of the town.^* 

in the year 1203, a patent was granted to the canons of Beverley, confirming 
tbeir right to the thraves of com in Holdemess and elsewhere, which had been 
cont^ed to them by the charter of Athelstan.^^ A few yeiars subsequently to this 
event, the burgesses of Beverley preferred a petition to the king, in which they 
complained bitterly of certain illegal aggressions, committed upon them by the 
archbishop of York. They stated that he had disseized them of titieir pastures and 
tolls, vi^ch they held by charter, at an annual rent ; that he had deprived th^m of 
their turbaries, fcmced o£f their gravel pits, and withheld firom them sundry rights, 
fiom the time that he had departed fiK>m Beverley to elude the r6y^ vengeance ; 
and ferther, that he had proceeded to excommunicate William de Stuteville, of 
Cottingham, the sheriff of Yorkshire, by bell, book, and ctodle, and also hia 
majesty's humble petitioners, the burgesses of Beverley." The king graciously 
reccired their appeal, and made a progress into Yorkshire, to enquire into these 
ditmrderiy transactions. He spent some time with the sheriff, at his manor house 
at Cottingham^ and ultimately restored to the petitionfei^ th^ir {6rm&r rights and 
liberties, after they hisul established, to his satisfaction, the facts^ contained in their 

■ ' ■ ' ■ - - - - - ' '■"-"'■■■ ■ ■ I ■ ■! ' " '■ ^ 

** The knighta of Saint John, at first, had bat one horse betw^een twb of them, bat aboat a 
handled and fl% years after their institation/ they had 19,000 manors in Christendom; 

«« Tan. Notit pre£ XV. 
« Vide, inter collect V. d. Roger. Dodsworth. vol. viii. p. 27, 83, 93, 1 18, 177, 192, 21 1, 215, 
?IT, 244,245, 276, 279, 284, 288, 293, Cartas qainqaaginta plas minas ineditas deteiris, & 
CH>mitat Ebor. pertinentibas hospital! S. Joannis Jerosalem. 

^^ Rot. Pat. 5 loh. «* Placit. Abbrev. 1 1 . Joh. 

O 2 

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memorial. And to facilitate the means of collecting their porticm of com in the 
East-riding, he gave the canons of Saint John a {Nrecept, by whidi they were em«^ 
powered to compel the farmers to place the thraves at the bam doors, at a specified 
time, on pain of imprisonment, that they might be led away by the servants of the 
church, without causing any unnecessary or vexatious delays.^ He then proceeded 
to York, where he kept his Christmas, with the lords and barons of his realm. 

The perplexed afiairs of this monarch had now reduced him to the extremity of 
despair. His kingdom was under a papal interdict ; he was forsaken by many of his 
barons, and his crown had been assigned to the king of France. He succeeded, with 
some difficulty, in effecting a compromise with the pope, but it was attended with the 
degradation of formally surrendering his diadem, and consenting to hold his do- 
minions as a tributary of the holy see. The barons beheld his cowardice with disdain, 
and entered into a combination to secure their ancient liberties, thus threatened with 
extermination, by being subjected to the will of a foreign despot. The princely and 
independent tenures of these nobles, afforded them ample melms of putting their 
designs in execution. They had recourse to treaty, but this proving ineflfectual,i 
they appeared in arms against the unhappy monarch, and after some unimportant 
successes in the field, they induced John to propose terms of peace. The Great 
Chabtbr, by which our most valuable liberties are secured, was then tendered 
tb him for signature, and five-and-twenty of the most powerful barons w^*e ap- 
pointed as conservators of the public liberties, with full powers to act in the name of 
the rest He signed the charter, and died in the succeeding year. 

The custom of alienating property for the benefit of the monastic institutions, 
was very prevalent in these ages, and we find numerous instances of it in the town 
of Beverley, The beneficence of the donors was evidently excited by the expec«» 
tation of future reward ; and a firm belief that such donations and bequests would 
effect much as an atonement for actual sin. These practices, in our times, would 
be considered of doubtful benefit, and very questionable tendency. Faith in the 
efficacy of masses for the souls of deceased persons, was, in the thirteenth century, 
considered as the very essence of religion ; and every means were resorted to, by 
persons of real piety, to secure to diemselves the benefits resulting from the perform- 
ance of this efficacious aton^ient Thus Helen, the daughter of Josceline, formerly 
seneschal of Beverley, gave a rent of fourteen shillings and four-pence, out of her 

'* CorpofatioB records, 9 A* 

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kmds in diat town, to the priory of Wycham.^ Nicholas de Middletcm confirmed tibie> 
grant of one oxgang of land in Beverley, to the monastery of Ellerton, in Spalding^ 
mere, with a toft, and Alexander the carpenter, with all his family and their cattle^ 
as his brother Richard de Middleton had held the same, which was confirmed by 
Fulco Basset, provost of Beverley, about the year 1229. These premises were again 
confirmed to the same monastery, in 1253, by sir William Ross, along with one 
carucate of land in West-Cottingwilii and Crossnm/' Richard of Beverley, and his 
wife, granted to the abbey of Saint Mary, at York, all their lands, with the edifices^ 
whidh they had in Saint Mary's gate, in the suburbs of York/^ Maud de Barthona 
gave land and a house in Beverley, in East-gate, in breadth from the road of East* 
gate, to a croft called Saint John's acre, to Nun-Appleton priory, in the ainsty of 
York.^' John, son of John the vintner, gave a house and land in Fleming-gate, is 
Beverley, to Rievaulx abbey." Robert, the son of Robert Ingelberd, of Beverley, 
gave all his land there, called Brackenthwaite and Storks, of the fee of Saint John 
of Beverley, with a toft, to the priory of Bridlington; which had been ccmfirmed to 
the said Robert, by the chapter of Saint John of Beverley, and by king Henry, on 
the 30th ^ay of April, at Westminster, in liie 19th year of his reign f^ and Patricius 
de Chaurcis gave to the church the manor of Swenton.^ 

Walter Gray, the archbishop of York, was high in favour with king Henry III« 
and deservedly so, for he was a prelate of sound judgment, strict morality, and great 
experience. He was not only enabled to resume all the privileges and immunities 
of the see, but also to add to their numb» and value. In 1235, he had a charter 
from the king, granting him the privilege of free warren in the woods beyond his 
park at Beverley j and in his demesnes of Molescroft and South-Burton f by which 
he was endowed with an exclusive power of killing game within these limits. 

The provost of Beverley was an officer of considerable importance, for his au- 
thority extended to the civil, as well as the ecclesiastical government of the domain, 
under the archbishop, and in many instances it led to the primacy. We find me 
provost of Beverley summoned to assist at the great council, held at York, by 
Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury f^ and he was called in by king John, to present 
the charter which that monarch granted to the borough of Boston, in the fifth yeai* 

^ Bart Mon. Ebor. p. 256. «> Bart Mon. Ebor. p. 261. 

« Drake. Ebor. p. 582. « Burt. Mon. Ebor. p. 277. « IbiA p. 859. 

^ Ibid. p. 221. w Rot Chart 26 Hen. III. ^ Rot Chart 20 Hen. III. 

«• R. Hoiredon. 

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of Ids reign.** John M aunsell, provost of Beverley, assisted as a subscribing witness 
to the charter granted by Henry III. to the city of York j^** he procured a patent 
to receive an aid fix>m the knights $nd free tenants of the church, for th^ purpose 
of liquidating the debts of the provostship /' and was finally elevated to the high 
office of keeper of his majesty's seals.^^ 

The town of Beverley was now rising rapidly to a state of considerable im* 
pix)vement, and comparative perfection. The merchants and canons projected the 
general paving of the streets, and the convenience of foot passengers was the first 
consideration. A patent was therefore obtained, for enabling them to impose a 
toU for the accomplishment of this purpose f^ ' and thus a portioii of the town was 
fmnished with a good and substantial footwalk on each side of the principal streets, 
which must have afforded a great acconmiodation to the inhabitants. The meaisure 
appears to have given general satisfaction ; for in 'the thirty-ninth year of the same 
reign, a similar patent was granted for the same purpose,^^ which would enable 
diem to make a considerable progress in paving the footways, throughout all the 
most frequented parts of the town. 

During the whole of this reign, the kiiig was excessively needy; which may 
account for his severe and repeated exactions on the Jews. Nor did his own suIh 
jects escape, for fines were imposed on the most trifling toid even ridiculous 
occasions,^^ and tallages were levied at the king's pleasure. In the forty-sixth 
year of his reign, he granted to the church of Saint John, at Beverley, a charter of 
liberties, for which a heavy fine was paid.^® A few years afterwards, he issued 
write to the archbishop of Yoik, and also to the sheiifi^, commanding each of them 
to levy four hundred marks within llieir respective jurisdictions, by a given time, 
under pain of corporal punishment, loss of goods, and royal displeasure ; and if 

^ Rot Chart. 5 Job. ^o Drake. Ebor. p. 264. ^' Rot. Pat. 18 Hen. III. 
.M Rot Pat 33 Hen. III. Amongst the Warbprton MSS. in the L^isdowne collection, we 
find a roll, entitled, "Ordo pro ministratione Refectorii in Bedemo." From this docoment, which 
Mr. Wabartfm' professedly extracted from "vetusto Rotnlo in pergameno, tempore Henrici 
secundi, Ricardi primi vel Johannes Regis, nt character in quo exaratur ostendit, in custodio D'ni 
Sedgwike YioBrii de Marfleete qui mihi amice prabnit," we leam, ttiat notwithstanding the an- 
thority of the provost, he found some difficulty in governing this religious community.^ This 
ordinance assigns the following reason for its origin. <<Quoniam de ministratione refectorii p^pter 
incuria et negligentia ministrorum saspe inter p'posit' et canonicos querela oriebat'»^" Lansd. 
MSS. B. Mus. 896. VIII. fo. 132. The whole document is curious and valuable, but much too 
long for insertion here. 

's Rot Pat 33 Hen. III. ^< Ibid 39 Hen. III. 
^« Vid. Mad. Exch. vol. i. p. 326. et passim. ^« Rot Chart 46 Hen. III. 

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&ey failed in the performance of this requisition, the tnrits w^nt on to denouncOp 
thaty ^they should be so severely chastised, that others should learn by their ejuunple, 
how dangerous it was to disobey the royal precept"'^ This would ta$l heavy on 
the merchants and inhabitants of Beverley; but the occasion was urgent, and it 
was therefore complied with, for the king was furnished with the stipulated sums 
with in the time prescribed. 

In 1296, an arrangement was made by the archbishop, with Johanna de 
Stuteville, and Saerus de Sutton, in which the last i^amed parties agreed to 
remove the wears and fences that had been erected for the convenience of fishing, 
so as to leave a certain breadth of the river free and unobstructed, at aU tim^s, for 
the passing and repassing of ships, belonging to the merchants of Beverley; in 
consideration of an annual rent of six marks, to be paid to them by the archbishop^ 
which the burgesses of Beverley agreed to reimburse;^* for during a short period 
anterior to this i^eement, the commerce of Beverley had been obstructed by the 
encroachments of these fisheries; an inconvenience experienced on every navigabje 
river of small dimensions throughout the kingdom/' 

The chivalrous spirit of these ages is well known; and it isvas sedulously en- 
couraged by the mock contests which formed the principal amusements of the 
nobility. On all great and extraordinary occasions, a tournament was formally 
proclaimed; and here the aspiring warrior was furnished with an opportunity of 
recommending himself at once to the notice of his sovereign, and the commendation 
of his superiors, which led the way to honourable distinction and supreme command; 
and of exciting at the same tjme, the admiration and esteem of the solEier sex, by 
the display of superior strength, activity, or military skill. A splendid meeting of 
the English and Scottish monarchs, attended by all the principal nobility of both 
nations, had recently taken place at York, to celebrate a marriage between the 
youthful king of Scotland, and Heniy's daughter. The gallantry and magnificence 
displayed on this occasion, are said to have been almost without precedent'^ The 
archbishop, ^'like a northern prince," says Drake, ** shewed the greatest hospitality 
to all. He entertained the whole company several times^ insomuch, that this 
meeting cost him four thousand marks."" Whether the knights hospitallers at 

^7 Mad. Exch. vol. i. p. 350. '> Lansd. MSa B. Mas. 402. fo. 23, 73, 122« 
^ Vid. Barrin^n's Observations, p. IS. *> Mat. Par. p. 716. 
«' Drak?. Bbor, p. 99. 

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Beverley, inflamed witli these exhibitions, to which, doubtless, all the inhabitants 
of the counly were spectators, had attempted^ to display their martial ardour by a 
similar tournament, on a smaller scale, within their own domain, is not known; 
but some probability is attached to the conjecture, for a writ was soon afterwards 
issued, forbidding tournaments to be held within the town and liberties of Beverley."' 
It should appear liiat this town had been, time out of mind, a celebrated mart 
fdr the sale of coloured cloths. A colony of Flemish weavers and dyers had already 
formed an establishment, in a part of the town called after their name; and the 
Beverley cloths were noted for their superior fineness of texture and brilliancy of 
colouring. In the sixth year of John's reign, the merchants had fined to the king, 
that they might enjoy the liberty of buying and selling dyed cloth, as they used to 
do in the time of king Henry .^ From that period the trade had progressively 
increased, and was now carried on on an extensive scale."^ About the latter end of 
the reign of king Henry III. an event took place connected with this traffic, which 
forcibly illustrates the unbounded licence which distinguished the whole of this 
protracted reign. Bands of robbers infested every part of the country, and property 
Was no where safe. The hand of violence seized on every thing within its grasp ; 
murders were very prevalent, and the weak and unprotected were a prey to the 
strong. Amidst all this mass of moral evil, some Spanish merchants, who traded 
to Beverley, appeared before the king, at Westminster, and complained that they 
had been robbed on the sea coasts near Blakeneye, of a rich cargo of scarlet and 
other cloths, which they had taken on board of their ship at Beverley, by a gang of 
llpiwliess depredators, three of whom they named, Walter de Huntercumb, John 
Gumeys, and Robert Pauncefort; and humbly prayed his majesty to redress their 
gHevances. A jury was impannelled, to examine into the truth of these allegations; 
and after a patient hearing, an order was entered for full damages ;^ which appears 
rather extraordinary; because, such men as were liable to serve on juries, were 
generally in league vnth the plunderers, and sharers in the spoil.** 

« Rot Pat 55 Hen. Ill, " Mag. Rot 6 Joh. 
•* The town was sabseqnently inclnded in an nlnage commission. **R- com'isit valetto sqo 
Joh. Marreys oflBcium nlnag^ cavenacii linee tele naparie tam in AngP q'm aliunde wadmell 
heydok menedeps kerseis sayoz de Loathe worstede norwys^ hib^U^ & canston' & oH^m^ alioz 
sayoz A scarlettoz onmi'odoz pannoz Lino' Essex' Norf' Suff' Kane' Stanford BEV'ukCi Sc'e 
Osithe Devon' & Comnb' A qnioqnid ad officium hnjasmodi nlnarie p'tinet in Regno Angl' q'm 
extf nbicnmq hujnsmodi pannos vend! contig'it tam, Ac. tenend' ad totam vitam snam." Rot 
Orig.27Edw.III. Ro. 19. 

«* Plaoit Abbrev. 56 Hen. III. w Mat. Par. p. 509. 

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This monarch, whose long reign was now drawing to a close, gave to the town 
of Beverley, a few months before his death, a final charter; making in the whole, 
Jiv€j which he had granted to the burgesses, each having been purchased with a 
heavy fine. The first bears date 8 January, 14 Henry III* and is a charter of 
confirmation by inspeximus, by which, the burgesses are declared exempt from the 
payment of tolls throughout England, and the coasts of the sea, the city of London 
only excepted.^ The second has no date, and is a charter of confirmation;** the 
third is dated 13 February, 21 Henry III.*^ and confirms the charter of king John, 
and those of Thurstan and William, archbishops of York. The fourth, dated May 
2nd, 47 Henry III,^^ and the fifth, dated 2 June, 66 Henry III.®* both "exempting 
the burgesses of Beverley, for ever, from any arrests for debt within the realm, 
provided the principal bondmen or debtors be not forthcoming; and further de» 
daring, that they shall not for any forfeiture or transgression of their servants, lose 
their goods and chattels, found in the hands of the said servants, or elswhere placed 
by them, if the said burgesses be able to challenge and to prove them/ 


^ Corp. Rec. 7 B. " Corp. Rec. 7 C. ^ Corp. Rec. 7 D. 
^ Corp. Rec. 7 E. •> Corp. Rec. 7 G. 
M Corp. Reo. The first of these charters is attested by Habert, earl of Kent, the king's 
jastioiary ; WiUiam de Stnteville, and others ; the second by John^ bishop of Bath ; R. bishop of 
Darham; WiUiam, bishop of Carlisle; G. March, earl of Pembroke, and Homphrey de Bohan, 
earl of Hereford and Essex; the third by John, lord bishop of Bath; Richard, lord bishop of 
Saram; William, lord bishop of Carlisle, and many others; the fourth by Roger, lord bishop of 
Covenfary and Litchfield; William, lord bishop of Oxford; Roger le Bigot, earl of Norfolk, and 
marshal of England; Homphrey de Behnn, earl of Hereford and Essex; Thomas Basset, justice 
of England; John Maunsel, provost of Beverley, and others; and the fifth, by William, lord 
archbishop of York; Robert Burnell, archdeacon of York, and others. 

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isrtap. I^M. 

Injmtke and extortion — Commission of enquiry — Instances of crime at Beverley 
— The archbishop grants Fegang and Byscopdynges to the burgesses — Hospital 
of Saint Giles assigned to the priory of Wartre — Enumeration and explanation 
of the rights of the archbishop in Beverley — Disputes respecting private pro- 
perty — Charter of Edward L — Donations to the church — Taxation of pope 
Nicholas — War between England and Scotland — First parliament or assembly 
of lords and commons — Standard of John of Beverley conveyed to Scotland — 
Victory over the Scots — Hostilities renewed — Second victory — Banner replaced 
— Edward J. visits Beverley — grants liberties to the church — Minster restored 
— House of the Franciscan Friars erected — Enumeration of many detaclked 
private transactions which took place at Beverley about this period — The kin^ 
pays a second visit to the town. 

^ During the preceding reign, the revenues of the crown had been considerably 
diminished, by tenants in capite alienating without licence; and by ecclesiastics, 
as well as laymen, withholding from the crown, under various pretexts, its just 
rights, and usurping the privilege of holding courts, and other jura regalia. Nu- 
merous exactions and oppressions of the people had also been committed in this 
reign^ by the nobility and gentry claiming the rights of free chase, free warren, 
and fishery, and demanding unconscionable tolls in fairs and markets ; and again by 
sheriffs, escheators, and other ofiicers and ministers of the crown, under colour of 
law. King Edward I. who was on his return from the holy land on the death of 
his father, did not reach England till towards the latter end of the second year of 
his reign, and Ihese abuses remained uncorrected till his return. One of the first 
acts of his administration after his arrival, was to enquire into the state of the de- 
mesnes, and of the rights and revenues of the crown, and concerning the conduct 

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of sherifFs and other officers^ and ministers who had defrauded the king^ and 
grievously oppressed the people " ' 

The commissioners appointed to this service, were empowered, not only to 
enquire into, but to punish crimes and misdemeanors by fine and imprisonment; 
and hence, in an age of uncontrolled licence, when interest usurped the place of 
justice, the innocent were by no means safe, for the slightest suspicion of guilt, 
suggested by a secret enemy, was sufficient to endanger the property and personal 
liberty of the most harmless and inoffensive person. The prisons were soon sur- 
charged with a promiscuous assembly of innocent and guilty, and emancipation 
from confinement was only to be procured by the payment of heavy fines. Little can 
be said in praise of the inhabitants of Beverley during this period, for they appear to 
have partook of the extortion and injustice which characterized these unhappy 
times. Numerous were the complaints exhibited against them before the king's 
commissioners, many of which might indeed be false, but it is to be presumed 
that many were also true. In their principal branch of trade, the sale of coloured 
cloths, grievous complaints were made by the purchasers respecting the deficiency 
of their measure. Before one inquest, it was stated on oath, that the burgesses of 
Beverley purchase their goods and materials by a measure of extraordinary length, 
and sold their manufactures by another measure, which was considerably shorter 
than the proper standard; and it was sworn, that no cloth measures in use within 
the borough, were of a sufficient length.^ On another inquest for Howdenshire^ 
it was stated, that the measure by which corn was measured in the borough of 
Beverley, was much more capacious than that which was used in other places; 
and that the cloth weavers there did not make their webs of a sufficient length.' 
It will be recollected that the burgesses of Beverley were com buyers and cloth 
sellers; and therefore this complaint of the farmers, or occupiers of land, may be 
strictly just. At a third inquest, held within the burgh of Whitby, the same com- 
plaints against the burgesses of Beverley are reiterated. Here the complainants 
say on oath, that the inhabitants of Beverley make their webs of cloth deficient in 
length, and purchase their com and salt by measures which have been increased 
in magnitude, since the last journey of the marshal, Peter de Brays, who was 
probably a general inspector of weights and measures.^ 

' Ann. of Waveriy. Introd. to Rot. Hnnd. 
« Rot Hand. » Ibid. ^ Ibid. 

P 2 

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It might appear invidious to enlarge the catalogue of crime which was elicited 
at Beverley and other places, during the course of this enquiry. A few examples, 
however, may biei selected from the mass, to shew that power, where it existed only 
in a delegated form, was stretched to the utmost limit ; and that the licentious and 
oppressive conduct of the great lay barons, was imitated with avidity, on a smaller 
scale, by all, in these disorderly times, who possessed even the shadow of authority. 
Hugh de Driffield, of Beverley, had by some means acquired possession of about 
eighty-five acres of land, of the royal demesne, which he pretended to hold of the 
chapter of Saint John of Beverley. Nicholas, the vicar of Hessle, had been insulted 
by Richard Ross, of Beverley, and others; and they imposed on the peaceable man 
a heavy fine, as the price of his exemption from studied and habitual indignity. 
And more than this, the burgesses had erected a new gallows^ m terrorem^ and 
were in the constant practice of apprehending men under false pretences, with a 
view, probably, of eliciting the payment of fines.^ It is needless to multiply the 
instances of iniquity which stained this unhappy period ; suffice it to add, that 
summary punishment was inflicted on the ofienders, and the face of things was 
soon changed. Order and propriety succeeded to violence and injustice; the people 
found themselves protected from the aggressions of their more powerful neighbours, 
and returned cheerfrdly to the prosecution of their usual employment, which had 
been suspended, if not superseded, by the arbitrary encroachments of power, 
shrouded under the panoply of an abused authority. Turn we to subjects of more 
gratifying interest. 

In the year 1273, William Wickwane, archbishop of York, with the consent 
of the dean and chapter, granted unto certain burgesses of Beverley by name, and 
the commonalty there, a messuage, with the buildings, in the Market-place there, 
called Byscopdynges; and also a certain meadow, with arable land, known by 
the name of Out Ings, with the appurtenances, lying between New Dyke, and 
a pasture in the lordship of Beverley called Fegang; to hold the said property 
to the burgesses and their successors, and the commonalty of the town, for ever, 
on paying an annual quit rent of six shillings and eight-pence. This grant 
further exempted the burgesses of Beverley from the payment of pannage money, 
for the feeding of their swine, as well in the wood called Hag, as in Westwood, 
from Michaelmas to Christmas ia every year, being the season when acorns, mast^ 

* Rot Hand. Pladt de quo War. * Rot Hand. 

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and other fruit were in perfection; it relinquished, on the part of the archbishop^ 
and his successors, all claim to the agistment of Westwood ; provided that a certain 
division should be made between the pasture of Westwood and the arable land, 
and restricted the burgesses from reducing any part of Westwood to tillage. And 
it further declares, that in future, no villane of Woodmansey, or any other villane 
of the archbishop, should stock in common, within the pasture of Fegang/ In the 
same year, the prior and convent of Wartre, and the burgesses of Beverley, canfe 
to an agreement respecting the payment of tolls and stallage, at a fair holden at 
Waitre; in which the prior and convent covenant that the burgesses of Beverley 
shall be free from toll and stallage, provided they will not disturb the peace of the 
fair, and will be contented with such a place for their stalls, as the prior and 
convent shall honestly mark out^ 

The hospital of Saint Giles, in Beverley, was assigned, in the year 1277, by 
Walter Gifiard, archbishop of York, to the priory of Wartre, during the su- 
perintendence of John Queldrake, the tenth prior, who maintained here a specified 
number of poor people.' And the prior of Wartre gave the archbishop, in lieu of 
the advowson of this hospital, the wood called le Haye de Langwath, in the county 
of York.'^ The annual income of the hospital was very limited, and scarcely 
sufficient to support the establishment; it was therefore wisely annexed to the 
above convent, which was capable of supporting it according to the intention of the 
founder. It had a chantiy or free chapel annexed, in which prayers were re- 
gularly offered for the souls of its benefactors* 

Amongst the pleas of quo warranto, we find that a writ was issued against 
John le Romaine, archbishop of York, to examine by what authority he claimed to 
have, within the boroughs of Beverley and Ripon, infangthef and utfangthef, 
markets and fairs, personal property, (cataUa) a gallows and a gibbet, a pillory 
and a cucking stool, judgment of fiigitives and felons, wreck and waif, fines fi>r llie 
escape of thieves, coroners for prizes, return of writs, custody of prisoners and gaol 
delivery, pleas de frisca forcia et vetito namia, and other pleas which ought to belong 
to the sheriff J why neither sheriff nor bailiff of the king was suffered to enter into 

^ Corp. Rec. 8 B.— Ex MS. penes me. 

« Corp. Rec. 8 A. Dated the Sunday next before oor Lord's Nativity, 1273. 

« Lei. Itin. vol I. p. 40. Burt Mon. Ebor. p. 382. Tan. Notit p. 637. 

»o Rot. Pari. vol. i. p. 432. 

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his two boroughs of Beverley and Ripon, to exercise the duties of his office ; why 
the king's justices were not permitted to hold pleas, or try prisoners within the 
liberties of these boroughs ; on what authority he claims to have a park in Beverley ; 
and to ascertain whether, for these privileges, he has the lawful authority of the 
king, or any of his predecessors." 

To which the archbishop answered, that he claimed all these privileges by virtue 
of his office, from charter, and ancient usage; and proceeded to give a copious 
enumeration of all his rights and inununities, within the boroughs of Beverley and 
Ripon. He instituted a claim to in£uigthef and utfangthef ; established his right 
to possess moveable goods and chattels within these boroughs ; claimed the privil^e 
of weekly markets at Beverley and Ripon ; in the former place, on Wednesday and 
Saturday, and in the latter on a Thursday; and also four annual fairs'^ at Beverley; 
one, on the eve and day of Saint John the Baptist, and three following days; 
another on the eve and day of Saint John of Beverley, in winter (ffeme) ; a third, 
on the day of Saint John of Beverley, in May; and the fourth, on the eve and day 
of the ascension of our Lord. He claimed a fair at Ripon twice in the year; on 
the eve and day and morrow of the Invention of the Holy Cross; and on the eve 
and day and morrow of Saint Wilfrid, after the feast of Saint Michael the arch- 
angel. He further claimed, ab antiquo^ in Beverley and Ripon, to have a gallows 
and a gibbet, with the privilege of executing criminals without appeal to the king ; 
and also broken wreck of the sea in the river Hull and Beverley Beck, and all 
other property, whether living or dead, which 6hall be left on the shores of these 
waters by the retiring tide. He further laid claim to the right of having, at 
Beverley and Ripon, a pillory and cucking stool, (pilhrium el tumbettum)^^ and 

" Placit de qno. War. 

" Fairs were called by the Romans nundiniB, and were held every ninth dav. A court of 
justice wag always open daring their continuance. At these fairs new laws were rehearsed, which 
were esteemed valid after three separate readings. Alacrob. Satamal. c. 16. A law of William I. 
provides, that no fair or market shall be held except in cities, boroughs, castles, or other safe 
places; and that openly, in the presence of the magistrates and people. De Emporiis. Dr. 
Pettingall thinks, that if a fair be discontinued for some time, and gone into desuetude, it cannot 
be revived on the prior grant without a fresh concurrence of the lord of the fee. Archaol. vol u 
p. 196. 

>5 Tumbellum. Cucking or ducking stooL It is thought by some writers, that the tumbrell 
and the ducking stool were different instruments of disgrace and punishment In an inquisition 
held at Grimsby, in Lincolnshire, about the year 1273, it was complained, that Sir Walter de la 
Lynde, had erected in the village of Laceby, a tumbrell and a tkew, with which he unlawfully 
punished the villagers. Rot Hund. The latter of these instruments was undoubtedly a ducking 

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fines ott the escape of felons. He claimed also to have his proper coroners in both 
boroughs^ to be appointed and removed at his plea^re, and sworn to execute the 
duties of their office faithfully; also the returns of writs within his jurisdiction, on 
this principle, that if, for any crime committed within the liberties of Beverley or 
Ripon, the criminal be impleaded before the king's justices at Westminster, they 
shall freely render to his bailiffs, a fair and true copy of the writ and process, who 
shall hestr and determine the cause in the archbishop's court at Beverley or Ripon. 
But if the accused party, before judgment be given, shall return to the king's 
court, and claim from the justices there to resume his defence, on a suspicion of 
unfair dealing in the archbishop's court, it shall be granted, and if he can sub- 
stantiate his charge of partiality or prejudice against the officers there, the plea 
may then be finally determined in the king's court. 

The archbishop further laid claim to the custody of prisoners and gaol delivery, 
in the boroughs of Beverley and Ripon; with pleas de frisca fortia,** et vetito 

stool; what then was the former? I am inclined to think, that the tnmbrell was also a machine 
intended for the same purpose, though differing perhaps in some peculiarity of construction. ' 
The foUowing authorities will shew Uie various reasonings which have been used on this word. 
Brand says plainly, that the word tumbrell is but another name for the ducking stool. Dr. 
Jamieson is more particular. He says, Scot. Diet. v. cock-stule, ^' Writers differ in their account 
of the tumbrell. According to Cowel, this was a punishment anciently inflicted upon brewers 
and bakers transgressing the laws, who were, theretoie, in such a stool immerged over head and 
ears in atercorCf some stinking water. In the Burrow laws, the pillory was the punishment of 
men ; the cockstule, of women. But I have a strong suspicion,^^ the learned doctor adds, <<that 
Skene, in translating tumbrell um by cockstule, did not use a term exactly correspondent. For 
cockstule, as far as we can judge firom etymological affinity, seems much the same with pillory. 
Sibbald, indeed, derives cockstule from Teutonic kolcken, ingurgitare; from kolck, gurgi* 
voragOf vortex. But Belg. kaak is a Dutch pillory, being an iron collar, fastened either to a post 
or any other high place; Tent, kaecke, catasta, pegmaf colunma in qua damnati conspiciendi et 
deridendi proponuntur ; Kilian. Suio^Gothic, Kaak, infelix lignum, ad quo alligati stant, qui vel 
verbera patiuntur, vel alias ignominiaD ergo publice ostentia sunt. Danish. Kaag.^^ But in 
Beverley, the archbishop claims both a pillory and a tumbrell; and Fabyan distinctly notes the 
difference between the one and the other. He says, Chron. A. D. 1257, that the bakers of 
London were subjected to the punishment of the tumbrell, <'for lacke of syze;^^ and adds, that 
this punishment was ^'contrarye to the libertyes of the citye, where before tymes they were 
punysshed by the pyllerie;^^ which explains that passage in the Burrow laws, just cited, which 
consigns men to the pillory, and women to the cnckstule or tumbrell ; and this may be further 
illustrated, by an occurrence which took place at Grimsby, about the beginning of king John's 
reign. A poor woman had been accused before the mayor of crimes which she had never com- 
mitted, and such was the injustice that prevailed in the borough, that without either confirmation 
. or proof of guilt, she was hurried away to the tumbrell, and almost drowned. This act of arbitrary 
power was enquired into, on a complaint made by the woman^s friends, and the community of the 
borough were fined ten marks for their injustice. Mag. R4)t 2 Joh. And this instrument, the 
tumbrell or ducking stool remained in Grimsby down to a very recent period, and has been 
actually used within the memory of many persons now living in the town. 

>^ Fresh force. Any species of violence committed within the period of forty days. 

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namia,*^ and also insisted that, from his charters and ancient usage, no sheriff or 
bailiff of the king, had power to enter either of his said boroughs, to serve sum- 
monses, distringases, attachm^its, or to exercise any other office there, unless in 
default of his own bailiffs, for the time being. He claimed free warren and free 
chase in all his woods and demesnes; and also the privilege of having coroners on 
each side of the river Hull, to take prises, and to secure for his benefit, waif^* and 
broken wreck; and of tasting wines, and purchasing them or any other mer«- 
diandize, which shall be brought into the ports of Hull or Beverley, immediately 
after the king's prisage,^' and before they be exposed for sale in the market, with 
many other privileges respecting the administration of justice, &c« within the said 
boroughs, which it would be equally tedious and uninteresting to enumerate." 

How consistent soever with the manners and customs of the times this may have 
been, or necessary to restrain the turbulence of an uneducated population, it may 
be safely pronounced, that such an extent of civil power, united with his eccle* 
siastical influence, was far too great for a subject to possess; and though in the 
hands of a wise and well disposed prelate, it might be beneficial, in bad hands it 
would become noxious, and prove destructive of the liberties it was intended to 
protect. Hence arose the frequent complaints which were instituted by the inha- 
bitants of Beverley against successive archbishops, who had encroached cOi their 
privileges, and stretched their prerogative beyond the limits prescribed to it by 
law. The present archbishop does not appear to have been altogether exempt from 
this censure, for though he granted an indulgence for the support of an hospital 
dedicated to Saint Nicholas, at Beverley,'® which had been founded in 1286,^ yet 
he is represented by Knighton, as ^ a sordid hireling," and he certainly was so 
unjust as to impose upon the inhabitants the payment of pannage money, for the 

*^ The taking of a distress, and carr} ing it to a place where it cannot be replevied. 

^^ Waifs are goods which have been stolen^ and thrown away by the thief in his flight, for fear 
of being apprehended. These are given by law to the king, as a panishment npon the owner, 
for not himself parsning the felon, and taking away his goods from him. Blackst Com. vol* i. 
p. 296. 

*^ Pris^, was a word of equivocal meaning. Properly it signified capture; and in this sense 
it was sometimes used for captures taken in war, sometimes for purveyance, impost, or captures 
of other kinds. In the iexty prisage means " the right of taking two tuns of wine from eveiy ship, 
English or foreign, importing into England twenty tuns or more; one to be taken before, and the 
other behind the mast.'^ Blackst. Com. vol. i. p. 315. 

»* Placit. de quo War. 

'9 Reg. J. Romaine. Archiep. ^o Lei. Itin. vol. i. p. 40. Tan. Nbtit. York XII. 

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feeding of their swine^ in defiiaace 'Uf 4fae chktter ^tinixtili^^ granted to llid^ by 

his predecessor, WilKam Wickwane .*' ' ' - ^^ r nji/; 

In an age when the nse of coals was not common, a turbary, c* pirWileg<&>bf 

digging turf for fdel, constituted a valuable appendage to the poi^sessicm of property. 

The Britons were undoubtedly acquainted with ihe use of coal, but it was iiot 

generally introduced till long after the times we are noW contemplating* Hie 

preservation of this right, uninvaded, was attended wiih some difficulty, amidst 

the general licence which prevailed, when laws were ill understood, and justice 

was administered with partiality. Many disputes arose at Beverley, respecting 

the adjustment of this privilege. In the year 1288, a violent controversy aros^ 

between John de Melsa and Maria de Sutton, which produced the following cir« 

cumstances. Melsa possessed the privilege of cutting a specified number of caflrt 

loads of turf annually, in a certain district of land within the jurisdiction of the 

provost of Beverley. Not content with the prescribed quantity, he usually exceeded 

it to the amount which was dictated by his necessities, and consequently carried 

off more than his just rights, to the manifest injury of Maria de Sutton, who was 

probably the tenant in fee. This lady, finding her privileges thus encroached on, 

year after year, determined at length to vindicate her natural rights, and autliorizeA 

her son to adopt the necessary means of preventing a recurrence of the aggression, 

which in these times could only be effectually accomplished by the application of 

physical force. He assembled his friends near the spot, and waited in ambush the 

arrival of Melsa, with his carts and servants. They suffered him peaceably to cut 

the turves, and load his carts; and then issuing fix)m their concealment in a body, 

they made an attack upon him, seized his stores, and bore them away in triumph. 

This was not accomplished without high words, and probably blows ; and as the 

provost of Beverlsy declined to interfere, the circumstance formed the subject of 

litigfation before the king at Westminster.^ 

About this time king Edward I. granted a charter to Beverley, confirming all 
the former privileges enjoyed by the burgesses, and containing an additional clause 
for the improvement of the borough, and to afford the inhabitants an opportunity 
of applying themselves more quietly to their several employments. This charter 
provides that none of the burgesses, tiieir heirs or successors, shall henceforth plead, 
or be impleaded, before the king's justices TvUhaut the borough, of lands or tene- 

" Placit Abbrev. 16 Ed. I. » Placit. Abbrev. 17 Edw. 1. 


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QientS/lyiiig wUkm tbie bocougli; or of trespasses, covenants, or contracts, made 
within the borough, or of any other matters whatsoever arising there,*' except the 
pleas of maiming and breaches of the peace, which are not allowed in this charter 
to the Qourt at Beverley, because they affect the honour and dignity of the crown.^ 

The minster still lay in ruins; but as domestic peace became gradually re- 
d^tablished in the kingdom, and prop^y began to be placed on a firmer basis. 
Jibe canons and inhabitants of Beverley addressed themselves to serious thoughts of 
lestodng the venerated fabric. The more opulent afforded their aid towards 
Ibrming a fund for this beneficent purpose, and we find about this period many 
rich donations to the church, which were, doubtless, intended to be employed for 
its re-edification. In the year 1289, William Chambers alienated for this purpose, 
to the archbishop of York, certain parcels of land in the town of Beverley, and 
^er places,^ having obtained a licence of the king for that especial purpose in 
the preceding year.^ Johannis le Caretter assigned to the same prelate a rent of 
2s. 6d. in Woodmansey; William del Clay gave him eight acres of land in 
Beverley; and Robert presented him with a messuage, and the appurtenances, in 
the same place.*^ Roger Fitzosbert also gave lands in South Ferriby-upon- 
Humber, to the church of Saint John of Beverley.^ 

^ In the year 1288, pope Nicholas IV. granted the tenths of all ecclesiastical 
benefices to king Edward I. for six years, towards defiraying the expenses of an 
expedition into the Holy Land; and that they might be collected to their full 
value, a taxation by the king's precept was b^^ in that year, and finished, as to 
the province of Canterbury, in 1291, and as to that of York, in the following year ; 
the whole being under the direction of John, bishop of Winton, and Oliver, bishop 
of Lincoln."^ From this record, we learn the following particulars respecting the 
church at Beverley, although it should appear from the casual occurrence of a date 
in the valuation, that it was not completed till many years afterwards. 

Ebor' Dioc\ 

Tenores Rotulor' de p'ticulis antique taxac'ois honor' sp'ual'm et temp'alm Cleri 
diocesis Ebor' penes Sc'c'm D'ni Regis hie remanenc'm sequit'. in hec. verba.** 

«» Placit Abbrer. 18 Edw. I. 

^ Placit Abbrev. 19 Edw. I. *» Inquis. Post Mort. 18 Edw. I. 

^ Inquis. Post Mort 17 Edw. I. ^ Rot Pari. vol. i. p. 63. 18 Edw. I. 

^' Inqals. Post Mort 21 Ed. I. » Introd. to Tax. Eccl. 

^ CoUegiatar' eo'ciar' Bev'lao et Hovedon nno ec'ciar' sp'oaP Ep'i et P'oris Dnnelm' in 

Alvertonskyr ao ec'ciar' p'positar' Bev'l et sac'star' Ebor* ec'cie oimb' bonor' temporal' dn'i 

Archiep'i Ebor\ 

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Ebor. Sp. 
Taxatio Fbend- Eccl-ie Beyerlaoen' 

£. $. d. 

Prebend* Sd Martini...... ...i '. 46 

Preb' Sci And* ....;...,. 27 

Preb' Sci Jacobi.... 26 

PreV Sci Steph' , 26 

Preb' Sci Mich'is ....; ; 17 

Preb' Sci Peter , 26 

Preb' Sci Marie 16 

Porcio dni* Caroli de Bello Monte (vocat* See Kath*)> 6 13 4 

alibi benefic' i 

Comm'ia Eccl. Bev* que consistit in victualibns 66 13 4 

Porcio Canceir que consistit in vict^. 6 13 4 

Porcio Sacrist* que consistit in victf 12 

Porcio Cantar* que consist* in vict* alibi bnf 6 13 4 

Sm\ taxac'ois Fbendar* Eccl*ie Bevl 279 18 4 

Taxatio Porcionu* dec*iab'lm CFicor* et al* recipien' corrodia 

in Bedem* Beveri*. 

Porcio Rob*ti de Cruce alibi b*nficiat* 3 6 8 

Johes Afi Exefdr' possidet. 
Istam porc*oem non fuit alibi b'nficiat' in dioc* Ebor* sexto die Octbri 
Anno xxij*'Reg* E* t*cij p*ut cont* in quadam c*tifica'oe Willi. Arch. 
Ebor* hie inde f c*aque est int' bill'de t'ioMichis Anno xxiij* ejusd*Reg. 

Porcio Rogi Burd* qui h*et corrod*m Aurifabri 6 13 4 

Sm'. taxac*ois porcionu* in Bedem* 9 6 8 

Taxacio Eccl^ar existenem in p*p*oitura Bevl* 
cum pensionbz. 

Ecclia de Middleton p*t* pens* ...; 26 18 4 

Pens* ppositi Bev* in eadem 2 

Ecclia de Dalton p*t' pens* 16 

Pens' ejusdem pposit* in eadem 10 

Ecclia de Scourburgh 6 6 8 

Ecclia de Leckenfidd 10 

Ecclia de Northburton 20 O 

Ecclia S. Nich. Bev. p*t* pens* « W 4 

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£. 9. d. 

Pens" ejusdem pposit*. in; oadeiH 4 O 

Ecclia de Leven pY peaa* .•...,....•..• - 13 6 8 

x^ Pens* ejusdem pposit' in eadem 10 

.» Ecc^a de Bi^nsburton p't^pens^..•,,v- •...«.... IS 6 8 

Pens' ejuisdem pppsitVin e846m....M*»^tM*??ff*M*** »•• 2 

Ecclia de Siglestom p't pens'' v-v.',^^^^^^^ ^ 2ft 13 4 

, Pens' ejusdem pposit' in eadem . ,.M**vt •^ «« 2 

Ecclia de BisQ f.,.,,f,,,,s^,...^.f,.,f., *• & G 

Ecclia de HalsampV pens' ,, ,.,.,,, ,..v-.v...v-vv 10 O 

Pens' ejusdem pposit' in eadem....,* .-..?• 16 8 

Ecclia de Pairington p't' pens' 40. 

Pens' ejusdem pposit' in eadeni....... v/v— • -• 10 

Ecclia de Wellwyk p'f pens' ...^ -.^ 26 13 4 

Pens' ejusdem pposit' in eadem---^* •« ..350 

SmV taxac'ois p'positure Bev* ^ .-. 232 19 

Sm*. tot' taxac'ois p'bend' Poreionu' decimabil'm) ^^^ ^g ^ 

in Bedem' et p'positur' Bev' y 

Unde de benefices valorem £6. 13s. 4d. non exceden' > 37 o 
quor' possessores nan sunt alibi b*nf .« m.^ 

To confine oinrsdves to mere* local no(;ices of tbe town of Beverley, would be 
committing en injustice, for wliich it would not be easy to furnish an excuse. The 
design of history is more gencaral and difiusive. We shall now therefore take a 
wider range, as the public records of the kingdom furnish us with abundant 
materials to testify that the town and its inhabitants were honourably connected 
with the ecclesiastical and political transactions of these, eventful times. 

The two independent, kingdoms of England and Scotland, from their contiguity 
and facility of access, were continually at variance. The ravages of war contributed 
to drain bodi countries of their wealth, without producing any permanent advan^ 
lages to either. Thus weakened by intestine divisions, the noble jsland of Great- 
Britain, intended by nature for union against foreign f6es, was left exposed to the 
attacks of every hostile invader, and frequently suffered severely from the effects 
of indiscretion. The kings of England,, sensible at length of the advantages 
whidi would result from an indissoluble union of interests, endeavoured to secure 
this point, by establishing a claim to the Scottish crown, which, according to the 
defective policy of the. timesi could only be effected by the sword. The Scots^ a 

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brave and hardy people, uidignaQt at repeated aggressions, whicbtjhqr considered 
equally want(m and unproToked, resisted all the attempts of the English monarchs 
lo e&slaTe their natire landr and usually retaliated, with great severity, the injuries 
they had suffered from hostile invasion. These proceedings kept the inhabitants 
of die borders in a continual: state of dread and insecurity. The whole strength 
of the island was frequently summoned to decide these unnatural contests, and 
much valuable blood was almost annually shed in the dispute. Edward I. a wise 
and politic monarch, beheld with a steady eye, all the benefits which would 
mutually result from a union of the two kingdoms, and resolved to accomplish it at 
the risk of any sacrifice ; convinced, that should his endeavours be crowned with 
success, his name would be transmitted to posterity covered with immortal glory. 
- In the year 1205, he projected the invasion of Scotland, with an army calculated 
to bear down all opposition ; but his treasury was exhausted, and he had already 
levied subsidies in so many questionable shapes, that he felt himself at a loss for a 
new pretext which might sanction the imposition of any additional burden on the 
people. He had recourse, at length, to a device which was attended with all the 
success he could desire. Being involved in these pecuniary embarrassments, he 
^ became sensible that the most expeditious way of raising a supply, was to 
assemble the deputies of all the boroughs ; to lay before them the necessities of the 
state, and to require their consent to the demands of their sovereign. For this 
reason he issued writs to the sheriffs, enjoining them to send to parliament, along 
with two knights of the shire, two deputies fix>m each borough, within their county; 
and these, provided with sufficient powers fit>m their community, to consent, in 
their name, to what he and his council should require of them. As it is a most 
equitable rule, said he, in his preamble to this writ, that what concerns all should 
be approved of by all, and common dangers repelled by united efforts ; a noble 
principle, which may seem to indicate a liberal mind in the king, and which laid 
the foundation of a free and equitable government After the election of these 
deputies by the aldermen and common council, they gave sureties for their attend* 
ance before the king and parliament Their chaises were respectively borne by 
the borough which sent them; and they had so little idea of appearing as legislators, 
that no intelligence could be more disagreeable to any borough, than to find that 
they must elect; or to any individual, than that he was elected to a trust fix>m 
which no profit or honour could possibly be derived."" To this parliament the 

«) Hume, Engl. vol. ii. p. 274. 

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borough of Beverley was sammoned to send two representatives^ who attended &e 
sessions of 1298, 1300, and 1302 ; afler which, the burgesses possessed sufficient 
influence to be relieved from the custom, until it became of less risk and gpreater 
importance, about the year 1563. 

Thus assisted by the voluntary benevolence of his subjects to an enormous 
amount, for at this first parliament the barons gave him an eleventh part of their 
annual income, Ihe clergy a tenth, and the burgesses, with still greater liberality, 
a seventh ; Edward raised an army of 30,000 foot, and 4000 horse ; and to make 
security more siu*e, a patent was issued for bearing before the army into Scotland, 
the famous standard of John of Beverley," which, it appears, had been saved from 
destruction when the church was in flames; a deputation, accompanied by a 
strong party of soldiers, was duly authorized to remove the banner with all 
suitable solenmity, and the honour of carrying it, on this occasion, was conferred 
on one of the vicars of Beverley, called Gilbert de Grymesby,** who received eight- 
pence halfpenny per diem for his wages. The superstitious soldiers, inspirited by 
the presence of this consecrated ensign, bore down all before them; gained the 
victory in every conflict, and forced the Scots to accept of the most humiliating 
terms of peace. Edward brought with him into England the palladium of Scottish 
liberty, and returned to his metropolis in triumph, with the king of Scotland as a 
captive in his train. 

At the close of this year^ the king paid a visit to lord Wake, and spent his 
Christmas, with great gaiety, at Cottingham. 

A parliament was held at York in 1298, and the Scottish nobility were sum- 
moned to attend. They refused; and the assembly determined on a renewal of 
hostilities, to punish their contumacious disobedience. Edward commanded the 
people of Beverley, and of other parts of Yorkshire, to assemble at Alverton, about 
Candlemas, with horses and arms;** and issued orders for a general muster of his 
army at York, in the following April, resolving to take a signal vengeance on the 
Scots, for their breach of &ith. But this warlike people, though once defeated, 
were not finally subdued. Their national spirit soon placed them in a condition 
to hurl defiance at their conqueror, and the celebrated William Wallace appeared 
in the field, at the head of a formidable army, to assert the independence of Scot- 
land, and rescue the martial character of its inhabitants from a dishonourable 

» Rot Pat 24 Edw. I. ** Rym. Foed. torn ii. p. 732. Piynne. Ant Const. Angl. vol. iii. p. 667 

*^ Madox. Ezob. vol. ii. p. 219. 

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impatalJMu But nodimg could suppress the zeal and activity of the English king. 
His prfparations were conducted on a most magnificent scale. To secure a supply 
of soldiers, well disciplined^ and prepared against any emergency, he made an 
ordinance for arming the whole population of England, and prescribed the different 
sortp of armour, both offensive and defensive, with which every person was expected 
to be provided, according to his rank and substance. And that the letter of the 
a^ might be strictly complied with, it was further ordered, that proper officers be 
appointed, with powers to make search in every house, for the puipose of ascer^ 
taining whether the arms were kept in due order, and ready for service; and to 
make their report periodically to the justices of the peace.'' 

The dispute was again settled by a single battle, and at Falkirk the English 
gained a complete and decisive victory. In the succeeding year, another parliament 
was summoned at York, from whence Edward proceeded in triumph to Scotland, 
to secure his conquests; and having finally reduced the Scottish nation to sub* 
mission, a patent was issued for replacing the standard of Saint John, which was 
formally deposited, by its distinguished bearer, Gilbert de Grymesby, with every 
mark of veneration and respect, in the presence of the victorious monarch, who 
visited Beverley for this especial purpose, in the month of November, 1299.^^ 

This royal visit appears to have been of essential service to the town. Proper 
representations were doubtless submitted by the canons, of the desolate state of 
their church, now a heap of ruins; and its former extent and magnificence would 
be eagerly pointed out to this wise and prudent monarch, who probably recom* 
mended its re-edification; for he had already granted a charter to the church, 
confirming all its former privileges and immunities;'^ and g^ven to the canons a 
patent, enabling them to raise a voluntary contribution for diis purpose,'* A re- 
commendation fix)m a potent monarch, in the arms of victory, has the nature of a 
command; and great preparations were from this time made for rebuilding the 
fabric. Donations poured in from all quarters, which, added to the accumulations 
arising from former grants, enabled the canons to accomplish their purpose. The 
king had also granted to them corrodies, or allowances for providing his servants 
with meat, drink, and other necessaries, in case his visits should be repeated ;** 
whidi forms decisive evidence of his perfect satisfaction with the canons, and his 

^ Stratt Man. A Cast vol. il. p. 43. m Rot Pat 29 Edw. I. 

^RotChart25Edw.L •^RoiPBi.ZS Edw. I. 

» Inqnls. Post Mort 2^^ Edw. I. 

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intention of honouring them again iinth his presence. The building now com^ 
menced auspiciofusly, and proceeding with equal rapidity and spirit, the dioir was 
soon finished^ in its present style of architectural beauty; widi the exception of 
the east window, which was probably added about the 15th c^itury. On the 29th 
of May» 1300, the king again entered Beverley, with a large and splendid train, 
giving, by his presence, a new impulse to the work ; and granted a free pardon to all 
fugitives who had taken sanctuary at Beverley, and had voluntarily followed him 
to the Scottish wars.*^ 

The ecclesiastical interests at Beverley appear to have been generally benefitted 
by the royal visit At this time, John de Hightemede, William Liketon, and 
Henry Weighton, gave some land, near the chapel of Saint Helen, at Beverley, 
which adjoined the old church, to the Franciscan friars, for the purpose of erecting 
a monastery, which was immediately commenced/' The master and brethren of 
Saint Giles's hospital found themselves much inconvenienced for want of a garden, 
and a smaU portion of land, for the use of the establishment, and the king, in 
council, had passed a general statute of mortmain, which precluded the possibility 
of alienating land to these institutions, except by royal licence. The peculiarity of 
their situation was pointed out, and the monarch graciously gave them a licence 
for alienation j and Robert Roos de Hamlake exchanged an oxgang of land at 
Wartre, for three acres adjoining the hospital of Saint Giles, at Beverley, which 
he appropriated in mortmain, for the use of the establishment/* 

It is impossible to conjecture how far such kind of records as the following, may 
be deemed interesting. They occur very frequently in the materials, and a spe- 
cimen is purposely introduced at the conclusion of this chapter, although it is 
evident that the omission of such private documents as do not tend to illustrate 
any general principle, will not be eslieemed a blemish in the work. Dionysius de 
Monte Caniso held at this time, in Beverley, an annual rent of 22d; which was 
accoimted for to Adam Lulleman, for certain tenements held of the archbishop of 
York, on the tenure of doing suit and service at his court at Beverley, twice a 
year.** Robert Pykering gave to the chapter of Saint John of Beverley, eight newly 
built shops in that town.** A curious patent was issued in 1806, for arresting false or 
assumed procurators,** who had employed themselves in collecting voluntary contri- 

^ Rot PbL 30 Edw. I. <> Lei. Itin. vol. i. p. 40. Tan, NoUt York, XII. 8. 

^> Inqnis. Post Mort. 32 Edw. I. ^' Plaoit Abbrev. 33 Edw. I. 

** Inguis. Post Mort 34 fidw. I. <« Rot Pat 35 Edw. I. 

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bations in different parts of the country, nnder the pretext of applying the amount 
towards the repairs of Beverley minster; and succeeded in levying considerable 
sums, which they converted to their own use; a clear proof that impositions were 
practised on the community, in these times, for fraudulent purposes; and it is 
highly probable that the credulity of the English people was as characteristic then, 
as it is at present We know that open crime was much more prevalent at this 
period of ignorance and partial civilization, when the gentiy, the citizens, and 
burgesses, had little learning of any kind,^ and the monarchs themselves scarcely 
{x>ssessed the power of enforcing an observance of the laws, or of punishing' the 
most notorious malefactors ;^^ but it is only by such casual notices as the present^ 
that we can form a competent idea of their perfection in the more polished arts of 
dissimulation and concealed imposture. Edward had effected much towards 
restraining crime, by his activity and improved method of administering justice ;^ 
but still the country swarmed with restless spirits, whom no honour could bind, 
no laws could restrain. An instance of this occurred at Beverley, which may be 
here recorded. A notorious malefactor, named John de la More, had made his 
escape from prison, while under sentence of death at York, and came to the town 
of Beverley, probably for sanctuary. It should appear, however, that he was re- 
cognized without the prescribed limits, for Thomas Jarwell, one of the vicars, with 
two other clergymen, and a posse of the inhabitants, took him, after a desperate 
resistance, and delivered him over to the sheriff.** 

At the close of his long and prosperous reig^, Edward once more honoured the 
town of Beverley with his presence, and was joyfully received by its loyal and 
grateful inhabitants. He was attended by his court, and transacted public business 
in the town. A patent was granted to the earl of Lincoln, under the king's private 
seal, dated Beverley, July 22nd, 1306;** the charters of the burgesses were in- 
spected at his court, and he subsequently confirmed all the liberties and immunities 
which former kings had granted and conveyed.** 

*• Aubrey MSS^ in Ashm. Mas. OxL *^ Robertson. Soofl. b. 1. 

^ Vid. Spelm. Gloss, v. Jnstidarias. <» Placit Abbiev. 1 Edw. II. 

^ Rym. Fsd. torn. ii. p. 1004. 

•1 Rot Chart 35 Edw. 1. Corp. Rec. 8. D. 11 Ap. 85. Edw. L Attested by William, loid 
bishop oi Coventry and Litofafield; John, lord bishop of Carlisle; Henry de Laoi, earl of Lincoln; 
Guy de Beanchamp, earl of Warwick; John de Bretagne, earl of Richmond, and others. Given 
by the king's own hand, at Carlisle. 

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®]&ap. HX^. 

Provasfs court — House of Black Friars erected — Writ to arrest false procurators 
— War with Scotland renewed — Commission of array — Suburbs of York burnt 
— Archbishop of York vanquished by the Scots — Soldiers raised at Beverley 
— Church of Saint Mary endowed — Decoration of the Minster — Commission 
of array — Town of Beverley reluctant to provide the stipulated number of 
soldiers for the Scottish wars — Edward III. visits Beverley — The bailiffs of 
Beverley pay a fine to the kiny to be released from the conscription — Naval 
armament — Extensive trade of Beverley — Donations to the church — Pardon 
to Grtthmen at Beverley — Invasion of the Scots — Vanquished by the arch- 
bishop of York — Humility of the inhabitants of Beverley during the conflict. 

Edward II. succeeded his father to the throne, and found the kingdom well 
provided with every thing necessary to maintain its pre-eminence abroad, or its 
tranquillity at home, and had he possessed the talents and virtues of his father, 
England would have been advanced during his reig^, to the highest pinnacle of 
glory* The late monarch, by his prudence and perseverance, had succeeded in 
permanently uniting the principality of Wales to the crown of England ; and left 
the preparations for reducing Scotland also, in such a favourable train, that a 
Cffuall portion of spirit and firmness would have sufficed to accomplish this arduous 
undertaking, which appeared so desirable for securing the peace and tranquillity 
of the whole island. At the commencement of his reign, Edward secured the 
alliance of France, by a marriage with Isabella, the king's daughter, and seems 
to have been desirous of completing the designs of his warlike father, respecting 
the entire subjugation of Scotland. He issued precepts for raising and manning 
a competent navy, and strengthened his funds by renewing and confirming the 
borough charters. 

In the first year of his reign, Robert le Constable, rector of Foston, appeared 
in the provost's court at Beverley, before the bailiffs there, to recover possession of 

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a messuage in Beverley^ with the appurtenances, which had been ill^^ly detained 
by Herbert de Sutton/ There appears to have been at this pario^, instances of 
perversion of justice in the provost's court, which, on some occasions, elicited the 
strongest expressions of public censure. Thus, in 1309, a writ was addressed by 
the king to the bailiffs of this court, accusing them of injustice and partiality, in 
the decision of a litigated cause, between Richard de Seton and William de Brid« 
deshale, respecting the possession of a cottage ; and comn^anding them to restore 
the property to its rightful ovraer.* 

In 1310, the king granted a charter of confirmation and inspeximus, securing 
to the provost his right to thraves of com throughout the Ea^t-riding/ About this 
time, a house of black or preaching friars, was founded in Beverley, by ft pa*son 
named Goldsmith f and a piece of ground, to erect a house upon, was assigned to. 
them by Thomas de Holm, containing in length, 237 feet, and in breadth, 120. 
feet ;* and three years afterwards it was confirmed to them by royal patent,^ All 
these grants, patents, and institutions, were calculated ixi confer additional weight 
and stability on the town, now rapidly advancing to celebrity as a wealthy and 
populous place. 

At this period, the system of collecting money under false pretences, was again 
commenced on a scale of increased magnitude, notwithstanding the statute of the 
late reign ; and a band of impostors, who appear to have acted in concert, feigning 
themselves to be messengers and procurators of the chapter of Saint John of 
Beverley, made large collections of money and goods, in several parts of England, 
Wales, and Ireland, under colour of applying the produce towards the repairs of 
the minster. It was soon discovered, however, that their intentions were firaudulent, 
and that the benevolence of the public was appropriated to their own use. The 
case being laid before the king in council, letters-patent were issued to all sheriffs, 
bailiffs, and others, strictly commanding that all such feigned procurators should 
be arrested, and required to give an account of their pretended tnission; and that 
all monies in their possession ^ould be applied to the use for which it had been 

1 Rot Orig. 1 Edw. IT. « Ibid. 3 £dw. II. 
« Corp. Rec. Sep. 7. 4 Edw. II. 9 A. Inquis. ad quod dam. 3 Edw. II. Rot Pat 4 Edw. II. 

* Lei. Itin. vol. i p. 40. 
* Inqnis. ad qaod dam. 2 Edw. II. « Rot Pat 5 Edw. II. Tan. Notft York. Xlt 7. 
' Rot Pat 4 Edw; II. Rym. Food. torn. iii. p^ 248. 

R 2 

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13ie versati)e^aEid;mcoii8taiit dispo«ifckm of the king, enocnuraged the Scots once 
move to revolt, mnA vMi Robert Bruce at their head, they appeared in the fields 
mod gaobed some advantages over .die small army that was opposed to them. But 
whenthey advaooced towacds the borders, and threatened an imipti<m into England^ 
the king was roused, and resolved to make a vigorous effort, and crush them by 
a single battle. He assembled .his anny from all quarters ; purchased the assistance 
of the Irish, the Welsh, and even the Flemings, who joined the English army in 
expectation of plunder; and his united forces amounted to 100,000 fighting men. 
He lookup his quarters at Beverley for a short time, during his march into the 
north ;^ and while ihere, he granted a pass, or .writ of safe conduct, to Alexander 
Cony^rs, to proceed to Ireland or Scotland;* and also for a ship called Saint 
Mary Bot, to proceed from Beverley, vrith her crew and passengers, for Scotland.'^ 
All tliese mighty preparations^ however, came to nothing, for want of activity and 
decision on the part of the monarch; and the army, disproportionate as it was, 
suffered the disg^race of a total defeat at Bannockbum, by a handful of Scottish 
soldiers, under the able and judicious conduct of the brave Robert Bruce ; which 
restored to Scotland her pristine rank and consequence as an independent kingdom. 
The king fled to York, and called a parliament, to advise how to proceed in this 
lamentable crisis, for Bruce had threatened to pursue him to his own metropolis. 
Nothing could be done ; the panic which had infused itself amongst his soldiers, 
after having, sustained a loss of 50,000 men in one batUe,'^ was too overwhelming 
to permit diem, soon to fatce the victorious army, with the necessary confidence pf 
success. Brace pursued his advantage, and penetrated into the north of England; 
^d it wasifamine, and not the sword, which drove him back into his native country* 
In iai5, the king granted a charter to the church at Beverley, of free warren 
in:South4Dalton, North-Burton, Middleton, Lockington, Walkington, Leven, Wei* 
wick, WiUceton, Boston, Firmer, Rydings, and Singlesham ; and also a fair at the 
latter place.-'' In^ihe same year, William Melton, provost of Beverley, was elevated 
to.the4iee of York, but did not receive consecration till two years afterwards ; and 
the custody of the manors of Beverley and Ripon was committed by the king to 
Simon de Driby, during the vacancy, to hold at the royal pleasure, at an annual 
rent of £350.** The temporalities were restored to the archbishop immediately 
afiter his consecration.'^ 

• Rot. 9cot,.Ap. 7. 1314. • Rot Soot 7 Edw. II. «Ubid. "Buchanan. 
« Rot Cart 8 Edir« II. ". Rot Orlg. 9 Edw. II. " Abbw?v. Plaoit 1 1 Edw. II. 

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The king still contiiiiied his preparations for retrieidng his losses in the norths 
and in the year 1816, we again find him at Beverley, issuing orders for amung 
the whole population of Yorkdike and Northumberland, between the ages of sixteen 
and sixty ;'^ and appointing officans to see that his commands were ^carried inta 
execution.'^ In 1318, he issued precepts to every city and borough throughout 
England, commanding his officers to raise an army of foot soldiers, well armed 
and accoutred, for an expedition into Scotland; and the quota assigned to the towb 
of Beverley, was 30 men, which the bailiffs were ordered to raise without ddayJ' 
Early in 1319, the king again visited Beverley, from whence he issued his oom^ 
mands, that the whole population of the kingdom, between the ages of twenty and 
sixty, should be armed, to resist the threatened invasion of the Scots.'* From hence 
he proceeded to York, and commanded the courts to be removed thither, and the 
judges of the King's Bench to attend.'* He appointed commissioners for eviery 
district in the county of York, to superintend the arming of all able-bodied men 
between the two specified ages, and to determine on the different species of armour 
offensive and defensive, which should be the best suited to each. The commissioners 
for the borough of Beverley, were Richard de Burton and William de Rolleston.^ 
His army being at length organized, the king marched into the north, and laid 
siege to Berwick. 

But while Edward wasted his time in preparation, Murray, the Scottish general, 
was on the alert, and no sooner had Edward sat down before Berwick, than 
hastily marching by another route, he penetrated to York, and burned the suburbs 
of tile city. At this period, ardibishop Mdton, the late provost of Beverley, ^ a 
reverend, grave divine, but a young soldier, more for the indignity of the affront, 
than any hopes of success, took up arms, and assembled such forces as he could 
raise; composed of clergjrmen, monks, canons, and otiier spiritual men of the 
church, witii a confiised heap of husbandmen, labourers, artificers, and tradesmen, 
in all to the number of 10,000. These abk soldiers had as experienced eanmanders^ 
the archbishop and the bishop of Ely, lord Chancellor, being the leaders of these 
warlike troops, much fitter to pray for the success of a battie, than to fight it 
This formable army, breathing nothing but revenge, followed the Scots, but they 
did not follow tiie proverb, to buUd a bridge for a fiying enemy ^ and overtook them 

" Rot Scot 7 Sep. 10 Edw. II. »• Rot Scot 15 Sep. 10 Edw. II. 

^^ Rot -Scot 12 Aug. 12 Edw. IL i* Rot Soot 6 Jan. 12 Edw. IL 

1* Ryley. Plaoit Part p. 564. ^ Rot Scot 6 Nov. 13 Edw. II. 

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at Myton-upon-S^^e, about eleyen miles from York« The Scotch army, finding 
themselves pursued, drew up on the other side of the river in battalia. Then they 
set fire to some haystacks which were upon the place ; the smoke of which, driving 
with a brisk wind in the faces of the English as they passed the river, so blinded 
them that they could not see the enemy; who came down in good order upon 
them, and without any great resistance entirely routed them. There were slain 
and drowned of the English above 2000, some say, 4000; the rest, with their 
generals, made great haste back to the city. In this conflict fell Nicholas 
Flemming, then mayor of York, who had headed up his citizens to the battle ; 
there were taken prisoners, sir John de Pabeham, knight, lord William Ayrmin^ 
and several others. Here was such a fall of the priesthood, that the English, says. 
Buchanan, called this fight, for a long time after, the white battle.''^' 

In 1322, the king, after having conciliated the barons, held a parliament at^ 
York, which granted iiim a large subsidy to further his designs against the Scots ; 
and his precepts issued to the sheriffs of counties and cities, and the bailifl^ of 
boroughs, to raise men, and send them, properly armed, with sufficient stores of 
provisions to Newcastle-upon-Tyne, were couched in very peremptory terms.^ A 
commission of this nature was directed to Richard Rice and William de RoUetson, 
commanding them to raise, in every town and place within the liberties of Beverley; 
all the effective men between the ages of sixteen and sixty, each being duly 
arrayed according to his estate ; and being divided into companies of 100 and 20 
respectively, to appear at York with them on an appointed day, to act against the 
Scots.** The projected expedition was again unsuccessful, and this ill-starred 
monarch was once more obliged to retire into his own country, vanquished by the 
superior activity and discipline of his hardy opponents. 

In the 16th year of his reign the king gave to the burgesses of Beverley, an 
inspeximus, establishing their right to an exemption firom toll throughout the 
realm, the city of London only excepted, and confirming the charter of Edward I." 

In 1324, a royal patent was granted to Robert de Scorburgh, enabling him to 
found and endow a chantry in the chapel of Corpus Christi within his house at 
Beverley f and he made a fine with tlie king of 100 shillings, that he might assign 

•> Drake. Ebor. p. 100. » Madox. Excheq. vol. i. p. 383. " Ibid. vol. ii. p. 1 1 1. 
•* Corp. Reo. 9 B. 4 March, 16 Edw. II. Dated at Knaresborongh, and attested by Thomas 
de Brottierton, earl of Norfolk and marshall of England; Hugh le De Spencer, the younger ; 
Richard D^armory, steward of the king's household, and others. 

^ Rot. Pat 17 Edw. II. 

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in 'mortmain a layman's fee in Beverley and Ettoii to a chaplain, for the piirpose 
of performing the usual divine services in his newly founded institution.^ At this 
time, Nicholas Cave and Christiana his wife, of Beverley, possessed a messuage, 
a wind-mill, and eight oxgangs of land in Brantyngham and North Cave ; a 
house, with twelve oxgangs of land, in the parish of Middleton ; and a substantial 
messuage, with ten oxgangs of land, in Beverley and Molescroft.'^ Richard de 
Scorburgh held messuages and lands in Beverley and Etton for the benefit of a 
chantry priest in Beverley/ to whom the annual profits were assigfned.'* And 
David de Strabolgi, earl of Athol, and Joan, his wife, possessed property in 
Beverley, consisting of lands, tenements, and rents.^ 

In the year 1325, an arrangement was made for endowing the church of Saint 

Mary, and elevating it into a parochial establishment On the 4th of May, 

Robert de Northburgh, prebendary of the prebend of Saint Martin ; and Nicholas 

de Siglesthome, vicar of the chapel of Saint Mary, submitted themselves to the 

award and decree of William de Melton, archbishop of York, concerning the 

portion as well of the vicar as of the prebendary, and the following ordinances 

were made binding on them and their successors. First, that the altar and chapel 

of Saint Mary be used for the performance of the sacred services of religion for 

ever; that the vicar shall have the cure of souls, and be at the presentation of the 

said prebendary, and be canonically admitted by the archbishop when the see is 

fill], and in its vacancy by the dean and chapter of York. Secondly, the vicarage 

shaU have these portions, viz : the tithes of all crofts and lands and gardens within 

the town of Beverley, which belonged to the prebend of Saint Martin, or his 

chapel of Saint Mary ; all the customary fees for marriages and burials ; Hie tithe 

of eg-gs, geese, ducks, fowls, pigeons, and pigs ; the tithe of wool and lamb, goats 

and calves, and the oblations of principal festivals as far as they may be lawfully 

claimed by the prebendary or the vicar. The prebendary and his successors were 

also commanded to allow the vicar five marks per annum. In consideration of 

these profits the vicar of Saint Mary was bound to provide two chaplains to 

c^ebrate divine service daily, one at the altar of Saint Martin, and the other in 

the chapel of Saint Mary; and to be present with his priests in a regular habit in 

all processions of the prebendal church of Beverley, whether on Sundays or 

^ Rot. Orig. 17 Edw. II, ^ Inqnis. Post. Mort. 16 Edw. II. 
^ Inqnis. ad quod. damn. 17 Edw. II. » Inqnis. Post Mort. 1 Edw. IK. 

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festivals. This decree W9S confiniied by the king in the year 1329,^ and l^ ibe' 
dean and chapter of Yori:, 17 June, 1335.'^ 

The murder of the king, and the accession of his son, a youth of only fcmrteen 
years of age, were events virhich appeared favourable for a Scottish invasicm ; and 
the king of tliat country did not fail to take advantage of the present aspect of 
affiurs, but marched an army of 25,000 men, under the command of Murray and 
Douglas, two experienced generals, across the border, and sat down before the' 
city of Cadisle.^ The Scots had formed a false estimate of the valour and spirit 
of the youthful monarch ; for his character was decidedly the reverse of that of his 
father. Brave, ardent, and indefatigable, he rejoiced in the opportunity thus 
gratuitously affi>rded him of gratifying his thirst for martial glory, and displaying 
his courage in the field. He fixed his head quarters at York, with the determina- 
tion of raising a gallant army, and convincing the Scottish monarch of his mistake. 
Precepts were issued throughout the kingdom to all sheriffs, bailifib, and other 
officers to send up men to the army vdthout delay; and the bailiffs of Beverley 
were commanded, on forfeiture of body and goods, to lead, themselves, ^ by day 
and night'' until they joined the army intended to act against the Scots, all the 
able bodied men within their liberties, properly armed and provided; and to tax 
every person who was not able to bear arms, towards defi*aying the expenses of 
those who were engaged in actual service.^' The young king also engaged the 
assistance of the celebrated John of Hainault,.who brought over vnth him an army 
of 2000 foreigners. Thus provided, Edward took the field vidth great alacrity, 
hoping to bring the contest to the decision of a battle. But the Scots appear to 
have lost their wonted courage by the vigour and activity of his proceedings, and 
at his approach, they sounded a retreat Edward sent the veteran Scottish 
generals a formal challenge to meet him in the field, but this the wary Scots 
declined, and returned by hasty marches into their own country, leaving the track 
of their course visible by burned villages, and other marks of barbarian devastation. 
Edward was obliged, in great chagrin, to disband his army without having had 
an opportunity of displaying his military talent, or his personal courage in the 
field of battle. 

^ Rot Orig. 3 Edw. III. 

»»lEx Reg. W. Melton Archiep. Ebor. an. 1317 to 1340. 1, p. 66. Lansd. MSS. B. Mas. 896.; ^ ^ 

^ Rym. FoBd. tom. iv. p. 296. » Rot. Soot 1 Edw. III» 

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' It appears highly probable that about the year 1329, the painted windows and other 
decorations were introduced into the choir of the minster, for a patent was now granted 
investing certain persons with the charge and responsibility of the fabric and painted 
windows of the church ;^ and these persons made a fine with the king for the con- 
firmation of former charters;^ and a further patent was issued by the king in council, 
confirming all the rights of the church, whether in lands or tenements, fisheries, rents, 
or any other goods, profits or advantages whatsoever.^ A patent was also granted 
•to the provost and canons in the next year, confirming their right to thraves of 
com within the wapentake of Holderness.'^ In 1332, a charter of confirmation 
was granted to the borough,^' for which the burgesses paid a fine to the king of two 
inaTks f^ in the same year, a patent was issued for the chapter of the collegiate 
church j^ and Robert de Pykering, clerk, gave to the same chapter two messuages 
and three acres of land for the benefit of one of their chaplains/' 
' A dispute having arisen in Scotland respecting the lawful heir to the throne, 
Edward Baliol, one of the competitors, secretly stipulated with the English king, 
that on condition of establishing a secure title to the crown by his assistance, he 
would engage to hold the kingdom of Scotland in homage. This stipulation 
fanned the embers of the youthful Edward's love of military glory into a flame, 
and he prepared, without hesitation, to complete the performance of his contract. 
'He issued writs for training and arming horse and foot soldiers within the northern 
counties ; and to collect together all effective men between sixteen and sixty years 
of age. Richard Dousyng, Adam Cupendale, and Adam Tyrwhit were appointed, 
jointly and severally, to array and train to arms all men within the liberties of 
Beverley; to send within three days, imder the command of Adam Cupendale and 
Adam Tyrwhit, fifty hobelars and fifty foot soldiers, whether expert archers or 
not ; and to train all other men, within the specified ages, to be ready to march on 
the shortest notice.^* The king, having thus furnished himself with a small army, 
well provided, laid siege to Berwick without delay. It should appear that the 
expected detachment from Beverley did not join him, in obedience to his writ, 
for Adam de Cupendale abandoned the command, and Thomas de Holm was 
appointed in his place, to train the population of Beverley to arms j*' and he was 

. , ^ Rot Pat. 3 Edw. III. ^ Rot Orig. 8 Edw. III. , »« Rot Pat 3 Edw, III. 
>7 Rot Pat 4 Edw. III. „ Ck>rp. Reo. 14 Deo. 6 Edw. III. 10 A. 
39 Rot Orig. 6 Edw. III. « Rot Pat 6 Edw. III. ^* Inquis. ad qnod dam. 6 Edw. III. 
« Rot Scot 12 May. 7 Edw. III. « Ibid. Z June. 7 Edw. III. 


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commanded to Aimish the fiAy horse and fifty foot soldiers from Beverley without 
farther delay, and to send them to Richmond and Northallerton, to act against the 
Scots.^^ A writ of exemption wa^^ also issued in favour of John Cupendale, 
merchant, of Beverley, who was liberated from all military engagements, and 
allowed to go on a voyage into foreign parts, for which he had obtained a licence 
from the king.^^ The people of Beverley appear to have been averse to meeting 
the king's wishes on this subject, for the men were not yet sent, and Edward daily 
expected an attack from the Scottish army to raise the siege of Berwick. Im- 
patient of delay, he issued another writ, in which he accused the arrayers not only 
of negligence and disobedience, but imputed their omission to peculation, and other 
causes of a still baser nature; and threatened them with summary and signd 
pimishment, if they did not give their most earnest diligence and labour to said, 
without further notice, the required fifty horse and fifty foot soldiers to his aid 
against the Scots/^ This .threat was decisive; the men were sent, and in the 
month of July following, the king received the expected attack of the Scottish 
army with great coolness and intrepidity. In this action he efiectually vindicated 
the national honour, which had been tarnished by his unfortunate parent ; and the 
Scots were entirely routed, with the loss of Douglas their leader, and 30,000 men 
slain on the field of battle; while the English sustained a loss of only fifteen 
persons/^ The Scottish nobility, on this signal defeat, were reduced to the 
galling alternative of relinquishing their possessions, or swearing fealty to the 
English monarch. They adopted the latter ; Baliol was acknowledged king of 
Scotland,^* and the contest between the two kingdoms appeared to be for ever 

Edward summoned a parliament to meet him at York in the following Febru- 
ary,^^ and on his return in May, he made a short stay at Beverley.^ The aspect 
of affairs in Scotland had been deceitful ; the nobility could not be reconciled to a 
king imposed by their inveterate enemy, and taking an early opportunity of 

*• Rot Scot 6 June, 7 Edw. III. « Ibid. 16 June, 7 Edw. III. 
M Rot Scot 19 Jane, 7 Edw. III. ^^ Knighton. coL 2559. Hollins. Chron. vol. 11. p. 600. 

*^ Ex. Rot penes Camer. Rym. Foed. torn. iv. p. 590. 
^® Drake. Ebor. p. 105. To these parliaments ladies were sometimes summoned. Mellish> 
Observations. ArchaBoL vol. i. p. 348. In the d5th of the present reign, ** Mary, countesse de 
Norff.; Alienor, countesse de Ormond; Philippa, countesse de March; Agnes, countesse de 
Pembrook ; and Katherine, countesse de Athol, were returned to parliaments^ Holand. Cur. 
Disc, vol i. p. 307. 

*> Rym. Feed. tom. i v. p. 61 1. 

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disengaging themselves from the yok^ they succeeded in reducing Baliol to great 
sifaits. Edward^ on hearing of these rebeBioos proceedings, resolved to assist his 
vassal ; and gave orders for re-assembling his army, intending to punish the Scots, 
whom he termed ^ enemies and rebels/' with the greatest severity. On the 7th of 
November, 1394, he commanded Richard Dousyng, Adam Tyrwfait^ and Adam 
Cupefidale, to furnish fiOy horse and fifty foot within the liberties of Beverley, as 
befiMre.'^ Auodier writ was received by the same commissioners, directing ^em 
to lead their men to Rdxbui^, with {provisions for fifteen days/^ And again, 
shortly afterwards^ they were ordered'to select fiffy men within the franchise of 
Beverley, and to arm and send Ihem to join' the army undisr the command of the 
earl of ComwalL^'' Edward appears to have been fully determined to muster a 
gallant army b^ore he commenced his meditated attack on Scotland. He now 
directed writs to the sherifis and bailiffs of the counties, cities, and boroughs, to 
ascertain what assistance might be derived from their exertions, now that- his 
arrayers had collected together all the men in their power, and with them had 
joined the main army. The bailiffs of Beverley received a command to send 
twenty horsemen to Newcasde^'Upon-Tyne;^ and a very short time afterwards, 
th^ were honoured by a second royal mandate, to send up twelve horsemen, 
in addition to the former number-** The people of Beverley, however, were 
unable to raise this further supply, and therefore appeared before the king at 
York, and tendered a fine of forty niarks that they might be excused from a 
compliance widi this requisition, which they found themselves utterly incompetent 
to fulfil ; and proposing also to ihmish twenty archers, well armed and trained, 
in lieu of the prescribed number of hobelars.*^ Their petition was acceded to, and 
the consideration paid; and three days afterwards another writ was issued, direct- 
ing the bailiffs of Beverley to arm thirty hobelars forthwith, and send them to 
the city of Carlisle/' 

The army was n^w complete, and ready to march against the Scots. The 
soldiers passed the border in high spirits, hoping to terminat!e the war, as before,' 
by a single engag^nent* But the Scottish chiefs were afraid to hazard a pitehed 

<i Rot Scot 7 Nov. 8 Edw. III. 

« Rot Scot 15 Dec. 8 Edw. III. « Ibid. 23 Feb. 9 Edw. III. 

« Rot Scot 27 Mar. 9 Edw. ill. 

^ Rot Soot 1 Jane, 9 Edw. III. ^ Ibid. 3 Jane, 9 Edw. IH. ^ Ibid. 6 Jane, 9 Edw. III. 

V s 2 

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battle in the field, because they knew, by experience, the supmorily of English dis- 
qipline and English courage, led on by such a king as Edward; and therefore retreated 
^t his approtach, and sought shelter in their native fastnesses; so that Edward, after 
mvaging the country, was obliged to return without having been able to provoke the 
Scots to an engagement At his retreat, however, the natives, forsaking their hiding 
places, again made war on their sovereign, and soon acquired possession of all the 
places they had lost during the late predatory incursion, and the king of England 
was under the necessity once more of making an attempt to subdue this refractory 
people. Hjs first object was to provide for the security of the northern districts^ 
as. he conjectured that the Scots would probably make an irruption into England, 
and waste the country by way of retaliation. For this purpose, he issued a precept 
for arming and training defensible men for the protection of those parts which 
were most exposed to the effects of a sudden invasion; and to the bailiffs of 
Beverley was assigned the duly of providing sixty men.*' And having received 
information that the Scots had fitted out a navy for the purpose of harassing the 
towns and villages on the English coast, the sea-ports were now commanded to 
furnish ships of war to oppose them at sea ; and to this naval armament the town 
of Beverley sent one small ship, by the command of Thomas de Holm, Thomas 
de Rise, John de Thornton Copendale, and Walter Frost, all gentlemen of 
Beverley.^ Edward again made his appearance in Scotland at the head of his 
victorious army^ and his vigilance was again eluded by the artifice of retiring to 
mountains and barren wastes ; where the Scots sheltered themselves, and set the 
power of England at defiance. An expected war with France now diverted the 
king's attention to other objects, and he left the Scots for the present to pursue 
their own policy undisturbed. 

In 1338, we find the English again in Scotland, to support the unpopular 
authority of Baliol, whose throne must have been a bed of thorns, for his principal 
nobility entertained an invincible aversion to him, arising out of his connection 
with the English. A writ was directed in this year to Richard Dousyng, com- 
manding him to raise within the liberties of the chapter of Beverley, three hobelars,., 
two mounted archers, and the same number of archers on foot, all well clotiied, 
arm^ and provided, and to convey them to the army at Perth.*^ 

M Rot. Scot. 3 Oct 10 Edw. III. ^ Rot Scot 1& Dec. 1 Edw. III. 
« Ibid. 20 Oct. 12 Edw. III. 

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Daring the continuance of these public transactions, the inhabitants of Beverley 
had not been inattentive to their own private interests. Its merchants carried on 
a considerable foreign trade ; and the burgesses, through the medium of the fairs, 
transacted their business on advantageous terms ; both were gradually advancing 
to opulence, and their piety prompted them to apply a portion of it in the service 
of religion. Thus Henry de Wyghton, merchant of Beverley, made a fine of 
forty shillings with the king, for a licence, empowering him to assign certain 
tenements with their appurtenances in Sigglesthome, in mortmain*^' Richard 
de Melton, John de Wilton, and Robert de Shireburn, all of Beverley, executors 
of the last wiU and testament of Nicholas de Hugate, made a fine with the king of 
four marks, that they might have a licence to enable them to give and assign, in 
mortmain, one messuage with the appurtenances, in York;^^ and at the same 
time, Gilbert of Beverley fined thirty shillings for a licence to assign over in 
mortmain, a certain tenement with the appurtenances, in Beverley.^ The arch* 
bishop of York procured from the king a confirmation of his liberties in Beverley 
and Ripon ;^ William de Bradley, of Beverley, gave to a certain chantry priest in 
that town, five messuages and 4s. Id. rent, for the use of himself and his successors 
for ever;^ and a patent was granted for the precentor of the collegiate church.^ 
The Percy family, about this time, assigned some property to the vicars choral of 
the church, in consideration of which, they bound themselves by indenture to pray 
for the soul of the lady Eleanor Percy, lately deceased.^^ About this time an 
opulent gentleman of this town, called Robert de Beverley, was distinguished by 
his majesty, and promoted to a confidential situation in the suite of his queen 
Philippa; and when he attended her on a visit to her native country, he received 
royal letters of protection, countersigned by the queen herself.^^ 

A writ was issued by royal authority in 1342, ofiering a full and firee pardon to all 
fugitives and felons called grithmen,^^ who have taken sanctuary at Beverley, Ripon, 
and other places, for offences and felonies committed before the feast of the Holy 

« Rot. Orig. 10 Edw. III. «« Ibid. 10 Edw. III. « Ibid. 10 Edw. Ill, 

" Rot Pat. 12 Edw. III. « Inquis. adquod dam. 12 Edw. HI. ^ Rot Pat 14 Edw. III. 

«^ Ex. M6S. Dodsw. Bibl. Bodl. Oxon. Ixxiv. fol. 146. •» Rym. Feed. torn. v. p. 57. 

^ Grithmeii, were persons wbo had taken the stool of peace or sanctuary. In the charter of 
king Athelstan to the church of 8aint Wilfrid, at Ripon, the sedes pacts is called tbe Grifli9tQlQ« 

« And within yair kyrke yate 
'* At ye Stan yat GriU^siole hate,*' 

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Trinity, providing thaty at their own proper cost and charge they Tolnntarily arm 
and place themselves at the disposal and nnder the command of Baliol, kii^T ^ 
Scotland, to assist him in fighting his battles against the rebellions barons.^ The 
Scottish malcont^ts had now chosen David Bruce as their leader, and opposed 
his pretensions to the crown against those of BalioL This leader fcHined a leso^^ 
lution, suggested most probably by the French m(march, to invade and ravage the 
northern counties of England, during Edward^s absence on the contin^it; and 
summoning aal army of 36/)00 men, well armed and trained, he entered by the 
eastern marches, in the year 1346, intending to take possession of Durham, and 
leaving a Strong garrison in that city, to proceed along ihe eastern coast by Beverley 
to York. Bruce imagined that his progress would be unimpeded while the English 
army was in France; for he had been told that none remained in England but 
countrymen, shepherds, infirm old men, and the clergy; the rest being all in 
attendance on* the king at the siege of Calais. To defray their expenses, the Scots 
proposed to lay an impost of a penny for every head and foot of each inhabitant) 
as the price of his personal safety. Fii^e and sword marked the course of the in* 
vading army, and, as it penetrated rapidly towards the south, Fhilippa, the heroic 
consort of king Edward, issued peremptory orders to arm the population, whether 
laity or clergy; which was soon accomplished, under the active superintendence of 
William de la 2^uch, archbishop of York, lord Percy, and others. A gallant 
army was assembled before the gates of York, and the queen headed it in person. 
The second division was commanded by the archbishop, in which were found all 
the clergy of the diocese who were able to bear arms. Meanwhile, orders were 
given to &e remaining clergy and others, at Beverley, Hull, and other places in 
the south, to be prepared, in the event of a defeat, wit;h arms, and every thing 
necessary for a reinforcement. The armies met about three leagues south of 
Durham. The Scots did not expect the appearance of such a force, and were 
unprepared for immediate action. Sir William Douglas, with his clansmen, 
formed the advanced guard, and the English fell on him with great fury, and soon 
succeeded in driving this detachment upon the main body, and took their com- 
mander prisoner. David prepared with all expedition to revenge this afiront, 
thinking it an easy matter* to conquer an army of clerks and citizens, commanded 
by a woman and a priest He divided his army into battallions, and amidst the 

^0 Rym. FcBd. torn. v. p. 328. Rot Scot IS July, 16 Edw. III. 

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deafening clangor of trumpets and clarions, marched with his whole force to the 
engagement The English, fighting for their altars and their homes, entered the 
battle with a full resolution not to survive the loss of their freedom and native 
rights ; and rushing with intrepid boldness on the enemy, after a desperate struggle^ 
forced them to give way, and seek for safety in a precipitate flight Now the car- 
nage became dreadful. The English pursued them vnth shouts of triumph, and 
retaliated with sevarily their former wanton cruelties. In this battle David Bruce 
was taken prisoner ; the flower of the Scottish nobility were either slain or captured ; 
about a hundred of the choicest knights in Scotland lost their Uves, and upwards 
of 20,000 men perished in the contest On the part of the English, the victory 
was not obtained vrithout the sacrifice of 4,000 private men, and five esquires. 

The monks of Durham, who had been reduced to such straits, that they had 
stipulated to pay down the sum of £1,000. for their security, and that of their 
manors and t^iants, if they were not relieved vrithin four and twenty hours, heard 
with joy that the queen was marching an army to their relief, and mounted the 
tower of their church to behold the battle, and to pray for the success of their 
friends. And when they saw the Scots give way and fly before the English army, 
showers of tears, combined with shouts of joy, simultaneously burst firom them, 
and they offered up their thanks to God by singing a full Te Deum. 

While this was passing, a singular scene occurred at Beverley. The ecclesiastics 
of this place, arming themselves in compliance with the queen's command, appeared 
in the market-place in a body, with naked feet, as an emblem of humility, and 
bareheaded, in token of reverential awe, each having by his side, a sword, at his 
back a quiver of arrows, and a bow in his hand; imploring of God and his saints, 
that the efforts of the queen might be successfully employed, in delivering the 
people of England fitmi the cruel enemy who sought their destruction. 

The inhabitants of Beverley, aged men, women, and children, greatly affected 
by this, pious and magnanimous act of devotion, fell on their knees, and with tears 
of contrition, humbly besought the A'lndghtf to aid them in this dreadful extremity 
of afiUction. After they had thus poured out their souls to the Author of every 
good, they vowed constancy to each other in this public cause, and mutually de- 
termined to sacrifice their lives if necessary in defence of their native land.'^ 

^' Knigbt de Even. Angl. 1. 4. MS. penes me. 

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^Ti&ap. t^. 

Motives of pious men in devoting a portion of their goods to tfie church — Nave 
of the minster erected — Endowments — Dispute between the to7vns of Beverley 
and Hull, about tolls — Charter of Richard IL — Comparative importance of 
the town of Beverley — Attack on the archbishop and his attendants, by the 
mayor and bailiffs of Hull — TTie archbishop assigns Westwood to tlie bur- 
gesses of Beverley — Enlargement and decoration of the minster church — San^- 
tuary claimed — Some demagogues threaten to bum the town — The archbishop 
forcibly expels the canons from their benefices — Litigation — Canons restored — 
Bridge at Beverley built — Ordinance for the better government of the college 
— Twelve governors appointed by charter — A he's chantry founded — Henry 
TV. favours the town — Horrible punishments — Charters of Henry V. — /n- 
famous attempt at murder — Festivals ordained by royal authority on the 
days of John of Beverley's death and translation — Clmrter of Henry VL — 
Dispute between Beverley and South-Cave — Dispute between Beverley and 
Htdl — Henry VL visits Beverly — Several grants of that monarch enumerated 
— Civil war. 

The churches and monasteries, already abounding in wealth, were, by the 
superstitious feelings of the age, continually receiving accessions of property, which 
was bestowed by pious men, under the impression that they were thus rendering a 
service to God, and securing the salvation of their souls. This was a wesikness, 
but it was not an unamiable one. To convey the means of creating a respect for 
the ministers of religion, is a certain method of making religion' itself esteemed 
and practised ; and, on the contrary, any portion of obloquy heaped oix the minister, 
will indirectly affect the religion he professes, and overwhelm the sacred institution 
with neglect and contumely. The highest dignitaries of the church, as well as the 
most potent laymen, were not exempt from the influence of this feeling, which 
was firmly rooted in their system of faith, and pervaded all orders and descriptions 
of men. And we should pause before we consent to pass a sweeping censure on 

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these religious cuBtoiDft and pnotie|es>. how preposterous soeter they nthj appear to 
«ir improved ideas ^.becausei notwithstaiidiQg the':^]ctors oft^e systettif it pre^i^ve^ 
an uniformity in the cdebration of diviae wor^hip^ which We in .vain look.for 
amidst the diversity of religious! deots intd which Christianity is at present split 
and divided; We have no reason to conclude, although religion wa^ defonvi^ 
during the period of ps^istical domination, with iftany glaring aiid radical defects^ 
that its professors Were devoid of piety, temperance^ justice, or any of the genial 
e£fects of vital religion. We have no just cau^ tp condemn the men, because the 
9jfstem they professed had, in many instances, degenerated from its primitive purity. 
They had been educated in a profound veneration for certain practices, and aa» 
implicit devotion for certain articles of faith, which we of the reformed church reject j^ 
but this does not constitute any legitimate proof that they were void of true Christian 
feelings, because, while it incited them, as a work of supererogation, to endow 
monasteries, found chantries, or bequeath provisions for priests to perform masses, 
for the welfare of their souls, it kept them steady and uniform in tbe habitual 
performance of all their religious duties. C an it be believed that the man of property, 
who devotes a portion of his possessions to secure the welfare of his soul, is a hypo- 
crite, and unimpressed with a belief that such masses. are efficacious? We may 
charitably hope not His motives were, doubtless, conscientious, thoi^h prompted 
by a mistaken view both of the spirit and doctrines of Christianity. And it savours 
more of pharisaical pride than sober religion, to arraign the piety of individuals, 
who have distinguished themselves by a steady adherence to a system of faith and 
practice, which they received from their forefathers, and which appeared to be 
invested with the high sanction of primitive observance. Our ancestors believed 
with as much sincerity that salvation could not be obtained without a strict obser- 
vance of the rites and ceremonies of their religion, as our modem sectarists believe 
that they can be saved in a church without a legitimate priest 

Considerable possessions in Beverley and Holdemess were held in mortmain by 
these establishments, and subsequent donations and bequests . were periodically 
increasing the amount Edward I. foresaw the evils which must ultimately result 
from an unlimited appropriation of lands to religious institutions, which could not 
afterwards be alienated, and endeavoured to. guard against it by passing the 
statute oi mortmain. But this was either Bet aside by the payment of fines when 
individuals were disposed to convey their property to the church,' or evaded by the 

1 Rot Orig^ Rot. Pat passim. 

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A royal cSiarter, dat^ 3 July, 1305, was granted to tbe bnrg^esses, ooidaiiung k 
confirmation of the haiishus, tolls, and sev^al other liberties.^ In the next yeaz> 
Robert de Beverley, canon of Saint John's church, made a fine of fifteen pounds 
iirith the king^ for a licence, enabling him to convey in mortmain, a tenement, wiik 
the appurtenances, in North-Burton and Raventhorpe, to a certain chaplain and his 
successors for even^ And John de Beverley, canon, and another, gave this chapbaii 
forty acres of land in the same parishes, which were confirmed to him and his suc- 
cessors by patent*^ A patent was granted in 1371, to enquire into the state of the 
proTostship,^ when the statutes and ordinances were examined and corrected ; and 
in the succeeding year another patent was issued, to enable John of Ravenshere, 
to convey to his brother, Richard of Ravenshere, canon and provost of Beverley, 
two parts of the manor of Bentley.^ About this time a commission of array was 
issued to Henry de Barton, Adam de Coppendale, John Tyrwhyt, and Thomas 
Beverley, ordering them to raise speedily, in the town of Beverley, all the defensi- 
ble men therein, and hbblers and archers, for the safety of the town ; and to provide 
against an invasion of the enemy ."^ A certain chaplain of the chantry in Ecton 
church, gave one mark for confirmation of an assignment which he had received 
fit)m William de Doncaster, lately the rector of Rothing Plumbia, of certain tene- 
ments in Beverley.'^ Richard de Ravenshere, prebendary of the prebend of Saint 
Martin's, gave half a mark for a licence that the canons and chapter of Saint John 
might convey to him in mortmain, a certain piece of land, near his house, in Beck- 
sid^" containing 180 feet in length and 40 feet in breadth, for a garden;'^ in 
consideration of which, he agreed to assign to the canons other property of an 
equal value. The exchange was confirmed by patent;" and after the land had 
been conveyed to him according to law, the said Richard de Ravenshere made a 
fine with the king of half a mark, for a confirmation of the letters-patent'^ 

The disputes which afterwards brought on a protracted litigation between the 
towns of Beva?ley and Kingst<m-42pon-Hull, appear to have commenced about 
this period. The port of Beverley had carried on such a considerable trade, as 
to leave an indelible mark of its foreign connexion in the name of one of its 

M Cofp. Ree. 3 July, 89 Edw* III. 10 C. ^ Rot Orig. 40 Edw. III. 

«« Rot Pat 40 Edw. III. «' Ibid. 45 Edw. IIJ. «• Ibid. 46 Edw- III. 

« Corp. Reo. ]2 March, 45 Edw. III. 10 D. ^ Rot. Orig. 47 Edw. III. 

« En. Reg. Prwp. Bev. 1. 1. p. 29. » Rot Orig. 49 Edw. IIL » Rot Pat 50 Edw. Hi. 

M Rot Orig. 50 Edw. III. 

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principal streets ; and its chartered privileges had been conceded and confirmed, 
Bgain and again, while die site of Kingston was but a marsh or swamp, and befoK 
that prosperous town had a being. The river Hull was freely navigated by all vessels 
• belonging to the merchants of Beverley, and its productions of every kind were 
llieirs by delegation from the lord of the town, who held it by successive grants of 
our Anglo-Saxon monarchs, ratified by charters of the Norman dynasty, which 
swayed the sceptre of this island. Their rights in the river were never disputed) 
it was, as it were, their private property before the assumption of the rival port; 
which, as its strength and riches increased, monopolized privil^es which were 
sanctioned rather by silent acquiescence than by acknowledged right The ardi- 
bishop of York, by virtue of his prescriptive privileges, claimed, in the new port of 
Kingston, the right of tolls and other imposts there, as a part of his jurisdiction on 
the river Hull; and his claims were deemed so just and equitable by the com- 
missioners, on several successive inquisitions, that they were uniformly allowed.^ 
And these rights will appear to have been clearly established, firom an act of 
violence which we shall soon have to record, for truth needs not the aid of violence 
to give it stability. At this time, it appears that tlie port of Hull made an 
unsuccessful attempt to impose a rate or tax on the burgesses of Beverley, towards 
building ships, probably for the public service of the nation ; thus indirectly 
endeavourii^ to establish their superiority, and convert Beverley into a member 
port They stated in their petition, that the great expenses which they had 
recently incurred had reduced them to poverty, and prayed to have the assistance 
of the more opulent towns of York and Beverley, (les aut's bones villes du pays 
come E v'viryk et Bevley-) The burgesses of Beverley appealed against the petition, 
and letters-patent were granted, exonerating them from any such payments ; and 
providing that neither themselves nor their successors, should be compelled, or 
compellable, to contribute any impost towards the building or maintaining any 

M In the pleas of Quo Warranto, we find that the archbishop, amongst other things, claimed 
<< ab antiqao here pimn tasta A p^mas empcdes de vinis A omMbz alUs m^candisis venallbi 
▼enientibz infira porta de Hull post p^sas d^ni R &o. And this claim was subsequently confirmed 

Sr parliament, in two writs, the one addressed to Benedict de Falsham, the king's batler, at 
ingstone-npon-Hull, dated lOth March, 1327; and the other addressed to Richard de la Pole, 
and dated 17th July, hi the same year. Rex, &e. Vobis adhnc mandamus, firmiter injungentes, 
qudd manum no6tram de hujusmodi Priiis, in dicto portu de HuU, amoveatis, A praefatum W. 
nunc archiepiscopum, prisas suas, in eodem portu, absque impedimento, habere permittatis, jnxta 
tenorem itiandatorum nostrorum prodictorum, (prout supra de Dat 10 Mart.) Jure nostro in 
omnibus semper salvo, volnmns enim vos ind* erga Nos exonerari. Ex. Ctaus. 1 Edw. III. p. ft, 
m. 18. Rym. Foed. torn iv. p. 299« 

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ships, barges, or boats, with the men of Kingston«*Tipon-Hiill, at Hull ; as they 
were situated in a dry place, and at a distance from the sea.** 

At the latter end of the long and eventful reign of Edwax^ III. an inquisition 
was takien at Beverley, by which it appears that Thomas de Beverley, John Ois- 
boume, and others, held property in the town for the prior of Bridlington, and 
that.Richard de Ravenshere, and other elei^jmen, held in Beverley and North- 
Burton, six messuages, two tofb, and six shQlings rent, for the collegiate church." 
And the last act of this puissant monarches life, as far as it relates to Beverley, 
was an inspeximus and confirmation of divers grants and immunities, by whidi 
the burgesses were exempted from toll throughout all England, the city of London 
alone excepted/* 

At the commencement of king Richard's reign, the provost of Beverley procured 
an acknowledgment of all his rights and privileges, by a full confirmation of the 
charter of Edward the Confessor, and all his other ancient charters ;** and a patent 
was obtained by the chapter of Saint John, for imposing a toll for paving their 
premises/® At the same time the burgesses received a charter, establishing their 
exemption from contributing to build ships, barges, or bateles, granted by his 
grandfather, king Edward III. and dischai^ng them particularly from the share 
which they had been required to take with the town of Hull, towards building a 
barge called Balyngenes, (a balynger) of between forty and fifty oars;^^ but a 
commission of array was issued to the towns of Beverley and Ripon, commanding 
them to send soldiers to the army,^' 

The town of Beverley had now assumed a considerable degree of importance, 
and occupied the third or fourth rank amongst the principal towns in England. 
While the feudal system was in its vigour, populous towns were not numerous, 
and vassals were dispersed over the territories of the lord, for purposes which 
might be congenial with his ambition or convenience, except in the immediate 
vicinity of his castle, which was always the residence of numerous fierce and licen- 
tious retainers. England, at this period, contained few towns whose population 
exceeded 3,000 souls, and amongst diese, Beverley occupied a respectable situation. 
The city of London is rated at 35,000 souls; York, at 11,000; Bristol, 9,000; 

M Rot Pat 51 Edw. III. Corp. Reo. 14 Feb. 51 Edw. III. 10 E. 

'^ Inqais. Post Mort 51 Edw. Ill » Corp. Reo. 14 Feb. 51 Edw. ill. 10 F. 

<• Rot Pat 1 Rich. II. ^ Ibid. 1 Rich. II. «> Corp. Reo. 11 Jan. 1 Rich. 11. 11 A. 

<• Rymer. 1 Rlcb. II. 1378. 

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Plymoath, 7,000; Coventry, tiie same; Norwich, 6,000; Lincoln, 5,000; Lynn, tlie 
same number; Colchester, 4,500; Oxford, Beverley, and NewcastIe-upon--Tyne^ 
each 4,000; Ely, Canterfoury, and Bury, in Suffolk, each 3,500; and Gloucester, 
Leicester, and Shrewsbury, each 3,Q00/'' Thus England had but two towna^con^ 
taining a population of more than 10,000 souls; six only with a population 
exceeding 5,000; and but eighteen above 3,000. The town of Beverley was still 
inereasmg, and although its trade subsequently became crippled by the supe- 
rior local advantisiges enjoyed by the port of Hull, yet it never lost its distinctive 
rank as the chief town in the East-riding of Yorkshire, but always preserved its 
respectability of character, and kept its spl^idid ecclesiastical institutions from 
sinking into oblivion. A charter was now granted to the burgesses, confirming 
all the privileges conveyed by the numerous charters of former kings and arch* 
bishops, dated 20 January, 1379.^ 

The town of Hull now began to contest the rights of Beverley on the river, which 
its vessels had so long navigated in triumphant independence; and the first object 
was to nullify the archbishop^s claim to prisage, within the town and port. Some 
suits at law were ineffectually prosecuted; and the archbishop still maintained his an- 
cient privileges, confirmed to him, as they were, by charter and prescription* The 
merdiants had already resorted to some fraudulent practices, for the purpose of evad- 
ing the payment of these prises. The archbishop^s demand from every vessel of more 
than twenty tons burden, was two casks of wine, one beforCf and the other behind 
the mast, and each cask was redeemed by a money payment of twenty shillings.^ To 
dude this claim, the merchants had adopted the nefarious custom of delive^ng 
tiieir cargoes in the Humber, and sending the contents into the harbour in vessels 
of smaller dimensions; by which the archbishop was unjustly deprived of his 
prisage.^ This practice had been occasionally carried on for more than half a 

^^ MS. penes me, oalcalated from the Subsidy Roll of 51 Edw. III. 
^^ Rot Pat. 2 Rich. II. Corp. Reo. 30 Jan. Z Rich. II. 1 1 B. 

^ — — percipiendo de qaalibet navi, deferente nltra vig:inti dolia vinornm, ad Fendendum 
in aqui pradicU, (Hall) dno dolia rini, (anum, videlicet, doliam ante mastnm, et aiiad retro 
mastam) solvendo pro quolibet dolio, sic priso viginti solidos, Tennernnt et habuerant, &c. Ex. 
Ciaiuk 1 Edw. III. p. 1. m. 11. Rym. Fosd. torn. W. p. 272. 

** If m a nr'e Seign'r le Roi & a son Conseil monstre le dit Ercevesq d' Evrewik, q^ apres 
ce q^ p^ jugement da Element fenst mande a Botiller n^re Seignenr le Roi d'oster le meyne le 
Roi des prUes de vins en le dit Haven, A de suffirer TErcevesq A ses Atonrnes p^ndre illoeqes 
le prises de vins, & aucnnes p^ malicioase compassement & manvoise conspiracye fesanntx 
desharger trois nie£9 charges de vins en Hombre pres de Haven de Hall, lesqaeles niefs feorent 

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G^itury, and he now determined to enforce in perscuL the restitution of his ancient 
rights. The people of Hull, having lost all patience, determined to obtain by 
yiolence what could not be accomplished by due course of law. A favourable 
opportunity soon occurred. The prelate being at Hull, with his usual small com- 
pany of attendants, to superintend the due execution of his claims, he was rudely 
attacked by the mayor, sir Thomas Waltham, attended by his bailiffs, John 
Arnold and Thomas Green, and a large train of followers, in violation of the rites 
of hospitality, and what is still more reprehensible, in defiance of the respect due 
to the chief representative of our holy religion. The mayor commenced the attack 
by suddenly snatching the archbishop's crosier, and striking one of his attendants 
with it. This was the signal for a genei^ assault, and some blood was shed in 
the scuffle; the enraged mag^istrate laying about him manfully with the crosier^ 
and breaking equally the peace and the heads of his opponents. The mayor and 
his party were summoned to appear before the king at Westminster, to answer for 
these disorderly proceedings; and would, doubtless, receive a severe reprimand 
at the least, if they escaped the payment of a heavy fine.^^ 

The archbishop was disposed, at this time, to be very bountiful to the inhabitants 
of Beverley J and bestowed on the burgesses a considerable donation, which proved 
highly beneficial to the town. He procured fix>m Richard, to whom he was fondl j 
attached, a licence to convey some property in mortmain, to the burgesses;" and 
having obtained this indulgence, he granted, with the consent of the chapter at 
York, all the soil and wood called Westwood, containing four hundred acres of 
land, with the appurtenances, to Richard de Walkington, John Kelk, and others^ 
burgesses of Beverley, and all other burgesses and commonality of the town, and 

frettes a Hull, 6c les vins qe feurent discharges des meisme neifs feurent cariez p' div^ses 
vesseaax deinz le Haven de Hall, & illoeqes mis a teire, & ce feust compasse a faire malioi- 
ousement pur forbarrer TErcevesq de ses prises, p^ coloar des paroles q* feurent en TEnqueste 
q' feust prise sur la manere q' les p^decessours le dit Ercevesq soloient p^ndre le prises en le 
dit haven; Cest assavoir, de chescun Niefportant vintz tonels, ou aucuns deux tonels, paiant 
pur chesoun tonel vints souz, & pur ce fesoient 11 descharg^ mesmes les niefs hors le haven 
de Hull, & mener les vins en mesme le haven p^ petites vesseux come desus est dit; Issint 
q^ nule de eux porta vints toneals, & ce pur faire le dit Ercevesq perdre ses prises. Dont 
& semble au dit Ercevesq, q^ puis q^ le niefe feurent frettes tan q' a Hull, & les vins mene& 
deinz le haven de Hull, q^ pur tieu fraude a descharg' les niefs hors de haven ne doit il 
pas pMre ses prises mais ad accion a demander touz les vins come forfaitz p^ defaute de$ 
prises nient paiez. Etprie, &c. Pet. in Pari. 4 Edw. III. n. 24. 

*' Tickell's HuU, p. 73, 74. 
^9 Rot Pat 3 Rich. II. Corp. Rec. 4 Feb. 3 Rich. II. 11 C. 

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to theif successors for ever; paying to the archbishop and his successors^ the annual 
sum of one hundred shillings; at the feast of Saint Martin and Pentecost^ by 
equal half-yearly payments.^ This grant was confirmed by the dean and chapter 
of York, by deed, dated 4 April, 1380.*^ 

Under circumstances so favourable to the town, the provost and canons of 
Beverley contemplated the further enlargement and decoration of their beautiful 
church; and for this purpose collected the best architects and workmen that Eng* 
land could produce. The accession of such a number of strangers into the town, 
rendered some precautions necessary for preventing disputes and quarrels between 
them and the inhabitants ; which, in these rude times, seldom terminated without 
bloodshed; and an application was made to the court at Westminster, for enlai^ed 
powers to preserve order and subordination amongst the work-people, by the adop* 
tion of a summary method of inflicting punishment on delinquents. This application 
was answered by two patents; one directed to the provost, and another to the 
canons, investing them with full powers for keeping the peace within the boun* 
daries of the church during the period which shoidd be occupied in its decoration/^ 
The work proceeded without interruption, and soon the edifice assumed its present 
g^rand and magnificent appearance, equalled by few collegiate churches, and ex« 
ceeded by none. At this time was built the north porch, and the west front, with 
its majestic towers and battlements, and, perhaps, some of the windows in the 
choir and east end.^^ 

When the building was completed, a charter of confirmation was procured, in 
which all its former liberties and privileges were fully recognized ; and particularly 
its sacred right of sanctuary; which, within a very few years, afiforded its pro- 
tection to sir John Holland, knight, half-brother to the king. This gentleman, 
in the year 1385, had been concerned in the murder of Ralf, the son and heir of 
Hugh, earl of StaflTord. The injured father laid his complaint before the king; 

^» Corp. Reo. 2 Ap. 3 Rich. II. 1 1 n. Dated at Beverlgr, and attested by Thomas Joly^ 
Peter de Cathewyk, sir Ralph de Hastings, sir Gerard de UfSete, sir John de Hotham^ knightly 
Ac. Amand de Ronthe, Edmund de Kiliingwyk, sir Peter de Malo Laca the 6th, John de 
Barton, Peter de Santon, Jno. de Cave, Rich. Ward, of Middleton, and others. A clause la 
inserted in the grant for distress. A power of attorney, of the same date, was given by the 
archbishop to sir John Bygod, knigh^ his principal steward, and William Halden, his steward 
at Beverley, to deliver seizin of the premises to Richard Walkington and the rest 

^ Corp. Rec. 4 Ap. 3 Rich. II. HE. " Rot. Pat. 4 Rich. II. 

^ Rickman's Eng. Archit p. 105, 106. and vid. Par. III. o. 2. infra. 


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SH'QiS efhoae kppeicf§ t& M¥6 h6e& petpeftkeA ttndtf ctMnitiigfaiiceiS ^ Mch <^d^ 
b^ate At/i^tf, ihAl fbie kkg Mtfsed td pUdbti th^ delinquent^ althotl^h be Wa« M 
n€»M5^ f elated td hitii by Vkldif MA isMed otA^s fbf his appreb^iiioll. The 
knighty however, had taken sanctuary, and his perefMi for tfa^ j^f^fis^t wM B&ft* 
dteat interest was made 16 cdheQiaUi the ihcensed mona/cfa; and mm his own 
ih(]lthef condescended to i9liip{>lieHte his fdrg'iVeness^ With bend^ khem md ^hcmem 
tff i^strs. Bid Richard wfis iA^bfibld, and this high spirited woman Was M iilfidoted 
by hi^ feflisa], that she died bl'bkeii-hgailed ih a few dftjfs. Meanwhile &6 eriminftl 
Mftfiflg |)laced hiiilself, trith the accustetlied formdities, tmdef Saittt John's pro- 
teefittft, remained in secui'ity fet BeTerley> tmtil the kifig*s anger was, in sfome 
4§gtte6, slpi[ye3sed; afld dt thfe intetcessiori of his uncle Clarence, Richard ultimately 
Jltflded a reluctant coiiseftt to his pardon.** ^ 

lil ih^ iiisurrection fomented by Wat Tyler and Jack Straw, some inhabitants 
of Bevetley were peculiarly aietivfe. Conspicuous in every tumult, and gratiflid 
^ith the g^eheral disorgani:iatioil Which now prevailed throughout the land, they 
end^sivdUi'^d to diake the disdfection universal, and denounced summary vengeance 
dgaiilst dl those peaceable inhttbitknts of Beverley and the neighbourhood^ who 
«fusfed to sanction and assist the accomplishment of their rash and treasonable 
design^, in a iranspott of* ungovernable r^e^ the demagogues threateited to bum, 
of t)thferivi!8e demolish the ti-fenquil dwellings of their quiet neighbour* Their 
restless activity to aid and abet the designs of rebellion, at length brought the town 
into ffifer^ptite with the ekisting g^vettun^nt j tod in the charters of grace which 
Mneitii stibseiiuently g^tanied, the inhtibftanfe of Beverley were not only exempted 
ft&iik the gehetd p^irdon,^^ bnt k document Was issued to Thomas de Manby, ddeiv 
riian^ Bimen CJartwfighi and William tthdttn, chamberldns of the borough, odlingf 
on thiem to deliver up the disturbers of the pedce, under the p^alty of a heavy 
fifte.*^* And it Was not till the stibceeding year that the town was flndly relieved 
from the generd opprobrium of guilt; when a patent of pardon to the inhabitants 
was graciously conceded by the king in council, on payment of eleven hundred 
tnarks, with the exception of ten of the most notorious offenders, whose names were> 
Thomas de Beverley and Richard his son, Richard de Boston, John Trq^lle> John 
Materasmaker de Beverley, Thomas de Irelond, Roger Coupere, Thomas Tynell, 
John de Holytaie, and Thomas Oue, otherwise cdled Thomas Greue-^ 

" Ex. MS. penes me. ''* Rot. Pari. 5 Rich. II. c. 32. 
«5 Claus. S Rich. IL m. 19. »« Rot. Pal. 6 Rich. II. Corp. Rec. 1 1 F. 

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mmf^n ^)m v^awww d9«g»% soiaed, wAp«t ^j^kq^wjt, o» the n^yenjj^s^ff 

4ml«l^ ^|>4Ud ti)^x» fr«[a their bepAfi(»s viAoiWt 4w pK>fl^S?/ i» f9S^i^V^t^f 
^« i^yal auil^Qrity, by wJku^ tbey were prptectedj, wgi jOftced^tipr pJle^rH 0/ ]us 
#wii appoiiMmefttit V^ t%e Yj^tcajM; situations* Th$ csoioms, tbffls jijl^gj^y t^epriyed (of 
itiie i^ems of subsisUpace^ flc^outof the diocese, ftpd^weJLtfpr j&xe years i^ tj^e dipcejie 
^JiiiiOQ)ti,:iwd^tbe bevevQlentprotectiopof sir.!Bich4rd4e i^ayep^^ei;. A^J^s deat]|», 
,tiiey waiidered frcNOi plfu^e .^ place as vagraat^ bei^g jguaproyided yyifi^ any ef^cje- 
^Qstical employ menl^ and were reduced to the necessity pf sQlicxting,^.(p^ to supply 
the wants of naiture.^^ Thevr isolate condition at length prompted .theixi ^ Igy 
4iieir very siiigular case before the two houses of parliament, and ^ petitioif^i was 
prosented by .John de Weton, John de Sprotky, Willi8«n Wakefielc^, jRichard^o 
JBleghton, and Henry de Beswyk, vicars of the collegiate church ^t Beverly ; 
William ;de Gartoi^ late a rector in the same churqh^ and John de B.edaLe^ chapl§^i 
of the d^antry founded there by the lady Isabella^ jTormerJIy .^ijieep^ .of S^nglanj^, 
which stated the following facts. Jn the fourth ye^ar of the presexit rei^, a. dispute 
had arisen betwe^i the archbishop and the chapter, respecting qer^t^^in privile^f s 
jof the church, which was mutually agreed to be left to the deci^ira of a superior 
tribmial; and it was at IcAgth determined by the king in counQil, that all ^e 
rights of the church should remajlii in precisely the same state as they were before 
the commencement of this dispute; and that the canons, wears, and other eccle- 
siastical dignitaries, should occupy and enjoy their benefices in peace and ^quietness, 
in the hope that a good understanding might in future subsist between them and 
their metropolitan. This decision was c(mfirm€d by the court at Rome; and t]^e 
king directed his letters-patent to Robert Rous, gentleman of the king*s cliamber, 
apd Richard Hembrigg, serjeant at arms, cwnmanding them to proceed to the 
■town of Beverley, and proclaim .the determination of the council in the Market- 
plaoe. there. To prevent the execution of this command^ the archbishop assembled 
a great midtitude of people who were in his interest, some being inhabitants of 

*^ Rot. Pari, vol.ili. p. 183. Apis qi moriance pais, en oea ik oont cfete come vagantz 

oa mendinantz, sanz B^nfioes oa sVioes a kxar t's g'ant mesohie^ et.end4£|i|t4e(tiis pur tonz 

V 2 

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Beverley^ and others brougbt in from the neighbouring villages by his own servants 
and retainers. With this force marshalled in the town, the prelate proceeded to 
the place where the commissioners were preparing to publish the royal prodamalicni. 
Here a most disgraceful scene was exhibited. The commissioners were commanded 
to desist, in langfuage made up of insulting menaces, and threats of violence; and 
they were too much intimidated by the strength and numbers of the party arrayed 
against them, to proceed in the execution of their design. The archbishop then 
deprived the petitioners, and seized on their revenues. They therefore prayed to 
be restored to the enjoyment of their rights, pursuant to the sentence decreed by 
the king's council, and confirmed by the court at Rome. In answer to this petition, 
it was resolved, that a commission should be appointed of sufficient power in the 
county to reinstate the petitioners in their benefices, that divine service might be 
regularly performed, according to the intention of the pious founders.^ 

In the 12th year of this reign, the king granted a patent for a chantry at Ae 
altar of Saint Catherine, in the chapel of Saint Mary, for the soul of Thomas 
Gervus, who died A. D. 1388 ;^ and confirmed to the church at Beverley, the 
thraves of com and other revenues in the East-riding of Yorkshire^^ which had 
been originally conveyed to it by king Athelstan, and secured by the charters of 
several successive monarchs; but was part of the property which had so recently 
been alienated by archbishop Alexander.*' About this time the building of a bridge 
was projected by the merchants of Beverley, and provision was made for defraying 
the expenses of its erection, by obtaining a patent for pontoffe, or a toll payable for 
all horses passing over it, and for all boats and other vessels passing und» it** 

In the year 1391, Thomas Arundel, the new archbishop of York, who proved a 
generous benefactor to all the churches and manors belonging to the see," resolved 
to digest a regular code of ordinances for the good government of the church of 
Saint John at Beverley.^ He ordained that there should always be nine canons, a 
precentor, a chancellor, a sacristan, and nine vicars belonging to the church, in 
which number of canons the archbishop for the time being is always to be included 
as one, and to possess the chief and first stall in the choir; that if the provost- 
ahip, which is but a temporary ofiice, when vacant, be not supplied by the canons 

«• Pet In Pari. 7 Rich. II. A. D. 1383 and 1384. n. 25. 

^ Ex. Reg. Aiohiep. Ebor. p. 185. ^ Dagd. Mon. Epit. p. 304. 

^ Drake's Ebor. p. 436. <« Rot Pat 14 Rich. II. •* Drake's Ebor. p. 436« 

^ Rot Pat 15 Rich. IL 

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within forty days, the appointment for that turn shall lapse to the archbish^ and 
his SQccessors; that all the members of the colleg^e, except the canons^ be obliged 
to eontmual residence; that the provost for the time being pay regfularly to each of 
the oanonsi out of the fnnds of the church, the annual sum of ten pounds, by equal 
quarterly pafymeats; to the precentor, ten pounds; to the chancellor and sacristan, 
as formerly; to the clerks and vergers, six shillings and eight-pence each; and to 
the parsons, six ponndR thirteAu shillings and four^pence each. And further, to 
each of the nine canons and three officers before mentioned, forty-two quarters of 
oats yearly, and to each vicar, eight pounds per annum; that the provost shall 
make due and punctual payment of all the sums thus assigned to the ministers, at 
the appointed times, or within fifteen days, under pain of five marks to the churches 
of York and Beverley.^ And to make these statutes binding, the archbishop ob- 
tained letters-patent in the succeeding year, for the college of Saint John; and 
also for the vicars and the precentor.^ And in the year when this indefatigable 
prelate was translated to Canterbury, he procured a patent for the canons of Be- 
verley, by which they were confirmed in possession of firee-warren in Bentley and 
Gildesdale, in the county of York, which had been granted to Richard de Bentley, 
by charter of Edward I«^ In the following year, another patent was issued, con- 
taining a fiill confirmation of all and singular the statutes and ordinances lately 
made by archbishop Arundel, with the consent of the chapter, for the better 
government of the collegiate church of Beverley/* 

At this period, the town began to assume decided marks of civil government as 
vested in the burgesses themselves. Much inconvenience had been sustained firom 
the want of some ostensible powers, which might legally authorise a few leading 
individuals to take upon themselves the direction of the town, to adjust differences 
without a formal appeal to the provosf, toTrestrain vice, to prevent or punish dis* 
order and crime, and to administer justice within the limits of their jurisdictioi;^ 
An appeal was therefore made to the existing government for charters, enabling 
a limited number of the more discreet and opulent burgesses to form themselves 
into a society or council for the good government of the town, with the power of 
making private ordinances for the regfulation of their commerce, and for other 
local purposes in which they were peculiarly interested. Arrangements were soon 

^ Dngd. Monast Epit p. 905. 
•• Rot Pat. 16 Riok IL ^ Ibid. 20 Rich. II. « Rot Pat 21 Rich. II. 

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mt^ioetteet^tiks^nimj ch^Mgem of the faom^giiv aiida 

fwilBninninn of die peace w«s addressed to Jafaa Markhaa^ William Cnxmbf » 
Robeit Tyrwliil^ Hugh Ordera^ Richaird T^i^lul^ ThmtiaB Lambanl, Joha Rad- 
aesfii^ imd Rtduurd Beyerley, empowering them to aet as jnsttices ^f the p^aoe 
within the lib^iies of the borough ;^ aad aoon ^ifterwardi letters-jpateat were ioeaod 
by the king in oonncil, oonstitating twel\^ gMemorB wkhin' ibe towuj who dioaU 
be invested with the requisite powers to restrain Ae preyalence of cxia^ and In 
regidatey in ^ttnre, the coarse of justice wilfam their proper juriadktion*^ 

In I998f John de Ake, of Beverley, nKerdnnty died, and by his wiU left iiie 
jfoUowing bequests to the religious establi^hiQente of ihe Iowil He gmw to idle 
fidbric of Saint Mary, Ss. 4d.; to the fabric af Saint John, 6s* 8d. ; to ibe Friars 
Minors, 8d. on condition that they pray for tiie good state of his soul, aaid ike 
aonls of all £dthful people. He gave to the piieadung Friars 6fi. 8d. on the Mine 
condition ; to the Friars Minors, 5s« on condition that they celebrate one yearly 
mass for his soul, and the souls of all the faithlul deceased ; and to the preadn^g 
Friars the same sum, with the like condition flttaehed. He gave to friar Robert 
Grovell, d& 4d. ; to friar William Grovell, Ss. 4d. ; to the rector of tithes forgotten, 
10s. ; to sir William de Scardebnrgfa, peipetual vicar of the dispel of Saint Mary, 
6s. 8d. He gave all his lands and oth^ property, in Beverley, to Eleanor, his 
wife, to be enjoyed by her during die term of her natural life ; and after her 
decease to be applied to the purpose of erecting and endowing a chapel or dutatry 
on the Cross-Bridge, in Beverley ; and far building aotd ^ndo^wg a hospital for 
twenty poor^' ; and as often ms any vacancy shaH occur 'in the immber, 

fay deadi or otherwise, the twelve governors of Beverley for the time l)eing, after 
the death of his said wife, shall have the power of appointing :a iMiccessor ; and also 
of nominating a chaplain to perform divine service in the chantry.^^ 

It does not appear that the inhabitants of Beveriey tookai^ decided part in the 
revolution which placed Henry IV. upon the throne of England, on the ;deposition 
of his unfortunate predecessor, whose unnatural nrarder must have excited uni- 
versal horror and oommiseration. In 13&9, Henry landed at Bavenspnme under 

«• Corp. Rec. 16 June, 20 Rich. II. 1 1 G. ^« Rot Pat. 21 Rich. II. 

^1 Hiatas in IdSS. 

w Warb. MSS. Lansd. Coll. JB. Mas. 896. VII I. fo. 140. The chapel or chantry thas ertab- 
lished was soon amply furnished with the necessary apparatus for every celebration; and I 
subjoin ^^an abstract of an indenture made between lilicho Ryse, Thomas VTelton, Will, 

Digitized by 


oolocir of recovmng possesskm of liis hereditary diikecbm/ whidh had been^ aUenatod 
dann^ the period of his baBishment; but when he beheld hiB popalarity^ md 
found himself sorrotinded by innumerable partisans who were willing to hasaard 
life and property in his cause ; when many of the principal nobility had airayod 
themselves under his standard, headed by the powerful earl of Northumberland j 
he threw off the mask, and, almost without bloodshed, was ][daced upon the throne* 

Cokerell, and the rest of the governors of Beverley ; and Thomas Brown, chaplain of the 

chantry chapel on the Cross Bridge in Beverley, called Saint Trinities, for the safe keepiaf wnd 
lestoriBg the boolu^ chalices^ and other ornaments of the said ohapel, of which the following is 
aninventoiy: — 

A miasall de Qsu Ebor 4 

One portiform Mannali de asu Ebor • ^ 4 

The Indenture of composition and ordination of the Gantrie with St. John^s Ch«l 

in Beverley, nnder the seal of the chapter and the coounon seal of the > 5 

town, and of y« seals of Henry Malpas and J^leut) Coke 3 

One calice of silver weighing Idjroc. •• ••••• •••••• 1 10 9 

One campana of the apper chapeil 10 

Two pannos of linen to hang before the high altar, stained with red S 4 

Four antre cloths de panno lineotobe hni^^ above or near the altar, »••••«••«»• 064 

Two towels laced at the ends 10 

Two phiolas de stanno app. .••• ••• • • ••••• 6 

One anronlar coopt ou panno virid. to be near the missale at time of cmsb •••«•• 2 

One anrioular panni cerei virid. vssitat app. ad. « •••• 1 

One anriclar panni cerei red and conpt •• 4 

One stole, one &non de panno y® lining painted »,.^ •••••«•• 14 

One vestment sacerdotale de virid tarteryn poudr c^ stellis aoreis vz anQ Amy*. ^ 

1 anba 1 casulam 1 stolam 1 fanon in blodio cnrde liniat et 1 frontelln de>- 6 8 

sad setta pro alter liniat cii panno linio appls. ad ..••. j 

One alme vestimenta sacerdotale de albo samet cu orferays de rubro cerico etl 

stragalis deauro vz 1 amicam 1 anbram 1 cafulam 1 stolam 1 fanona lineat>- 10 

cu panno linis appls ad 3 

One vestamenti sacerdotale nom^ de albo bnstian de napilis c^ orferays de rabio ^ 

cerico et auro pondr viz i amita, i alban, 1 cafulam, 1 fanona, 1 stolam, >• 15 8 

et 1 frcmtella pro altero de serva ejnsdem vestment apps ad 3 

One sacerdotal vestment, the gift of Margaret de Sheffield, of linen cloth w*^^ 

chekey de nna anulam 1 albam, J cassulam, 1 stole, 1 fane et I frontelln >• 6 8 

for the alter of St. ejnsdem vestment app. ad « 3 

One firontelin of silk wrought with a needle after the best maner 3 

One frontelln of linen cloth with the head of Christ and the Twelve Apostles • • • • 1 4 

One corpora Cass, of cloth of gold and nno nono corpora in ead. valued at « 2 

One corpora Cass, of white velvet with moiets of a bloody colour, and 1 good ? q 1 8 

corpax 3 

One corporax Cass, of red satyn et virid. et I corporax used valued at • » 1 6 

One cubberd of three stages for vestments, books, and other ornaments in his 7 q ^ q 

custody 3 

One image of St Trinity of alabaster w^ a tabernacle of wood painted 6 8 

The image of the blessed Mary w^^ the child Jesus in her right arm, in wood, ?. 2 6 

well engraved and guil ded* .•«. « •• 3 

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As soon as his title was acknowledged by tlie pariiammt^ he endeavoured to eoo^ 
ciliote the people by grants and charters, which seeiured former privileges aad 
conveyed new ones. He granted a patent to the town of Beverley, whidh con* 
firmed all their preceding charters, and renewed all the privileges whidi had been 
hitherto conferred on the bm^esses;^^ from whence it may be infared that they 
had either lent a sanction to his usurpation, or observed a strict neutrality. Yet 
w»e we to argue from the nature of the civil institutions of that period, it would 
on the other hand rather appear that they had actively opposed the designs of 
Henry on the crovm, or at the least, been decidedly averse to his succession ; 
because they were the tenants and retainers of the archbishop of York, who, though, 
he reluctantly submitted to the king during the first few years of his reign, always 
considered him in the light of an usurper. This prelate sustained the high repu« 
tation of a virtuous and most exemplary man,*^^ yet, on this one point, his views 
were uniformly hostile to the ambition of Henry ; the embers of disaffection smoul- 
dered in his breast, and only waited some favourable circumstance to fan them 
into a flame. 

The king was not ignorant of these hostile feelings, and endeavoured by the 
distribution of favours to soften the prelate's obduracy. He granted, in succession, 
many royal immunities to his favourite tovms of Beveriey and Ripcm. First he 
presented the archbishop with an exemplification and allowance of all his liberties 
in Beverley, Ripen, and elsewhere, on all his lands and possessions.^* This was 
followed by a patent to his church at Beverley, allowing the provost there to retain 

Another figure of the Vitpn Mary and her infant Jesos, well ornamented in > q 

alabaster - C 

One crucifix of wood, with the image of Mary and St John the Evangelist &xt\ q 

to the wall above the alter, well painted and ornamented y 

One image portable, with the image of the dead Christ, very mean 

One image of St Anne, and the image of the blessed Virgin well sculped and ? q 

painted 3 

Two litUe tabernacles painted and gilt with gold above the alter 

One P. of cloth worked with a needle, to hang before the alter on festivals • . • . 

One Campedem, w^^^ 1 Caspell Latin hanging in the chapel 

One Scabella inferiore pte chapelle et 3 Scabella in the other pts of the chapelK • 

Two candlesticks of iron and 1 holy water pot of lead « 

Warb. MSS. Lansd. Coll. B. Mns. 896. YIII. fo. 42. 

" Knyghton. p. 2757. 

^* Rot Pat 1 Henry IV. Corp. Rec. 28 Nov. 1399. 12 A, 

'* Walsing. Drake. Ebor. p. 438. ^« Rot. Pat 1 Hen. IV^ 




















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aU his privil0g;e8 and mmumtties ;'^ vad also anodier for l3ie fraternity of the' 
UeffiKxl Mary." In the same year, an inquifidtion was held to^determine whethear 
it would be to the dami^e of the king^ if John de Bridlington gave to a diantry 
j^esty at Beverley, certain lands there for his better maintenance." Roger flex; 
derky gave to the chapter of Saint John^ seven messuages with the appurtenance^ 
in Beverley, to provide a chaplain to celebrate divine service every day'^ for his 
soul, and ihose of his ancestors; which was confirmed by royal patent'* And 
about the same time letters-patent were issued to the masters of the fabric/^ en* 
abling them to receive a donation from Richard de Chesterfield, consisting of 
messuages and lands in Beverley, the annual profits of which were to be applied 
to the reparation and ornament of the church.^' The king then granted charters 
to the archbishop*^ and to the burgesses of Beverley,^ confirming those of king 
Athelstan and others; and further ordaining that in future for ever, no king's 
officer, whether marshal, steward or clerk, should enter their joint or several 
liberties in that town, to interfere in their markets, or to interrupt by any pro* 
ceedings whatever, their course of policy for the management of their own afiairs. 

But all this was inefiectual to mollify the indignation of archbishop Scrope, and 
in the year 1405, appearing in the field at the head of an army, he was taken and 
beheaded along with the earl marshal, sir John Lamplugh, and others ;^ and the 
king placed the custody of the city of York in the hands of commissioners, appointed 
by himself, until he had taken ample vengeance on all the adherents of the un- 
fortunate {Hrelate there.*' Still the tovni of Beverley escaped punishment, which 
renders the conjecture exceedingly probable that the inhabitants had remained 
neutral during the struggle. 

In the ninth year of his reign, this monarch granted a patent for a chantry in 
the collegiate church of Beverley, dedicated to Saint Annej" and another in the 

rr Rot. Pat. 2 Hen. IV. 
^•Rot. Pat. 2 Hen. IV. ^ Tnquis. ad quod dam. 2. Hen. IV. 
> ^ Inquis. ad quod dam. 3. Hen^ IV. 

" Rot Pat 3 Hen. IV. «« Ibid. 3 Hen. IV. " Inqute. ad quod dam. 3 Hen. IV, 

M Rot Pat 5 Hen. IV, 
•* Corp. Rec. 23 Aug. 1404. 12 B. Witness the king himself. Dated at Lichfield. Pat 5. 
Hen. IV. p. 2. m. 9. Rymer. Feed. tom. viii. p. 369. 

^ Drake's Ebor. p. 107. »^ Holiins. Chron. vol. iii. p. 38. Quarto Edit 

~ Rot Pat 9 Hen. IV. 


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twdfibf for tlie dean (pro decano) of the same churcL^ Bobert Beverley, of 
Berkley, gave to John, the rector of Saint Nidiolas's church, an annual rent of 
88. arising out of property in that town; and Richard Creyftr assigned to thi9 
diapter of Saint John, six messuages and certain lands with the appurtenances 

. And so ends the reign of king Henry lY • which is barren of incident, as fiaur as 
relates to the town of Beverley, and produced few events that deserve to be trans* 
mitted to posterity.'^ The people of England generally were, as yet, c»dy half 
civilized, and could bear unmoved the recurrence of sights, as well as conmiit 
actions which ought to be esteemed most shocking to humanity. Who could bear, 
in our more refined times, to behold the mangled limbs of a dismembered human 
being publickly exposed to the gaze and insidt of the multitude. Yet in the four* 
teenth and fifteenth centuries such scenes were of common occurrence. Archbishop 
Scrope was beheaded at the beginning of this reign, and his head was fixed on a 
pole, and placed on the walls of the city of Ywk, where it long remained a 
spectacle for vulgar eyes, and a standing jest for the enemies of religion.'^ In 
February 1407 — 8, the unfortunate earl of Northumberland sufiered death, and 
his head, white with age, being severed from his body, was sent to London, and 
placed on the bridge, at the summit of a pole; his body was quartered, and one 
part was placed on a gate in London, anotha* at Lincoln, a third at Berwict- 
upon-Tweed, and the fourth at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, where they remained until 
tile following May.*' A still more horrible display took place during the same 
reign. The earl of Huntingdon, sir Thomas Bbunt, and sir Benedict Seley 
were executed for treason, and their quarters were carried to London to be pub- 
lickly exhibited. The people received them with exultation; and the procession 
was headed by the earl of Rutland, carrying on a pole the head of lord Spencer, 
his brother in law, which he presented in triumph to Henry, as a testimony of his 
loyalty." The people that were capable of enduring such scenes as these with 
satisfaction and delight, could have made but small progress towards civilization. 
About this time too, the indulgence of private hatred and revenge was carried to 
an extremity which even barbarians might be ashamed of. To seize an enemy by 

w Rot. Pat 12 Hen. IV. 9o inqois. ad quod dam. 11 Hen. IV. 

»' Hume. Eng. vol. iii. p. 82. *« Walsing. Drake. Ebor. p. 107. 

w Claas. 9 Hen. IV. Collin's Peerage, by Biydges, vol. ii. p. 265. 

»* Hume. Eng. vol. iil. p. 64. 

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slUrpiize'in tlie dark and to cut out bb tongrue, or deprive Iiim ofrnght, was of sncii 
oommbn occurrence, that an act of parliament was passed for its suppression.*^ 

King Henry V. in the first year of his reign, gave to the borough of Beverley 
a diarter, oanfirming its former liberties, and empowering the twelve governors 
to appoint annually a president or chief governor, who should be invested with 
die supreme authority in the borough for the current year;** which was followed 
in the succeeding year by letters-patent, confirming the jurisdiction of the twelve 
governors appointed by charter of Richard II. authorizing any four, three, or two 
of the most discreet persons amongst them to act as justices of the peace within 
the said town and its precincts ; and prohibiting the justices of the East-riding 
from interfering with the due execution of justice as administered by these fane* 
tionaries.*' About liie same time Richard Su^n, of Beverley, clerk, and John 
Bikon, after an inquisition, gave to the governors and commonality of the town, 
a certain piece of land there called GiHicroft, for ever, in aid of the funds of the 

In the next year a curious circumstance occurred at Beverley, which illustrates, 
in a striking manner, the unbridled licence of these turbulent times. John 
Brompton, of Beverley, merchant, and collector of the quinzieme> had a free tene- 
ment in Beverley, which was claimed by John de Hayton, and Eleanor his wife, 
and a litigated cause ensued, which Brompton attended at Yoric to defend ; and it 
should appear from subsequent circumstances, that a decision was pronounced in 
his favour. On his return from York, accompanied by a small number of at- 
tendants, he was waylaid by Hayton and a posse of his companions, to the number 
of twenty-four persons, several of them being armed with bows and arrows, and 
all masked or otherwise disguised. Their intention was, doubtless, to murder the 
object of their resentment, as many arrows were discharged from behind the ambus- 
cade, and one of his attendants was maimed, and himself and all the rest dangerously 
wounded. They escaped however with life; and a petition was presented by 
Brompton to the house of commons, stating these facts, and adding, that ^the said 
John Hayton and his accomplices, still threatened to miu-der the petitioner, and 
vowed that they would take no rest until they had accomplished their design; so 

•* Rot Pari. S Hen. IV. «« Rot Pat 1 Henfy V. Corp. Rec. 30 June, 1414. 13 A. 

'^ Rot Pat 2 Hen. 5. Corp. Rec. 8 Feb. 2 Hen. V. 13 B. 

'* Inquis' ad qaod danu 1 Hen. V. 


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that he dare not ie^ppear in pnblie, nor procieed in llie coUection of tke qtiinzieDiejt 
The petition further states, that the said petitioner had with him a oonsideraUe 
sum of public money at the time of this horrible attack; and that, by being in 
constant jeopardy of his life, his mercantile and other bunness must be altogether 
gnspended without the royal protection. The petitioner therefore prays^ that ther 
chancellor of England, by the authority of parliament^ may issue his writ to the 
sheriff of Yorkshire, that the said John Hayton and his accomplices, be summoned 
to appear before the chancellor on a certain specified day, to answer the aboYe 
charges, and to give su£SM^ient security to keep the peace towards the said peti«» 
tioner; and if they do not appear at the appointed time, that each of them be 
subject to a penalty to the king of one hundred marks/' 

. To this petition the following answer was returned. ^ We grant a writ of Oyer 
and Terminer in this matter to John Brompton, for the justices of assize in the 
county of York, to proceed on record against Richard Hayton and John his son ; 
to see that they give a reasonable and sufficient security to the said John Brompton^ 
for keeping the peace; and that they appear in chancery, by the authority of 
parliament, to give such other security as shall be required."^ 

About this time, letters-patent were issued for the chantry of the blessed Mary 
in Beverley,' enabling the chaplain thereof to receive the benefit of a donation 
firom Nicholas Ryse, consisting of divers lands and appurtenances in that town.* 
And Henry Bowet, then archbishop of York, granted a licence to Nicholas 
Chamberlayne, of Beverley, draper, to assign six messuages, fourteen cottages,' 
three acres of land, and the same quantity of meadow, to the twelve governors of 
the town and the community thereof, on the condition that they provide two 
chaplains to celebrate divine service every day for ever, in the chapel of S&int 
Mary, for the souls of Thomas Kelke, late a burgess of this town, and Alicia his 
wife; and also for the souls of John de Kelke his son, and Margaret his wife.' And 
the same archbishop made a petition to the king, who with the consent of his parii- 
ament, confirmed to him all the liberties of his church, with this clause ; "and further 
grants and confirms to him, that he and his officers may hold the sheriffs toum 
within the towns of Beverley and Ripon; and there hear, and determine and 

» Rot ParL 3 Hen, V.— A. D, 1415. No. 22. ' Rot. Pat. 2 Hen. V 
^ Inqais. ad qaod dam. 2 Hen. V. 
» Ex. Reg. Hen. Bowet. Archiep. Ebor. part ii. an. 1408 to 1423. p. 184. Lansd. M88. 
B. Mas. 896. YIII. fo. 47. Jnqnis. ad quod dam. 2 Hen. V. 

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punish ail manner of felonies^ as justices of the peace, notwithstanding any liber« 
ties- g^ranted to the town of Beverley to the contraiy/* all which are therem 
abrogated, nullified, and absolutely repealed.^ And in a solemn convocation held 
at London in Jthe same year, it was decreed, that the seventh day of May, the day 
of the death of Saint John of Beverley, should be annually kept holy throughout 
England, as a perpetual memorial of that prelate^s peculiar sanctity;^ and also the 
feast of his translation, (25th October) on account of a popular belief that the 
victory of Agincourt, gained on that day, was owing to the merits and intercession 
of the saint;* for Walsingham writes, that in the year 1421, after the coronation 
of Catherine of France, at Westminster, the king and queen made a progress 
through England to York; and from thence they went to visit the church of 
Saint John, at Beverley. There had been a current report, widely and confidently 
circulated throughout the kingdom, that the tomb of the saint had sweat blood all 
the day on which that battle was fought; and Henry, a zealous Roman Catholic 
prince, thought it his duty to make a pilgrimage to the church, and ofkv up his 
^ratefiil devotions at the holy sanctuary/ 

King Henry YI. at the beginning of his eventful and most unpropitious reign, 
gave, in imitation of his predecessors, two charters of inspeximus to the burgesses 
of Beverley, confirming the liberties contained in archbishop Thurstan*s charter, 
and also in those of the 21 and 56 Henry III. of the latter of which, it appears 
that no mention is made in the rolls of that period/ About this time, Robert 
Nevile, the twenty-seventh provost of Beverley, bnilt a tower to the bedern, where 
now stood the provost's house;® and procured letters-patent of the king, containing" 
a full confirmation of all the manors, lands, and liberties assigned to him in virtue 
of his office, by Edward the Confessor, William I. and by a charter of the 26 
Henry III. whether they be written in Saxon or Latin/^ In the 19th year of his 

* Rot Pari, 3 Hen. V. A. D. 1415. No. 25, Vid. App. D. Rot. Chart. 3 & 4 Hen. V. 

* Lynwoode. Provinc. p. 104. Godwin, de presul. p. 564. Wilk. Cone, t iii. p. 397. Diigd. 
Monast. vol. ii. p. 127. 

« £x. Reg. Clyfford. £pisc. Lond. fol. 72. Rym. Feed. torn. u. p. 420. 
^ Drake's Ebor. p. 109. « Rot Pat. 1 Hen. VI. Corp. Reo. 10 May, 1423. 14. A. 14 B. 

» Lei. Ck)ll. vol. iii. p. 103. 
10 Rot. Pat. 6 Hen. VI. At this time, as appears by an ancient compotus amongst the records 
of the corporation, made in the year 1437, the names of the twelve governors of Beverley were, 
Thomas Constable, William Bylton, William Spenser, Thomas Caldebeck, S. Yarbro, Thomas 
8wanland, WUliam Weneslay, William Trentham, John Copendale, WiUiam Bene, Stephen 
Tilson, and Adam Onghtibrig. 

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teigBf the «ame monarch granted a pAteat tar the chapter cf the chordi;'^ ecm-» 
firmingr.a donation of three messuages which had been assigned 1>y Thomas 
Sproadey^ in aid of the Auid for keeping the church in good and imbstantial 
repair.'* In the next year the king confirmed to the archbishop all his liberti^ 
contained in the charters of £dward the Confessotr, William I, Heniy I. and 
Stef^en, whether in Beverley, Bipon, or elsewhere.*' 

A dispute between Beverley and South-Gave now engaged the public attention; 
It arose £rom a claim made by the burgesses of Beverley of exemption from toll 
in the lai;ter town. Legal proceedings had been resorted to during the reign 
of Richard II. by one of the bui^esses, against the collector of tolls in 'South- 
Cave, for having Unjustly enforced payment; and the cause had been decided in 
fiivour of the plaintiff. A similar claim having been renewed at this time, the 
governors of Beverley procured an exemplification of the former plea of trespass, 
smd verdict thereupon, between Thomas Chandler, a burgess of Beverley, and 
Tlmmas Davill and John Spicer, the collectors of toll for South-Cave; in whidb 
it is recorded that the jury found for Thomas Chandler, the plaintiff. This exem« 
plification was exhibited as a decisive proof that the burgesses of Beverley were 
legally exonerated &om tdl within the parish of South-Cave, and their right waa 
reluctantly admitted.^^ 

Another dispute, of a still more important nature, took place about this time, 
between the burgesses of Beverley and the men of Kingstone-upon-Hull, respecting^ 
a passage for their vessels through the river Hull into the Humb^, free of toH. 
All the ancient charters of Beverley contain a clause which conveys to the burgessea 
an exemption from wharfage, passage, keyage, &c. throughout all the townis and 
places in England, and coasts of the sea, the -city of London only excepted. And 
in the reign of Edward I. the archbishop of York claimed, and was allowed, a juris- 
diction in the river Hull, from ancient usage, to have vnreck and waif in that river, 
and coroners of his own appointment to collect the same; and he further claimed 
a right to the first tasting of wine, and of purchasing that and all other merchandize, 
which should be exposed for sale within the port of Hull, immediately aft«r the 
king^s prisage." And the archbishop had delegated to the town of Beverley a firee 
'passage of the breadth of twenty-four feet and one grain of barley, along the 

" Rot Pat 19 Hen. VI. w Inquis. ad quod dam. 14 or 15 Hen. VI. 
'» Rot Pat 20 Hen. VI. " Corp. Rec. 23 Hen. VI. 14 C. 
>• Vide nt supra, p. 164, 1 

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ttiidHitrem of tk^ tvMt* In defiance of such a series of evidence^ the men of King* 
stone*upon^HuU, which was now become a populous and wealthy town, detained the 
Vessels belonging to the burgesses of Beverley, and would not allow them to pass 
without the payment of a toll, imposed without any legal warrant, and consequently 
kiot capable of being reoorered by a process at law. A suit however was prosecuted 
in the stat diamber, for the purpose of determining this important point The 
knerdiants of Beverley produced their charters, so well established by repeated 
eonfitmations, and contended that the toll which was now attempted to be imposed 
\upim them was a direct and illegal infringement of their ancient privUeges, so 
abundantly secured by ancient uss^e and royal favour. The opposite party an* 
swared, that the present outlet to the Humber was not the river Hull; that the 
mouth of Hull had long been warped up by the diversion of its current into Sayer 
Creek,'* which had been cut for the convenience of the port of Hull; and that 
therefore, though they admitted the rights of their opponents in the waters of HuK, 
Aey denied that any such rights extended to Sayer Creek, which had been con- 
firmed to the town of Hull by royal charter. They further urged, that the words 
of Ihe Beverley charters referred to a passage^ &c. by land, and not by water; and 
that therefore they were inapplicable in the present case. To this the burgesses of 
Beverley replied, that the people of Kingstone-upon-Hull had committed a mani* 
fest encroachment on their property by presuming to divert the current of their 
ancient river from its accustomed coiu*se, thereby attempting to deprive them of 
their most valuable privileges in it; — that this aggression would not have been 
permitted, but on the equitable consideration that in promoting their own peculiar 
interests, the men of Hull would not attempt to injure their neighbours, but would 
allow them the privilege of free ingress and egress as formerly; — ^that it was 
absurd to argue that the words " passage, keyage, wharfage," &c. applied alone 
to land, because the two latter must evidently refer to the water, and to that alone. 
The contest was protracted through a long period ; and it must be concluded that 
the town of Beverley had the advantage, for a decision was not given against 
them, and they continued to trade as formerly, without being subject to the 
imposition of toll.''^ 

In the year 1448, king Henry VI. spent some days at the hospitable mansiim 
of Henry Percy, earl of Northumberland, son of that celebrated warrior who was 

»« Mr. Frost ttiinks that the drain called Sayer Creek, was cat by Saer de Sottoo, so early as 
the reign of John. Notices relative to the Early History of Hull, p. 32. 

1' Lansd. MSS. B. Mas. 896. VIII. 

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snmamed Hotspur, at Leckonfield. It is needless to add that;the earl was a 
steady friend to this monarch amidst all his vicissitudes, for the page of history 
affords the most honourable testimony to the persevering loyalty, and fieuthful 
attachment of this illustrious nobleman. From thence the king visited Beverley, 
on which town he had already conferred some substantial marks of his esteem ; 
and he was received by the inhabitants with enthusiastic cheers, and respectful 
greetings and salutations; for Beverley was a loyal town, and its inhabitants 
possessed much of that innate love for the royal authority, connected with the civil 
and social institutions of the state, which constitutes the great characteristical trait 
of true and obedient subjects. The king inspected the minster with all the 
minuteness of eager curiosity; suggested improvements; rectified what he ccmql"- 
sidered to be erroneous, and endeavoured to supply that, which in his opinion was 
deficient ; and amongst other things, he granted a patent for the chantry of Saint 
Catharine, enabling the chaplains to hold property in mortmain to a specified 
amount.'* In the town he found the footways imperfect, and gave the burgesses a 
patent, enabling them to impose a toll for ten years for the purpose of making 
them compleat.'® His majesty was attended on this occasion by the earl of 
Northumberland, whom he now constituted high constable of England, with per- 
mission either to execute the duties of that exalted office by himself, or his 
sufficient deputy, in such manner as John Viscount Beaumont held it.^ And 
soon after he gave the burgesses of Beverley letters-patent, specifying the tolls 
which they might lawfully take by water ;^' and in 1454, he granted letters-patent 
to the chantry of Corpus Christi in Beverley, enabling the chaplains to hold land 
in mortmain.** 

The hostility between the houses of York and Lancaster now raged with great 
fierceness throughout England, and the country sufiered all the horrors incident 
to civil and unnatural warfare. The nobility were divided, each party ranging 
itself under the banners of Henry or of Edward j and the termination of the con- 
test appeared to be distant and uncertain, from the fluctuating success of each 
adverse party. Happily the town under our consideration, being chiefly occupied 
by merchants and ecclesiastics, did not enter deeply into the great question which 

" Rot. Pat- 28 Hen. VI. 
>• Rot. Pat. 28 Hen. VI. Corp. Rec. dated at Leicester, 5 May, 28 Hen. VI. 14 D. 
«> Rot Pat 28 Hen. VI. CoUins. Peerage, by Biydges, vol. ii. p. 276. 
" Ck)rp. Rec. 18 Feb. 1450. «« Rot Pat 33 Hen. VI. 

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agitated the country, nor did the inhabitants imbnie their hands in blood by active 
operations in either hostile army. They were adherents of the house of Lancaster 
by principle, but being of peaceable professions, with a single exception, they did 
not draw their sword in the fray. The historian, thus relieved from the disagree* 
able necessity of enlarging on circumstances repugnant to the best feelings of 
humanity, enters cheerfrdly on a review of transactions which are more congenial 
to the mind, and consigns to oblivion the hateful record of events, in which man 
thirsts for his brother*s blood; where the arm of the parricide is raised against a 
parent's life, and the nearest and dearest ties of kindred are incapable of restraining 
the bitter expressions of deadly hate and inexting^shable animosity. Suffice it to 
say, that two heroic earls of Northumberland perished in the contest, which at 
length hurled the unfortunate Henry from the throne, and placed the kingdom 
at the disposal of his opponent, who was acknowledged king under the title of 
Edward IV. 

Pota M Sand Mary'* Chmthy Btmrkf, 

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©!)«q?. ti>X. 

General view of the Uynm — DweUuiff-hcuse^ — Pavements — Fartificationa — Parish 
churches — Religious houses — Minster — Influence of the church — Fraternity 
of minstreb — Richard CochereU, of Beverley ^ attainted of high treason — 
Charter of Edward IV. — Trinities founded — Disputes between the governors 
and burgesses — Ordinance if the archbishop — Seven rectors incorporated — 
Sanctuary claimed — Earl of Northumberland murdered by the populace — His 
splendid Juneral at Beverley — Sanctuary once more claimed — Ordinances of 
the four yeomen — Style of Uving in this age — Northumberland household book 
— Tower of Saint Mary's church faUs — Rebuilt — Tabernacle work over the 
stalls in the minster buUt — Charter of Henry VIII. — Two fellowships founded 
in Saint John's coUegej Cambridge^ for the benefit of natives of Beverley. 

We have now arriyed at an €poch in the history of Beverley, which it is 
of some importance to consider minutely. The town, at this period, had at- 
tained a point of proud preeminence, which it probably never afterwards exceeded. 
It had risen by gradual but perceptible steps from the darkness of paganism, to 
the light of Christianity; from the imperfect knowledge of Christ, which distin- 
guished the primitive converts in the wood of Deira, to the full blaze of religious 
splendour which it now enjoyed, under the able superintendence of an enlightened 
priesthood, sanctioned by the immediate protection of the primate himself. Having 
therefore attained the summit of the mountain, we will pause and enjoy the 
enlivening prospect, and recreate ourselves by viewing the objects which surround 
us on every side. 

The town of Beverley was now completed after the best fashion of the times, 
and contained a great proportion of good houses for the residence of the merchants 
and principal people. During the past century, no less than twenty-one patents 

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had been granted to it for pacing the streets and footways/ nine others having 
been previously conceded for the same purpose ; and as few were subsequently 
called for, we may reasonably infer that the town was now brought to that state of 
perfection, in this respect, as not to need any further improvement. The question 
whether the town was surrounded by walls and fortifications has afforded matter 
for conjecture, and has produced two Opinions decidedly hostile to each other. 
The number of streets in Beverley which still retain the cognomen of ^ gate," has 
given rise to the idea that the town was regularly walled, and this appears to be 
confirmed by the fact, that an entrance gate still remains called the North-Bar, 
which has been undoubtedly fortified; and two others in Keld-gate and Newbegin, 
can be remembered. And further, we are told by Verstegan that the word ** Bury 
or Borough signifieth a town having a walle or sotne kynd of closure about it 
All places that in old tyme had among our anceters the name of bourough, were 
places one way or other fensed or fortified;"* This word is derived, says our 
authority, from the Saxon Bijiighe, to hide or bury, because soldiers were hid 
behind the walls firom the enemy's view as securely as a corpse when it is buried 
in the earth. And an authentic document remains, which appears to afford an 
indubitable proof of the early existence of walls and fortifications. This document 
is in the form of a petition to the king in council ; in which ^ the burgesses of 
Beverley pray that it would please his majesty to confirm the charters which his 
ancestors granted to them, to mmmnd the ianm with a waU and a ditch j and that 
they may be lawfully enabled to levy on each person (residing in the town) in 
proportion to the value of his property, a sum of money sufficient for the expenses 
which they may incur, at present or in future, about the said inclosure, with a 
wall and a ditch, for the improvement and security of the borough of Beverley." • 
The answer to this petition was, *'The king wishes to consult the archbishop of 
York, and to see their charters j and it shall afterwards be done as he shall think 
proper."* In opposition to this reasoning, it is urged by others, that we possess 

' These patents were respectively dated, 33 Hen. III. 39 Hen. III. 13 Edw. I. 30 Edw. I. 
2 Edw. II. 14 Edw. III. 39 Edw. III. 44 Edw. III. 49 Edw. III. 1 Rich. II. 4 Rich. II. 
8 Rich. II. 10 Rich. II. 12 Rich. IL 1 Hen. IV, 4 Hen. IV. 8 Hen. IV. 12 Hen. IV. 
1 Hen. V. 2 Hen. V. 4 Hen. V. 1 Hen. VI. 2 Hen. VI. 6 Hen. VI. 12 Hen. VI. 19 Hen. VI. 
28 Hen. VI. 1 Edw. IV. 

> Verst Rest Deo. Int p. 21 1. * Pet. in Pari. U and 16 Edw. II. No. 39. 
^ I subjoin the petition and response in their original langoage. A nostre Seign^r le Roy et a 
son Connseil prient les Bargeys de Beverle, q'il pleyse au dit nostre Seign^r le Roy oonfermer 
les Chartres q'U onn de ses Anncestres, jadys Roys d'Engielter', de la dite Vile de Beverle 


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tolerably accurate evidence that the tdwn of Beverly waid hot silnoimded by any 
defensive fortifications, and that its only security was a wide and deep ditch. As 
an ecclesiastical town, possessing the privilege of sanctuary, it does not appear to 
have needed any human means of defence, when, in those ages of superstition 
and credulity, it was believed to have experienced, on so many occasions, the visible 
interposition of heaven. William the Conqueror, by a divine impulse, afforded 
his protection to this town, even when employed in ravaging and desolating the 
county/ Stephen had resolved to fortify the town, but was deterred by a supposed 
voice from heaven.^ These may be considered as negative proofs that it was not 
surrounded with walls. It is clear from tiie petition already cited, that there ex- 
isted no walls anterior to the reign of Edward II. and we possess no subsequent 
documents to prove that any active operations towards carrying the wishes of the 
burgesses into effect, resulted from the petition ; for we find no mention of walls in 
the public records of the town. In the chartulary of Beverley,^ frequent reference 
is made to the ^ gates and dytches j*' the ** Barr rfy*e," ** West Bar dyfc," ^ Fossatum 
villee," &c. so early as the fourteenth century j a presumptive proof that ditches and 
gates constituted its chief defence. When Edward IV . made his second successful 
attempt upon the crown in 1471, he landed with 2,000 followers at Ravenspume, and 
sent out parties in different directions to sound the inhabitants. When he found 
that they had received orders not to lend any sanction to his pretensions, and that 
the gates of Hull were actually closed against him, he marched through Beverley 
to York, which also refused to receive him. Now if the town of Beverley had 
possessed bulwarks of defence capable of resisting the approaches of Edward's 
army, they must, in that case, be supposed to have received him favourably ; and 
if so, he would certainly have entrenched himself here, and not have hazarded, in 
person, an expedition to York, without possessing any evidence of their favourable 
opinion. Leland, in his Itinerary, tells us, that in his time, "he could not perceyve 
that ever hit was waulled, though they be certen gates of stone portcolesed for 

encloer de mure et de fosse. £t qe eaas pnyssent lever de toaz ceans de la dite Vile de 
Beverle, solom la qnautite de chescnnj beues and chateaos, les despenses qe eaas ount inys ore 
de novel, and en temps a venir mettrount, entour la dite enclostoor^ de mare and de fosse, en 
amendement and en assaraans de la Vile de Beverle avaantdit 

Responsio. Le Roi vent parler a TErcevesq; d'EvVjk, and ver loar Chartres, and fere ceo 
q' ly plerra.. Rot Pari. vol. i. p. 394. 

* Vide ot sapra, p. 67. • Vid. at sapra. p. 90. 

^ Lansd. MS. B. Mas. 896. YIIl. fo. 189. 

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defense/* In the time of ibe civil war, Beverley had no walls/ and is termed ^ a[n 
open place, by no means tenable f^ and when the marquis of Newcastle was undei^ 
the necessity of raising the siege of Hull^ he was advised by sir William Wid* 
drington to fortify the church and some parts of the town of Beverley, that a 
garrison might be left there as a check upon the garrison at Hull. And ditring 
the same unhappy contest, an order was issued by the corporation for the better 
security of the town, that tiie ditches be cviy and the bars be kept locked and 
guarded, from nine at night till six in the morning.'® Besides, there remain no 
vestiges of the existence of walls, either by the voice of tradition, or the discovery 
of old foundations in any part of the town which has hitherto undergone the process 
of excavation. Nor can we find in the patent rolls a single grant, at any periods 
of a toll for building or repairing the walls of Beverley; which, if such walls had 
existed would appear rather extraordinary, favoured as the town has always been 
by royal munificence in every other particular; and finding the recurrence of such 
patents frequent to all places which actually possessed the advantage of such a 
means of defence against the attacks of external foes. 

Be this as it may, the town possessed other advantages which appear of greater 
and more vital importance to its true interests. It had a most magnificent minster, 
and two parish churches, together with several hospitals and religious houses, 
which conferred many essential advantages, both temporal and spiritual, on the tovni 
and its inhabitants ; for these institutions were of great utility, and the monks and 
canons employed their revenues to purposes equally honourable and praiseworthy. 
The religious houses were indeed places of the most unbounded hospitality, and 
thus became the conservators of benefits, foir the loss of which, at the dissolution, 
no subsequent establishment has been able fully to compensate. Authors speak in 
terms of decided approbation of the public advantages resulting fix)m the profuse 
hospitality generally observed in the monastic foundations. Even Hume, who was 
no friend to this order of men, could say, ^ in order to dissipate their revenues 
and support popularity, the monks lived in a hospitable manner j and besides tte 
poor maintained from their ofials, there were many decayed gentlemen, who 
passed their lives in travelling from convent to convent, and were entirely subsisted 

< Vid. Rnshworth. Collect Jane, 1643. 

» Tick. Hall, p. 481. Memoirs of Gen. Fairfax. Edit 1810. p. 98. 

10 Corp. Reo. 13 Oct 1642. 

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at the tables of the friars*'"' The monasteries were in effect so many great hospi^ 
tals; most of them being compelled by their statutes to afford subsistence to a 
certain number of poor people every day. They were likewise houses of entertain* 
ment to all travellers. Even the nobility and gentry, when they passed from place 
to place in distant parts of the kingdom, lodged at one religious house, and dined 
at another, and seldom went to inns. In a word, their hospitality was such, that 
in the priory of Norwich alone, 1500 quarters of malt, and above 800 quarters of 
wheat, with all other things in proportion, were generally consumed every year.'^ 
The testimonies which concur to prove the general utility of monastic institutions 
in these times, are numerous. ** They were the conservators of all the learning and 
science in the land ; they taught each rising generation the value and uses of litera-: 
ture ; they multiplied copies of scarce and inestimable books, which, without their 
industrious perseverance, would have been lost to the world. And in spite of all 
the vices of the monkish orders, in spite of all the errors of their religion, there is 
still an obligation due to them which no time can cancel. They preserved the 
valuable remains of Grecian and Roman literature, without which, who can say 
that Europe, at this day, would not have been involved in the shades of barbarity.*'*' 
In a cursory view of Beverley, as it existed in the fifteenth century, its beautiful 
minster must not be overlooked. This noble edifice had been erected on a dis- 
tinguishable, though not particularly elevated site, although the hill would overtop 
the general level of the district much more prominently than is perceptible now, 
after the adjacent ground has been advanced by the accumulations of so many 
centuries. Conspicuous and massive, it met the eye from numerous remote points, 
with impressive grandeur and unspeakable effect. Towering in native majesty 
above the surrounding buildings, it struck the beholder with equal awe and vene- 
ration. On a nearer approach, the elegant and unrivalled western towers; the 
judicious proportions observed throughout the edifice ; the excellence of its mate- 
rials, now shining out in all their pristine beauty, and the general symmetry and 
fine taste exhibited in its construction, must have afforded to every beholder, a 
series of gratifying objects, seldom so happily combined. And when the admirer 
of this pleasing display of scientific knowledge reflected on the high and glorious 
purpose to which it had been dedicated, his dioughts would ascend spontaneously 
to heaven, and with a heart imbued with gratitude and love, he would devoutly 

" Hame. Eng. vol. iv. p. 184. i^ Tan. Notit Pref. zx. 
>« Berington. Hen. II. p, 632. 

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udore that holy Being who condescends to hear the petitions of his creatores^ and 
confers on them an undersUmding sufficient to estimate his boundless mercies ; and 
nvedUh and genius to erect such splendid edifices to his honour, and the glory of his 

In stating this as the period of supreme prosperity, it is not meant to be insinu- 
ated that the town never attained a subsequent celebrity. But in Roman Catholic 
countries the influence of the church supersedes every other influence ; and in 
towns where it shines widi supreme lustre, by the existence of an extensive and 
opulent ecclesiastical establishment, invested with jurisdiction and the exercise of 
civil power, as was the case at Beverley, a kind of predominance is conveyed^ with 
which mere temporal distinctions cannot compete. Like the eagle soaring in the 
blaze of sunshine, while inferior birds shrink from the dazzling brightness of its 
beams, the church looked down from her lofty station on the secular estates, and 
kept them at an unapproachable distance. But soon this splendid appearance was 
compressed within a more limited sphere of action. The rapid increase of the port 
of Hull, by depriving Beverley of some of its merchants, circumscribed also its 
influence, and its means of resisting the persevering encroachments of its more 
fortunate rival ; and the haven of the more recent port, communicating immediately 
with the Humber, ofiered such superior facilities for general commerce, that the 
foreign trade of Beverley was gradually transferred to Hull. These causes, added 
to the shock which the dissolution of monasteries gave to the town by the aliena- 
tion of its church property, prevented any remarkable accession, from about this 
period, of either wealth or influence. 

A fraternity of minstrels, or gleemen had been established in Beverley during 
the reign of Athelstan, and were supported by their profession in great pomp 
for many ages after the Norman Conquest; and even now they appear to have 
existed in honour and credit.** The church of Saint Mary underwent a thorough 
repair about this time, and several new decorations were added to the edifice. 
Here the minstrels determined to leave behind them an evidence of their im- 
portiemce and public spirit which could never be obliterated. They therefore erected 
one of the columns on the north side of the church, and sculptured on its capital 
an emblematical device which was characteristic of their profession. On this column 
are represented four men in the minstrel's uniform, with an inscription in church 

'^ Vid. infra, p. 3. c. 7. and Append. M. 

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text, e^Titt i^UOV ntftlK t$e ilKefin0t9rl04 They have in their hands the yarioa9 
instramenter of musio used in these ages ; a crowth^ a guittar, a treble and a bass 
flute, a side dram and a tabor^ which, being played tc^ether, would produce a 
complete and harmonious concert, and were unquestionably the instruments em* 
ployed for that purpose by the fraternity at Beverley. The figures are coloured, 
and their short coats painted blue, with red stockings, yellow girdles and stocks. 
Between the spring of all the other arches, are figures of angels holding scrolls, 
and having inscriptions on their breasts. 

In the first year of Edward^s reign, Richard Cockerell, of Beverley, gentleman, 
was attainted of high treason, for the part he had taken in the unhappy contest 
which had deformed the conclusion of the late reign, and his possessions were con* 
fiscated, and conveyed by letters-patent to John Fereby, a yeoman of the crown ; 
and in the act of Resumption, passed in the seventh year of his reign, it was pro- 
vided, that '^nothing in this act nor any other made, or to be made in the present 
parliament, shall extend or be prejudicial in any wise to the said John Fereby, 
of a graunte beryng date the XVIII day of Feverer, in the II*** yere of oure 
reigne, of all londes, tenementes, rentes, reversions, servicez, and all other pos- 
sessions, with all their appurtenauncez in Beverley, M ylcroft, or ellswwhere within 
our county of York ; the which late perteyned to Richard Cokerell, gentilman, 
and the which by vertue of an acte of atteynder made in oure parlement, holden at 
Westm' the IIII*^ day of Novembr', in the first yere of oure reigne, came to oure 
handez, and the which atteyneth to the value of Xli. yerely, over the charges and 
reprises; to be had and holden to the same John for terme of his lif, by service 
thereof due and of right accustumed in certeyn maner and fourm in the same 
letterz patentez specified.'*** 

In 1461, king Edward IV. granted to the burgesses, by charter, a full con- 
firmation of the immunities contained in the charters of 21 and 56 of Henry III;'^ 
and about the same time the Trinities were founded in Beverley.*' The appoint- 
ment of a limited number of governors, invested with certain exclusive powers 
above their fellow burgesses, how necessary soever for the general welfare of the 
town, appears to have excited some sensations of envy and dissatisfaction. Whether 
these new authorities were stretched beyond the prescribed limit, and produced 
oppression and tyranny, we are not informed, but the voice of slander had imputed 

'« Rot Pari. 7 and 8 Edw. IV. «« Rot Pat 1 Edw. IV. Corp. Rec. 17 Dec. 1461. 15 A. 

1' Bnrton. Mon. Ebor. p. 57. 

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to them critae^ of wkicL tbey ware not guilty. Dispute asid recriminatioii ran at 
length 30 high as to disturb thc^ peace of the town; and the impediments to the 
due exercise of legal authority became so numerous, that the twelve governors 
were under the necessity of preferring an appeal to the archbishop, who took the 
trouble of examining into the circumstances of the case; and the following ordi- 
nance whidl he made on the subject, will shew the anxiety of this worthy prelate 
to promote the peace and welfare of the town. 

George by the grace of God, Archebisshop of Yorke, Primate of Englande 
and of the Apostolique See Legate and Ghanceler &c« 

To our Tennants and all the other inhabitants within the Towne of Beverley to 
whome these our Presentes shall come to gretyqge. Know ye that for the unite 
peas and Concorde betwene our righte well beloved the xij Governors of our said 
towne and Thomas Dickson, William Dowthorpe, Adam Newmarke, William 
•Richer, Robert Alured, Robert Payn and William Taillor of the same; we have 
decreed and will and charge that the said Thomas and all his fellows upon paine 
that to the contrarie hereoff may ensew, conform tbem to say, doo and accomplish 
.this our charge and commandment in manor and forme as foloweth that is to 

That the sayd Thomas Dickson and every of his felowes for there governance 
and judging that they in tyme passed have used and done contrarie to our franchies 
puberties and customes of the same schall in the Guilde hawles of oure said Town 
aske the said Governors of this same forgivenesse and prey yem to be their gude 
Maisters and frends. 

And also the said Thomas Dickson and every of his Fellewes Schalle bonde in 
several obligacons unto the said Govemers that thei and everye of them schall 
frem hensforth be of gude beryng and of gude conversacion and all within our said 
towne according to the liberties and old privileges of the same. 

Also we will and charge forsomoche as Adam Newmarke heretofore did slan- 
derously" and disclaimed the said Govemers by which great 
inconvenience myghte have Men, that he in the said Guilde halle ask them for- 
giveness and knowledge his offence and trespace in that behave; and if the said 
Thomas Dickson and every of his felowes do according to the premises we will 
and charge that yen the Governors of our said towne be unto them and every one 

>> HialQB in MS. 

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6f them wel willing and frendly in all that belongfeth unto them and rigllt Will ad 
itaaters hereafter to be attempted ne spoken of for thynges done by them in tyme 
passed. Yeben under our signite and sign manuell in our mannor of Cawood^ 
Ai6 vj. day of October, in the V. year of y* reigne of our leige lord king Edward 
ihe^ fourth sith the conquest.'* 

In 1467, the king confirmed to this prelate, who was brother to the king-making 
earl of Warwick that placed him on the throne, the privilege of holding pris^ms 
within the boroughs of Beverley and Riponj*^ and in the succeeding year he 
assigned to him a messuage and a garden in Beverley, as a return for services 
p»erformed. This property was situated by the Beck-side, and formerly belong^ 
to sir Thomas Everingham.** Three years afterwards the seven rectors of the 
collegiate church were incorporated, and by charter empowered to use a conunon 
seal, and to receive donations in money and land to a prescribed amoimt j" and 
sopii after, being applied to by William Rilston, the executor of sir Henry Brovra- 
fl^t, knight, late lord of Vessey, for the performance of a daily service or mass, in the 
choir of their church, for the soul of the deceased knight, and others; they agreed 
to make the required services binding on themselves and their successors for ever, 
in consideration of receiving from the said William Rilston, the sum of £84. 13s. 4d. 
of lawftil English money, for the benefit of the institution. Indentures were given 
and received, to bind the parties to the just performance of the conditions. That 
given by the rectors is dated 21 March, 1474. It is regularly executed, and has 
their common seal affixed, containing the impression of a bear.^f 

On the 16th of the same month, Edward marched through Beverley without 
opposition, although it is well known that the inhabitants in general were by no 
means favourable to the house of York, and they had received direct and positive 
orders not to advocate his cause. But he was at the head of a formidable army of 
10,000 men, and accompanied by Richard, duke of Gloucester, earl Rivers, sir 
Martin de la Mere, a gentleman of Holdemess, and others. He now proceeded 
to York, with the unquestionable design of recovering possession of the throne, 
although he openly professed the mere intention of sitting down quietly as aa 
obedient subject, in his dukedom. The citizens however refused to receive him^ 
until he had solemnly sworn true fealty to king Henry, and submission to the 

»9 Warburton's MSS. Lansd, Col. B. Mas. 896. VIIT. fol. 159. 
w Rymer. 7 Edw. IV. n. 134. «' Rot. Pat 8 Edw. IV. « Ibid. 11 Edw. IV. 
'3 Bibl. Bodl. MSS. Dodsw. 74. fo. 144. 

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praseAt goiferpmenV^ lb defiance of this pledge, Edward had no sooner tai^en 
possession of the city, than he caused himself to be proclaimed king, and shortly 
afierwards succeeded in making himself master of Henry's person. He now took 
care to rid himself of all further opposition from that quarter, by the cruel murder 
of the dethroned monarch, which is said to have been accomplished by the agency 
of the duke of Gloucester. 

During the continuance of this struggle, Richard Cockerell, of Beverley, had 
rendered himself peculiarly obnoxious to Edward, by his inflexible attachment to 
the house of Lancaster, and his active exertions in favour of the unfortunate Henry, 
and had suffered the confiscation of all his goods and possessions. But when 
Edward, by the death of his rival, found himself securely seated on the throne, 
be made a voluntary restitution to Cockerell of all his fees and hereditaments in 
Beverley and elsewhere.^^ 

On the 13th April, 1478, the privilege of sanctuary was claimed by William 
Salvan, esq. John Heghfield, gentleman, John Salvan, esq. George Walker, and 
John Hunt, who had been guilty of the wilful murder of Henry Hardwycke. 
By the institution of the sanctuary, the church was bound to take Aem under its 
protection, after the oath of fealty had been administered, and the fees paid.^ 
Another daim, of a similar nature, was made on the 23rd of May, in the same 
year, by John Boys, of Dorham, who had committed a murder of a most atrocious 
nature, on the body of one Baxter, a Cistercian monk, belonging to the abbey of 
Jorevaulx, in Yorkshire; but having complied with the necessary preliminary 
fi>rms, he was suffered to remain in safety within the consecrated liberties.*^ 

At the conclusion of his reign, king Edward IV. made an absolute grant to the 
town of all tolls both by land and by water; specifying the articles on which they 
were payable, and the amount of each, towards maintaining the pavement of the 
town.** During the disastrous reign of Richard III. no records remain which 
mention the town of Beverley, except a patent of confirmation to the burgesses;*® 
but his conqueror and successor, Henry VII. in the second year of his reign, gave 

<4 Hall, Holinshead, Speed, &o. ^ Rot Pat 16 Edw. IV. 
^ These were 2s. 4d. each to the bailiffs, and 4d. to the clerk, for entering the name, style, 
residence, crime, and circumstances of the case in the Sanctuary Register. This Tegmier is now 
in the British Museum. Harl. Coll. 4292. 1. XVI. 

^ Had. MSS. B. Mus. 4292. XVI. «» Corp. Ree. 10 Feb. 1483. 15 C. 
^ Rjmer. 2 Rich. III. n. 121. 

Y 2 

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to the inhabitants an inspeximus and conjSrmation of all the charters granted before 
his time, of what kind or nature soever they might be.^ 

In drawing up the annals df a provincial town, little connection can be main* 
tained betwixt the consecutive paiods of its history. We necessarily pass, with 
the swiftness of thought, to subjects of opposite tendency; for the genius of the 
historian being fettered by his materials, if he can attain the merit of accuracy, he 
must be content We have now to record an event, melancholy indeed in its 
nature, but conferring a high degree of lustre on the church of Saint John at 
Beverley. The brave earl of Northumberland, in the year 1489, fell a victim to 
the avarice of king Henry VII. A subsidy had been granted for carrying on the 
war in Bretagne, which was so intolerably burdensome in the north of England, 
that the whole district was in a flame. The earl of Northumberland, th^i lord 
lieutenant, wrote to inform the king of the general discontent, and praying for 
some remission of the tax. But nothing is so unrelenting as avarice. The king 
answered that he would not abate a single penny. This message being delivered 
by the earl with too little caution to the inflammable populace, who had assembled 
in a tumultuous manner around his house, at Cockledge, near Thirske, to com- 
plain of the grievance, it was whispered by an individual that he was the moving 
cause of their calamity. The suggestion was transferred from one to another, 
until it had assumed the form of absolute certainty. It spread through the crowd 
like an electric shock; the passions of the incensed rabble were speedily roused to 
ftiry, and summary vengeance was proposed to be inflicted on one of the kindest 
and most benevolent men of the age in which he lived. They immediately- broke 
into his house, and without either pity or remorse, cruelly murdered him and several 
of his attendants, on the day of Saint Vitalis the martyr, April 28, 1480.^' 

The melancholy end of this exemplary nobleman affords a striking example of 
the insecurity of popular favour. He was humane, generous, and just; and his 
attention to the wants and comforts of the people was incessant and uniform. Pos- 
sessed of unbounded hospitality, he was the protector and father of his t««tntry 
and dependants. Yet the very individuals whom he had fed and cherished, raised 
their ungrateful arms against his life, at the instigation of prejudice and mistaken 
resentment; and he perished from a rigid principle of honour. He disdained to 

^ Corp. Rec. 17 Jan. 1487. 16 H. 
<i ColIinB. Peerage. Brydges. vol. ii. p. 90], with anthorities. 

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hetray the ocmfideiice of his sovereigiiy ajc^d would neither acquaint the populace 
with his own repugnance to collect the odious tax, nor rectify the erroneous notion 
which had gone abroad, that he was the chief adviser and abettor of it. 

His remains were conveyed to Beverley for interment in the minster. The 
procession was solemn and imposing, and its course was marked by the spontaneous 
exhibition of unaffected grief* The villages were deserted; and the people every 
where left their occupations to accompany the pageant, and to see the corpse of their 
beloved lord deposited in its final resting place. All the neighbouring communities 
of religious, issued from their respective monasteries habited in sorrowing weeds ; 
each individual bearing a torch, a crucifix, or some emblem of mortality in his 
hand, to meet and precede the illustrious dead; for he had been to aU of them 
most kind and hospitable, and to somtf an essential benefactor. The body was at 
length deposited, with solemn ceremony, in a chapel built for the purpose in Be- 
verley minster; and according to the custom of those times, the nobility and gentry, 
of every rank and station, who had been anxious to express their affection and 
esteem, were feaisted at the expense of the family; and 13,340 poor persons who 
attended, received each a funeral dole in money. A part only of the expenses of 
this magnificent funeral are enumerated in the reference below,'^ and these amounted 
to £1037. 6s. 8d. equal at the least to £10,000. of our money. Seldom have princes 
been conveyed to their graves with greater solemnity, or more evident testimonies 

^ A short draught of the charge of the Bariall of our Lord and Maister (Heniy Percy) Earl 
of Northamberlaad s whose scale Jesa pardon* 

£. 9. d. 

April 28. Farst for the balmynge, fenovnir and soowering of the 

4. H. 7. cone, with the Webbe of Lead and Chest 13 06 08 

1 489. Item. For the wax of the Herse, by estimation 26 13 04 

Item. FortheTrmberaadpaynlingoftheHerse 5 00 00 

Item. For 400 Torohes, after 2s. 8d. the pece 53 06 08 

Item. ForaStandart 4 00 00 

Item. ForaBaner......... ♦ » 3 06 08 

Item. For his Cote armer of Seynet, be^ with his arms • w 5 00 00 

Item. For 12 Baners of Sarcenet, betya with, my Lords armys at 10s. the 

peoe ;; 6 00 00 

Item. For 100 penselb of Sarcenet, at 12d. the peoe <5 00 00 

Item* For 60 Scatchions of Backeram betyn with my Lords armys (whole < 

annys)at 12d.thepece, fortheohaire^herse^andehnroh.. 3 00 00 

Item. For 40 poor men for the beringof Torches on horseback one day 

(from^re«t7toJUbVi/IeM)18mJles»at2s.aman 4 00 00 

Item. For 100 men on footCj at 6d. a man a day, vis. from Lddnfidd to 

Beverley 1 dqr ; and at Beverley the day of the bnrial 1 day • 5 00 00 

Item. For the svfRrages of 6 churches that will met the corse by the way, 

after Ids. 44. the Church (besides the Torches) 4 00 00 

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of universal regret^ for the Percys, from the extent of their territorial possesrioiiii^ 
the splendour of their virtues^ and the unost^itatious hospitality and benevolence 
by which they were distinguished, were the pride and glory of the northern counties. 
The mausoleum of this exemplary character was adorned with blazonry and 
decorated with sculpture, canopied by an exquisite gothic roof, rich in statuary 
and friezing; and in every respect worthy to contain the ashes of a warrior noble^ 
who died in the act of yielding obedience to the mandate of his sovereign. Per* 
manent memorials of respect, of affection, or of gratitude, industriously raised to the 

£ 8. d. 
Item. For the reward to two officers of armys, for their heipe and payne in 

ordarin^ the said Bariall> at £10. the pece for coming from London their 

costs and reward -. • .•••• 20 00 00 

Item. For all maner of dues belonging to the churche where the corse shall 

rest 20 00 00 

Item. For 12 gownes, for Lords (after 3 yerds and dimid in a gown, at 10s. 

theyerde) 21 00 00 

Item. For 20 gownes for Gentlewomen (after 3 yerds in a gowne, at 5s. the 

yerd) 15 00 00 

Item. For 24 gownes withe hods, for Lords and Knyghts (at 10s. the yerd, 

and after 5 yerds in every gowne and hode) with the Executors . • • 60 00 (X) 

Item. For 60 gownes with tipets for Sqnyers and Gentlemen (at 6s. 8d. the 

yerd, and after 4 yerds in every gowne and typett). • 80 00 00 

Item. For 200 gownes for yeomen and Headfor (after 3s. 4d. the yerd, and 

after 3 yerds in every gowne) ••••• •..••• ••••• 120 00 00 

Item. For 160 gownes of course black, for pore folke for Torche Bearers 

and outher (after 3 yerds in a gowne, and after 2s. the yerde) • • . . • 42 00 (X) 

Item. For 400 yerds of course black, for hangying the Church and the 

Chapells (at 2s. the yerd) •. 40 00 00 

Item. For 500 priests that will come to the said buriall, and if they do not, 

the outher must be fulfilled the next day ; after 12d. the pece, according 

to the will 25 00 00 

Item. For 1000 clerks that comyth to the said Buriall, after 4d. the pece. , • • 16 13 04 
Item. For 100 rownes for Gromes and Gentlemens servant (after 3s. 4d. the 

yerd, and after ^ yerds in every gowne) ••••^ • ••• » 50 QO 00 

Item. For the dole at the said buriall, after 2d. to eveij pore body that 

comyth the dn^ of the buriall ; (allowing the number of the. s^id pore folks . 

to be, as I presume they were on the said day of Buriall) 13340 after 2d. 

the pece according to the will ••«•« •.••••• • •• 123 06 08 

Item. For the- costs and ^xpenoesof meat and drinke.and horse-meate, going 

and comyng (viz. one day- from Wretil to Lekinfeld by the space of 18 

myles ; and one day from Lekinfeld to Beverley and one day tarrying at 

Beverley for the Buriall ^ and one day returning frx>m Beverley to fFresil 

ISmyles) j.. 266 .13 04 

Item. For the mortuaries, his armys, his Huisbemen, his Maister of the Horse, 

and all sUch outher things to be had of my Lords owen, store in the house 

SnmofallthesaidCharges...J037 06 08 

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memory of the great and good, are a just and honourable tribute to departed worth; 
for. thus our earthly attachments to the friends we love are embalmed in our heart$, 
wheii their valued remains are deposited/ with pious decorum, in the silent tomb; 
and thus a humble and unpresuming hope is indulged, that our aiFections will be 
reunited in a more perfect state of existence, where nothing shall prevail but uni- 
vei*sal charity; and the pure enjoyments of uninterrupted bliss shall be equally 
permanent and without alloy. 

The sanctuary at Beverley was again claimed in the seventh year of the present 
reign; which shews the prevalence of crime, and the laxity of discipline which still 
distinguished the government of this country. John Sprot, of Barton-upon- 
Humber, gentleman, came to Beverley in haste, ''and a^ed the Lybertes of sant 
Jhon of Beverley for the dethe of Jhon Welton husbandman of the same town, 
and knawleg hym selff to be at the kyllyng of the saym Jhon w^ a Dager the 15^ 
of August."*^ 

It should appear that the arts were not only encouraged, but cultivated at 
Beverley, with no common assiduity and care. The art of printing had now been 
introduced into England about forty years, and many obstacles impeded the 
general establishment of printing presses; amongst which, the enormous expense 
attending it was not the least In 1506, however, a printing press was erected at 
Beverley by Hugo Goes, who lived in Hye Gate. He used for a device the letter 
JET. and a Goase^ in allusion to his name.** 

The ceremonies of religion, which were customary at the high festivals, obtained, 
as might be expected, much consideration in this town. The following ordinance 
relative to the four yeomen attached to the churches of Saint Mary and the 
minster, will convey a lively idea of the high attention which the inhabitants 
bestowed on these commemorations. The church of Saint Mary set an example 
which was soon followed by that of Saint John. ** Forasmuch as in tymes past in 
honour and worship of our blessed lady Saynt Mary and Corporis Christi of old 
custome A Light of vij. Sergies made of wax hath been & now is founde afore our 

^ Harl. MSS. B. Mus. 4292. XYT. Numeroiis olaims of this nature were made at Beverley, 
which are recorded in the Sanctuary Register in the British Mnsenm ; but as this document con- 
tains merely the name of the party> and the crime, I have not considered the insertion of a diy 
list of names suflBciently interesting to supersede matters of greater moment; pressed as I am for 
q^ace to comprise a perspicuous account of every transaction of real importance connected with 
Beverley^ from the voluminous mass of materials which lies before me. 

'« Ex. MS. penes me. 

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Lady in Saynt Mary*s Church in Beveriey and Two Torches to go with the 
worshipfol Procession upon Corpus Christi day, or else upon the morning after, by 
Four Young men, there to be chosen called Four Yeomen, the which lite of late 
hath like to have been wasted & layde apart for default of good order amonge the 
young men of this parish. Therefore we, Thomas Pierson, Henry Robynson, 
William Curtas, Richard Molett, John Lytefoote, John Norman, Chrystopher 
Atkynson, William Bendron, William Estiby, Tamys Taylor, Richard Lupton, 
and Robert Booth, xij. Governors of the town of Beverley, in the year of our Lord 
God 1503, at the reasonable desire and petition of John Carritt Shoemaker, An* 
tony Aldburgh Wever, John Rypley Brasier, and John Ranfitts Baxter, called 
the Four Yeomen of the said parish, hath ordeyned and statuted that the said 
Four Yeomen- the second Sunday next aflter Cross daies next for to come, and 
all the young men of the said parish, having warning the day before, shall come 
to a place convenient at a certain hour aforenoon by the said four yeomen to be 
limited and assigned ; at the which place and hour the aforesaid four yeomen shall 
set eight younge men upon the election, of which the other younge men shall 
peacefully choose four to be and occupy the office of Four Yeomen for a hole year 
then next following ; which four so chosen shall with all oder younge men of the 
same parish at the afternoon of the same day take and heare the account of the 
aforesaid four yeomen that occupied the year afore. Also it is ordeyned and sta- 
tuted for ever that the four yeomen so chosen shall yearly set sufficient sureties for 
the stock of money they shall receive the day of Accounte truly to delyver the said 
stock of money and all the encrease there office that shall remaine 

over the cost of the foresaid Lyghtes. Also it is ordeyned and statuted that if any 
young man shall be chosen to the office of the Four Yeomen refuse it he shaU 
forfeit to the commonalty of Beverley, and to the said Lyghte ijs. equally to be 
divided without any pardon/* ^ 

The style of living in this age, even in the most noble families, would appear to 
the refined ideas of the present generation barbarous in the extreme. What high 
bom lady of the nineteenth century but would turn with disgust and loathing firom 
a breakfast at seven o'clock in the morning, consisting of bread in trenchers, salt 
inutton and beef, with copious potations of ale and wine to assist the digestion ? 
We are apt to smile at the simple fare and early hours used by our ancestors j but 

s^ Warburton's MSS. Lansd. M88. B. Mas. 896. YIII. fo. 184. 

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it may be a question difficult to solve, whether the superior polish which we have 
unquestionably acquired in modem times, can compensate for the fashionable vices 
which have been gradually introduced with it A valuable record is extant, thact 
displays in striking colours the well regulated hospitality of an old English noble* 
man. It describes with great minuteness the manner and style of living which pre- 
vailed in the household of Henry Algernon Percy, fifUi earl of Northumberland, at 
Leckonfield, near Beverley. This nobleman was possessed of equal munificence 
and taste, and patronized with great liberality, learned and ingenious men. His 
household was ar:anged on the principles of a royal establishment, and he lived 
with a state and splendour little inferior to a sovereign prince. As the king had 
his privy council, so the earl formed a council board from the principal officers of 
his household, who were all gentlemen by birth and blood. His domestic chaplains 
were eleven, over whom presided a doctor or bachelor of divinity; and he had a 
complete establishment of singing men, choristers, &c. for his chapel service ;** 
and altogether it was one of the most splendid establishments in the kingdom* 
The family at Lekonfield consisted, in the whole, of 166 persons ; and such was 
the earl's unbounded hospitality, that, on an average, 57 strangers were enter- 
tained every day, making a total of 223. The annual consumption of food, which 
was calculated with the greatest exactness, was 250 quarters of malt, l2 quarters 
of wheat; 647 sheep; 131 beeves; 25 hogs; 28 calves, and 40 lambs. The 
meat was generally salted before it was used ; and to season it to the palate after 
cooking required 160 gallons of mustard, which was the yearly allowance. Ten 
tuns and two hogsheads of Gascony wine were provided for the service of the year. 
The family rose at six in the morning; at which hour the whole household assem- 
bled in the chapel for divine service; and at seven, the earl and his lady breakfasted 
out of a chine of boiled beef or mutton, with a quart of ale and some wine. 
Diimer was served up at ten, and supper at four; and at nine in the evening all 
the gates were closed, and the family retired to rest*^ 

The reign of Henry VIII. commenced with the most favourable symptoms* 
The former monarch had become so extremely unpopular fix>m his united avarice 
and severity, that the news of his death was received with as open and sensible a 
joy amongst the people as decency would permit; and the accession and coronation 
of his son, spread universally a declared and unfeigned satisfaction.** In the 

»« Collins. Peer. Biyd. vol. iL p. 306. '^ Nortfi. Honsh. Book. Vid App. F. 
^ Hame. Engl. vol. ill p. 408. 


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second year of his reiga the king gave an inspeximns and confirmatory diart^, and 
a general pardon to the burgesses, of Beverley.'® Two years afterwards, the inha- 
bitants suffered a calamity as unprecedented as it was fatal to the lives of many 
unhappy sufferers. During the performance of divine service in Saint Mary's 
churchy the upper part of the tower gave way, and fell through the roof of idle 
building with a tremendous crash. The alarm necessarily attending an occurretice 
of this kind would excite a universal confusion, and each would provide for his 
own safety with all possible expedition. The ruin, however, was too sudden and 
unexpected for every one to escape, and several individuals lost their lives on the 
occasion. The structure did not long remain in ruins, far sir Richard Rokeby and 
others entered into a private subscription for its restoration. John Crossland and 
Joan his wife built two pillars and a half at their own private expense, and re- 
paired two others that were injured;*^ which is recorded by the following inscription. 

Xllr9lKI9 attH U^ mute maDf^ t^t«e tTo ^illovt attH a WialU^ 
The edifice was completely repaired and fitted for the performance of divine service 
before the year 1530. An inscription relating to this event was placed on one of 
the pews. It is now defaced, but the following is an exact copy. 

^^ &iOHi j^abt mara of t^t Sbovl^fi of tf^t 0im anli WSiomm anH QtfitXtvtjsn 
\x>^w ISOI190 ^w ^lasne at f^t faulsnge of 11^90 (a^j^rd^t if^t XXIX nafi 
of ^ptxtl in tfit sere of our Horli a M. vc. atti> Xlir' anH for if^t ^ottlsis 
of tibem tojbtct ]batoi$ hsn ofitib ISmefactor^ anli f^tlpttsi of tire i$aali (S^j^ercj^ ^^ 

up agasne anH for all (EfinsAim <S^oule0 tj^at (Bolt tootti ^abe praaeH fov^ ^ 

anD for t^t ^oulejs of <S^er laed^arH lao&hfi Unsglbt anH IBasm 3one ti0 ^ 

totfe toj^tci^ gabe mo f^unHretjb ^ounlie0 to t]^e huilDing of tW (Ef^vixt^t, ^ 

aim for tje »oule» of aaauim. f^all ©ooper attt» W toife;''' The roof over ^j^ 

the north aisle of the nave was made by William Penter/' who inscribed upon '^i^ 

it the following admonition ; ^$o 

"^ fiHam in t^p IBLtftteng lotoU ffioH aftoutt all tricing s^ 

9Ma t\>n tfnfnfi of t^t fittnttming kol^at 0|^all totome of t^t nttring.'' . 

On the font this inscription still remains.^* ^^ ^raj for t|)e JSOUle» Of lIKallm- ./ 

Jtttsfiaxt ©raper aim W aKfibijs toibidbe maHe tfti?» J^ont of W V9^ ^ 

®ojrte0 tie Uajj of JWarce v, |^ere of our ILorH MDXXX." 

» Corp. Rec. 17 Jan. and 10 Feb. 1511. 17 A. «> Gent Ripon. p. 81. 
41 Gent says it fell in 1604. Ripon. p. 79. but he is evidently in error. "^ 

4» Ex. MS. penes me. *^ Gent Ripon, p. 81. «^ Vid. p. 161. 

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Wliile the ardiitects and woiicmeii were employed in re-edifying this stmctnre, 
the canons of Saint John contemplated a new decoration for the interior of the 
minster; and about the year 1520, they completed the beautiM tabernacle work 
over the stalls. A back ran behind the, whole leng^ of this ornament; and a 
canopy, extending in one continued line from east to west, overhang the pinna- 
cles.^ This decoration gave a new and splendid appearance to the choir; and 
though many subsequent alterations have defaced the original plan, enough remains 
to shew the good taste and exquisite genius of the artist who thus employed his 
talents to beautify our noble church. 

In the 17th year of his reign, king Henry gave another charter to the town, in 
which he confirmed to the burgesses their former exemptions fix>m tolls, pontage, 
passage, ewage, lenage, &c.** 

About the same time two donations were made to the town, which had for 
their object the encouragement of learning. The indentures are still amongst the 
records of the corporation, by which these charities were conveyed. By the first, a 
fellowship is founded in Saint John's college, Cambridge, by "master Robert 
Hallitreeholm, of Beverley, clerk; the founder to nominate to it during his life, 
and after his decease, every succeeding vacancy to be filled up by the master and 
fellows of the said college. The fellow to be a native of Beverley or its neighbour- 
hood, to be in priest's orders when elected, or veithin twelve months after; and to 
sing and say masse for the soul of the said founder, and of his* father, mother, 
brethren^ sisters, ancestors, benefactors, and all christian souls. The original en-^ 
dowment was £120. sterling.*'*' The other indenture is also respecting a fellowship 
in the same college, which was "foimded by dame Johan Rokeby, and Robert 
Creyke her son, to be called for ever their fellowship. The fellow to sing masses 
for their souls, and the soul of sir Richard Rokeby, kn\ and of Thomas Creyke, 
late father of the said Johan, and for all their posterity. The amount of the 
original endowment was £170. sterling, and the fellow was to receive quarterly, 
forty shiUmgs."* 

« Coltman'8 Short Hist p. 51. « Corp. Reo. 7 Feb. 1526. 17 B. 
^' Coip. Reo. 18 Jane, 17 Hen. VUI. No. 24. *» Ibid. 11 July, 17 Hen. VIII. No. 25. 

Z 2 

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m^* twE«. 

Commencement of the ReformeOion — Visitation of the monasteries — Income of the 
coUegiate church — Dispute renewed between Beverley and Hull — Referred to 
the abhot of Meaux — Decision — Dissolution of the smaller monasteries — ^ The 
Pilgrimage of Chrace^^ — Alleged vices of the monks — General dissolution of 
the reUgious houses — Grant towards the repairs of the minster — Dispute 
respecting tolls betfveen Beverly and HuU — Burgesses of Beverley petition the 
queen — Dispute finally settled by arbitration — Clwrters of Elizabeth — Chantry 
property granted to the churches at Beverley — Timber in Westwood feUed — 
The town much impoverished — Exempted from payment of certain taxes during 
the queefCs pleasure — Hurricane — The inhabitants visited by the plague — Its 
horrid progress — Charter of Charles I. — Misapplication of church funds — 
Inquisition and decree. 

The period had now arrived when the town of Beverley was to lose its ecclesi- 
astical distinction. The excesses which were doubtless committed by several of 
the religious orders, were subjects of regret and scandal to the moral and virtuous 
population of the kingdom. Whitgift, the exemplary abbot of Grimsby, had pro- 
phesied, from the existence of crime and error which long-continued licence had 
introduced into the very vitals of the Romish ^stem of religion, that it could not 
continue,' and it was the general opinion that some remedy must be speedily 
applied to check the growing evil, lest religion itself should be obliterated from 
the mind, by the contagious example of its ostensible defenders. The alleged 
vices of the monks were at length converted into a pretext for that line of policy 
which the king had resolved to adopt, for the purpose of enriching himself with 
the spoils of their endowments. The first blow was given to the monastic esta- 
blishments by Wolsey, with the consent of the pope, in 1525, when forty religious 

Strjpe. Life of Arehb. Whitgift. p. 3. 

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hoases were dissolved, and their reveaues transferred to the foundation of Christ 
Church College, Oxford, and a college or school at Ipswich, both established by 
the. cardinal himself* This was followed up by a requisition, addressed to the 
abbots, priors, and others, to acknowledge the king's supremacy, as the lawful 
head of the church within his own dominions ; by which stroke of -policy he hoped 
to ascertain the quantum of resistance which might be oiFered by that body of 
men, when he should proceed to the ultimate measure of actually dissolving their 

Soon a general visitation of the monasteries was commanded by royal authority ; 
and eighty-six articles of enquiry were drawn up by Richard Layton,* and placed 
in the hands of the commissioners, which embraced every essential point, relating 
either to doctrine, discipline, morals, or revenue, with a general clause, empowering 
them to demand the production of all writings, records, instruments, inventories, 
and schedules, which might be necessary for a full investigation of the state and 
circumstances of every religious society, of whatever description, throughout the 
whole kingdom/ At this visitation, the collegiate society at Beverley was found 
to consist of a provost, eight prebendaries, a chancellor, a precentor, seven rectors 
choral,^ nine vicars choral, with many chantry priests, clerks, choristers, officers, 
and servants/ A most splendid establishment; worthy of the magnificent building 
which contained it ; and both devoted to the best of sdl purposes, the service of the 
true and only God. 

The income of these priests and officers was proportionate with the rank and 
dignity which they had to support In addition to the common table of the esta- 
blishment, the following annual sums were paid by way of stipend, which, compared 
with the value of money at the present day, would stand as in the subjoined state- 
ment, being on an average of five to one.^ It may be further remarked that the 
price of provisions was still more disproportionate, for an act of parliament recently 
passed,^ had fixed the price of beef and pork at a halfpenny a pound; veal and 
mutton, at a halQ)enny and half a farthing; hens, a penny each, geese, twopence 
each; butter, sixpence a stone; and cheese, eighteen-pence a stone; with all other 

« Cott M8S. B. Mq8. E. IY. «. p. I K Mbid. £. IV. 6. p. 18. 

I. These were the berefellarii referred to in the ordinances and 
gave a Bear for their common seal. Bibl. Bodl. Dodsw. MSS. vo 

' Tan. Notlt York. XII. « Vid. Folkes. Engl. CJoins* p. «1. » 84 Hen. VIII. c. 3. 

* Or parsons. These were the berefellarii referred to in the ordinances and accounts of this 
ohnrch. They gave a Bear for their common seal. Bibl. Bodl. Dodsw. MSS. vol. todv. f. 144. 

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articles in proportion. The general income of the chnrch mnat hare edceedad ^ 
sums here specified ; for the canons possessed upwards of twenty thousand aores of 
land, which if let only at a shilling an acre, the average price in that age,* would 
produce a thousand pounds a year, equal to five thousand of our money. And 
added to this we may calculate on the emoluments arising from the provost's cour^ 
wreck and waif, estrays and deodand, churdies and fees, manorial rights and 
fisheries, with other advantages necessarily resulting firom the possession of all these 
lands and rights, profits and privileges." 

The dignitaries of York beheld the storm which was ready to burst on the 
collegiate establishment at Beverley in common with other monastic institutions. 

* Anders. Ciom. voL i. p. S74. 

* The following may be considered as a fiiir estiinato of fbe oomparative value of the income 
which each ecclesiastical otBcer of this establishment enjoyed, without any reference to the 
inferior clergy, or to the lay officers and serFaats. 

The Provost ,; 

The Prebend, of Saint Michael 

of Saint Peter 


of Saint Catherine 

of Saint Mary 

of Saint Stephen 

of Saint Andrew 

of Saint James 


The Precentor 

The Fabric Lands 

Seven Rectors Lands in conmion ••••••• 

Do. Pension, £6. ids. 4d. each 

Nine Vicars Lands in common 

Do. Salary, £8. each ••••.•••• 

































































































211 10 


1057 12 11 

5 14 


28 12 6 

The minor hospitals and religions houses at Beverley, were valued as follows. 

Hospital of Saint Giles 

Conmiandery of Saint John •••.. ••• •• 

Hospital of Saint Nicholas 

Honse of Gray Friars • • 

House of Black Friars • 

Tan. Notit York. XIL 

For an account of the numerous chantifeif, &c. see Part. 3. ch.^. 

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had resolved to provide agfainst an event that appeared to threaten the extinction 
of religion amongst the inhabitants, by securing to the church of Saint Mary the 
regular performance of all the offices of public worship. On the 17th March, 1531, 
therefore, the dean and chapter issued a commission to John, bishop of Sodor, to 
reconcile and perpetually establish the church prebendal or pai'ochial of Saint Mary, 
in all the profits and privileges granted to its vicar by archbishop MeltonJ^ Two 
years afterwards, the claims of the town of Eingstone-upon-HulI to the payment 
of tolls on all vessels fix>m Beverley, were once more renewed. The burgesses 
of the latter place persisted in their right to a freedom of passage with their ^ shypps 
and botts,"' and peremptorily refused submission to the impost A suit at law to 
enforce payment was carried on with great perseverance, but the merchants of 
Beverley were too tenacious of their chartered privileges to relinquish them without 
a struggle. At length, after much expense had been incurred by both the con- 
tending parties, without a prospect of any speedy decision, a compromise was 
proposed and accepted; and it was mutually agreed to refer the decision of all 
matters in dispute to the abbot of Meaux, who ultimately published the following 
award or agreement. " Furste, y t ys agreyd, that the inhabytaunts of Beverley 
shall pay to the buigesses of Hull for ev^ry quater of wheat a penny, and ev'ry 
quater of other grayne a halfepeny, that they schall carry thorowe Hull haven* 
yf they or theyr ankers or fesh w't'in the saym, or lade w'thin the haven; and in 
lyke case the inhabytants of Hull to pay to the burgesses of Bev'ley lyke somes 
£rom Hull-Bridge to Snorome-House, if they either anker or fesh, or take away 
come w'thin the same."" . 

In the year 1536, the experiment of actual dissolution was made, and the for- 
midable act was passed for the suppression of the lesser monasteries;'^ certain 
injunctions having been previously laid on all the religious houses without exception, 
to prevent any waste or embezzlement of property." This measure must have 
created an alarming sensation in Beverley, which contained several of these minor 
establishments; because one source of its prosperity arose from the profuse 

10 Ex. Reg. Archiep. Ebor. AR. p. 613. Lansd. MSS. B. Mas. 896. VIII. fo. 47. 

'^ Corporation Records. 
** Hume. Engl. vol. iv. p. 150. Bishop Tanner, Notit p. xxiii. says, this act was passed aboat 
Maroh, 1535. Dagdale, in his Worcestershire, p. 11 II. edit 1730, represents the houses of 
parliament as packed for the purpose; hot in Spelman's History of Sacrilege, p. 183, it is said 
that the bill stack long in the boose of commons, and wonld not pass, till the king sent for the 
(Dommons, and told them he would have the bill pass or have 8<Mne of their heads. 

» Cott MSS. Cleop. E. IV. 7. p. 21. 

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expenditure of the reventies of its religious houses; and it was uniyersally believed 
that this statute was but a preliminary step towards a general alienation of all thd 
monastic property* The town of Beverley, however, did not suffer from the operation 
of the late act; for its houses were not dissolved, until, by a subsequent statute, the 
entire destruction of these foundations was finally decreed. This short respite 
might be owing to the powerfiil interest of many opulent families who now resided 
in the town. 

Notwithstanding the errors of this religion, we cannot but regret the violent imd 
unworthy means which were used to suppress the monasteries. They produced dis- 
content throughout the country, which the ejected monks, during their wanderings 
from place to place, took pains to encourage and kindle into a flame. The 
dissatisfaction rose to such a height in the county of York, that a dangerous 
rebellion broke out which required a great force, and the exercise^ of a 'wise and 
judicious policy, to subdue. One Richard Aske, esquire, possessed sufficient talent 
and address to raise a large army of monks, friars, and people to the number of 
40,000 men, which was plausibly denominated ^ The Pilgrimage of Grace;*' and 
every man took an oath not to lay down his arms until the poor, persecuted church 
shoidd be restored to its former situation, both with respect to doctrine, discipline, 
and possessions. Animated with a furious zeal, which their leader knew how to 
keep alive, they proceeded with avidity towards their purpose. Preceded by a band 
of priests bearing crosses, and banners displaying the crucifil and the five wounds 
of Christ, they made themselves master of Hull, York, and Pomfret castle, and 
were joined by the archbishop of York and lord Darcy. The bailififa of Beverley 
also espoused their cause, and took with them a supply of men. At length, the 
confederacy became so formidable that it made Henry tremble on his throne. 
The duke of Norfolk was despatched against the rebels, bul not being strong 
enough to meet them in the field, he had recourse to treaty; in which, after some 
difficulty and delay, he succeeded in dispersing the rebels and obtainiiiig jifossession 
of their principal leaders. Aske was hung in chains at York ; sir Robert Con- 
stable, another of the insurgent commanders, was also hung in chains over 
Beverley Gate, Hull ; the baili£& of Beverley escaped, although they were ex- 
empted by name in the proclamation of pardon," but lord Darcy was beheaded on 

Tower Hfll. 

; -^^ ' ' i - .. u — ► 

" Corp. Rec. 24 July, 29 Hen. VIII. 17 C. The names of these two persons were Richard 
Wilson, and William Woodmansie. 

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^. Other insurreetioiis foUowedv which seem to faaye had no other efkd upoii 
^enry than to make.him pursue his course of policy with greater caution ; an^^ 
though determined to alienate the monastic property into his own coffers, he found 
it necessary to colour his exactions with the appearance of justice. Commissioners 
,were again sent out^ with full powers to ascertain the extent of crime with which 
ihe reli^ons orders stood charged ; and it must be confessed, that if only a small 
jportion of the vices contained in the reports of these inquisitors be true, a general 
reformation was absolutely necessary for the benefit of public morals, as well as the 
holy cause of religion. A system of concubinage was universal, said they; and 
^ all kinds of knaveries,"** whoredoms, adulteries, sodomies, and incest were every 
wh^e prevalent Inveterate hatred and quarrels were said to have existed within 
the walls of these consecrated houses, amongst brethren of the same curder ; and 
tdie most glaring frauds and legerdemain tricks practised to secure the attachment 
w excite the reverence of the people. A detail of these unnatural crimeis and im« 
pudent impostures created sensations of horror and disg^t amongst all descriptions 
9f peoi^e, although it was suspected by many, that the visitors, under the royal 
influence, had exaggerated every failing into a crime, merely to excite in the 
nation a sentiment of abhorrence against the religious orders, that Henry might 
^ecute his projected schemes with the greater impunity, and plunder the monks 
of their property and possessions, without incurring the resentment of that portion 
of the jiobility in particular, whose ancestors had founded, and who were personally 
interested in, the greater portion of these religious instituti<ms.'^ 

The Roman Catholic religion was debased with errors which called loudly for 
reform; but the manner in which the reformation was effected was liable to con- 
sidarable objections. The nobility and gentry began to tremble for the tenure of 
their own possessions, on perceiving the delirious avidity with which private rights 
were invaded, and the total absence of principle which accompanied an insatiable 

^ Cotton. Mas. B. Mqb. Cleopatra. E. IV. fo. 114, 151. >« Speed. Brit. p. 791. 

" It must be confessed, indeed, tbat many vices and disorders did really exist within the walls 
of these seeladed establishments. Thus the abbot of FoantMns, << wasted his woods, dilapidated 
his house, and kept six concubines.'*^ <' Elizabeth Copley, a nnn at Swine, was fonnd with child by 
a priest'' Thompson's Swine, p. 67, 68. The prior of Maiden Bradley had six illegitimate 
children. Cott MS8. B. Mas. Cleop. E. IV. fo. 249. a. The abbot of Fnrness confessed, in his 
writ of resignation, the ^'mysorder and evyll lifis, both unto God and the piynce, of the bredren 
of Big monasterie." Cott. JMSS. B. Mas. Cleop. E. IV. p. 246. And the abbot of Welbeck is 
described ui MS. Ashmol. Mas. 1519. fo. 28. b. as Hving in a state of fornication, '<by keeping 
dwers women.^^ 


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thirst of riches in the person of a powerfol monarch. To dissipate these uh^voar^ 
able impressions, the king* granted, sold or exchanged, the abbey lands^ on.teilftn 
the most disadvantageous to himself; gratified the borough towns by a renewal *of 
their ciyil liberties, and conciliated the people by promising to appropriate the 
produce of these lands to supply the exigences of the state, and thus to relieve them 
in future from all grievous and oppressive taxes/' He proceeded to g^ve his pro» 
mised charter to the burgesses of Beverley, in 1539. It contained a confirmation 
and exposition of the words said to be in the first charter of Athelstan; — 

aw J^m madfee 5 €U 

^» l^ert m&s tlbsn^ ov ^^t tnas »t, 

which was extended to all tenants and residents in Beverley J' 

The Franciscan monastery at York was one of the seven custodies or w^rdenshipB 
into which the order had been divided in Bngland ; and under its juidsdiddon were 
the monasteries of Beverley, Boncaster, Scarborough, Boston, and Grimsby. This 
monastery, (or divers good causes, &c. with unanimous consent, &g. according t» 
the prescribed formulary, was resigned into the king's hands on the 27th of 
November, 80 Henry VIII.*® and of course its dependencies fell at the same time 
with it. The house of this order at Beverley was granted to Thoipas Cullpepper, 
32 Henry YIII.*' About the same time the site of Saint Giles's hospital, with 
the free chapel annexed to it, was granted to Thomas, earl of Rutland.^ In 
1542, Edward Lee, archbishop of York, by indenture, dated November 12th, 
exchanged the manors of Beverley, Southwell, and Bishop-Burton with the 
crown, for the dissolved priory of Marton-cum-Membris, in the county of York, 
and other manors formerly belonging to religious houses;" and in the following 
year, the site of the commandery of Saint John of Jerusalem, at Beverley, was 
granted to William Barkeley,^^ and the house of the Black Friars was given to 
John Pope and Anthony Foster.** Soon afterwards the king, of his especial grace, 
not having yet determined on the destruction of the collegiate church, appointed 
William Giles, clerk, to the prebend of Saint Michael, vacant by the death of 

" Coke, Instit. IV. £ 44. 
« Corp. Reo. 1 May. 31 Hen. VIII. 17 F. ^ Drake. Ebor. p. 283. 
«> Tan. Notit York. XII. 8. » Ibid. York. XII. 3. Ex. Reg. Pr»p. Bev. L 8. p. 12. i 
^ Drake. Ebor. p. 4^1. >« Tan. Notit York. XII, 2. 
' «« Ibid. York. XII. 7. 

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Wmi^^D^^^oi? .^ ^^^ ^f ^f^; loid invBsted Um wzjli i|^;Tight^:]^fit8| 
firnite^ wmI appurt^^ncesi*'* - ; » . 

The conunoa pQO|de were not easily reconciled to the dissolution of the mona$« 
teriei^ by which the monks and friars, who were certainly yery excellent friends to 
the\po^» loist thdu: reyenues, and with them the power of a^ii^ting their, indigent 
iMiighbquis. Xlyery* calamity that happened to the nation for many y^ars after this 
periodf was attributed to the outrageous insult offered to religion.^ 

In th^ /second year of king Edward YI. the final dissohitioii ;of the collegiate 
establishment at Beverley took place ;^^ when, the provoat,, haying resigned his 
office intQ the king's hands,^ the images were removed out of the ropd loft by a 
royal injunction ; the paintings were defaced^ and their place? 4»vpplied by verses 
from scripture,**^ and most of the prebendal bouses were given to John Bellowe, of 
Grimsby, and Michael Stanhope;" thenprebendaries and other officers having 

^ Rot Pat 38 Hen. YIIL Rym. Feed, tonu xv. p. 106« 
'^ The following lines were constantly in the months of the common people. 

^' Chill tell thee what good Vellbwe^ 
Before the vriers went hence, 
A hnshell of hest wheate 
Was zold vor vonrteen pence. 
And vorty egges a pennj. 
That were both good and newe; 
And this che zay myself have scene. 
And yet ich am no Jewe/' 

Stnitt Han. and Cost vol. iii/p. 58. 

** It tniist be ever lamented, that the destroyers of these venerable edifices were not contented 
with the annihilation of eveiy vestige which bore a reference to the saperstitiovs observdnoes of 
popery; bnt all the learning of the English nation, collected throngh many bentnries, and de- 
posited in the libraries of these institutions^ was sacrificed daring the exterminating impulse which 
oonsigned to oblivion the systematic errors of the Romish chnrofa, and -pat af>eriod to its existence 
as a national establishment JMIantiscripts, which can never be- renewed, . were -consigned to 
profane uses; Whole ship loads were transported to the contineiit; history, topography, biography, 
records,' were aUce bartered for a base equivalent, and petty tradesmen were .fanoished with 
paper for common purposes, which was worth its weight in gold. Coll. Eccl. Hist vol. ii. p. 166. 
ISale asserts,' that he knew -a merchant who received as many ihanuscripts £rom monastic libraries 
for forty shillings, as would serve him for all the purposes of his business for twenty years.' The 
loss may expite our regret, but it can never be retrieved. 

^ Ex libello adjancto de Pispos* Bf verlao. 

*> Weever. 'Fun. Mon. p. 123. Bum. Hist Ret vol. ii. p. M8. 

, " Tan. Notit York. XII. I. 


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wMreion small pennonsf*' !>ut as a sort of obmpensatibn to the idhalbitentt iftir the 
loss of their eedesiarticai institations;^ the king granted two charters to the town^ 
both dated on the same day; the one being an inspeximns and confirmation of all 
fermer diarters; and the other a confirmation of Athelstan's grant, Als tre, 8io.^ 

The boroi^ of Beverley soon began to fed the loss it had sustained in tbe dia-^ 
Mutton of its ecdesbsiical establishments, for it declined rapidly fixmi the standard 
of its former rank. Some provision, how inadequate soever, appears to have beea 
made about this time for the purpose of preventing the beautiful church of Sunt 
John fix»m falling to decay. It was still the ornament and jNride of the towz^ 
taid as the burgesses beheld the wreck of its institutions, the^ feared that time 
would also deprive them: of the fabric itself, if some means were not attempted 
tovpards obtaining a permanent fund to preserve it from dilapidation. Applicationa 
were made in the proper quarter, and, about the year 1652, a decree was issued 
out of the exchequer, empowering the twelve governors of the town to receive such 

^ In 1553, the following pensions remained in charge, vis. 

Reginald Lee, the Provost .... 49 
Robt Sherwood, Chancellor . . 6 
John Rude, Preb. of St Stephen 19 

RobertFleye 6 

JohnThorgate .••• 6 

John Clayton 6 


• • • I 

William Griggs 

Robert CoUingson < 

Robert Watscm. .\ 

Richard Johnson i 

Robert Tbwyngef ^j 

John Levett . , . . f 

John Monyoe 

Robert Warde 

ThomMCooke » 2 

FeterYole 2 


Thomas RaAeby'^ 
John Bom&7« . . 
Robert Ingletoa 
Joihn Pardonne. . 
George. Grig^ 
John Piokeijnife 
Leonard Toby . . 
William Fovest^ . 
John Stable .... 

















Thomas Batterwood • 2 

JohnHall 2 

Charles Wright.. 2 

James Cootes • 2 

Thomas Crawnsmore 2 

George Goodsoppe» Minister 
William Sysson, Incense Bearer 
William Johnson ? Verrers 


JohnStamper. ... 

Anthony Bnlneye 

Richard Bnry.... 

Robert Babthorpe, Prebendary 21 

Henry Brown, Prebendary • . • • 14 

Richard Goodsoppe> Minister . • 1 

Richard Bury, Minister. # • 1 

George Haslewood\ 
Edm. Hogheson. • i Chantry 
Geoffery Jefferson f Priests in 
Henry Bylton. . • • ( the 
Chris. Walton ..iCoU. Ch. 
William Cowardey 
Robert Mote ..^ Chantry 
John Thompson f Priests out 
Richard Barton C of the 
John Talbote ..J Coll. Gh. 


6 8 
6 8 







6 8 



11 .8 

** Coip. Reo. 1 Feb, 1548. 18 Ik. 

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k pwtioii of the rents and fermes of the office of the works at Bevarlqr as shooW 
amount to £33. 8s. lOd. towards the repairs of the minster, and also to receive ihft 
profits belong^ing to the two late chantries of Saint John of Beverly, and Saiint 
William, foonded in the church of Saint John, with an arrear of £(92. 148. 8d; 
to be applied to (he same purpose.** 

Respecting the bloody reign of the savi^ Mary the annals of our town, happOjt 
are wholly silent, with the exception of two charters, the first an inspeximus^ 
enumerating and establishing most of the preceding charters; and the other, a 
charter confirming the tolls by land and water for ever, on payment of an annual 
reserved rent to the crown of £5. Os. 8d«^ 

The glorious reign of Elizabeth we contemplate with feelings of satisfacticm and 
delight, for she omfirmed to us all our religious privileges, without being subject 
to the diarge of tyranny and oppression, which stained the memory of her father. 
At Uie commencement of her reign, the men of HuU had proceeded to extremities 
gainst tlie merchants of Beverley, and actually denied to them the privilege of 
egress from the river Hull into tlie Humber, by blocking up the passage at their 
hriigey and hence their commerce was wholly suspended. In this state of afiaim 
Aey determined to petition her majesty's privy council for redress; in which they 
were seconded by other towns, which had suffered by the unprecedented step which 
the inhabitants of Kingpstone-upon-Hnll bad ta1c#^n in obstnicting the passage of 
Hie river. The petition set forth, that the mayor and burgesses of Hull had closed 
the leaf or trap of the North Bridge, erected by king Henry VIII. and that 
thereby ^no ship, crayer or ked, with mast erect, could pass through the same, to 
the great detriment not only of the town of Beverley, but also to the hindrance of 
any quantity of timber to be brought so near the queen's highnesses pier of Hornsea, 
hj ten miles for the maintenance thereof; and also to her tenements on the Wolds, 
barren of wood." ^ The petition was signed by many of the burgesses of Beverley ; 
by the township of Fishlake and Hatfield, the queen's tenants; by the townships 
of Hornsea, Selby, and others. 

This petition appears to have awakened the corporation of Hull to a sense of the 
responsibility which tliey had incurred, by assuming tlie prerogative of inflicting 

^ Corp. Rec. 6 Nov. 6 Edw. TI. 1 8 C. Attested at Westminster, by sir Richard Sakervyle, 

•« Corp. Reo. 18 Oct 1553. and 22 Jan. 1554. 19 A. and 19 Bi 

••Corp. Reo.20 March, 1559. 20 A. 

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piwfliunent on tibose whom the law had not condemned. Tliey proposed to submit 
the matter to arbitration, and a bond^ with a penalty of £300. attached^ was given 
by Alexander Stockdale, mayor of Hull, and Robert Balton and Jame^ darksoUf 
aldermen of that town> to Ihe governors and keepers of the town of Beveriey» 
covenanting that they will abide by the award of the arbitrators, tonchijig the 
inclosing of the leaf in the middle of the North-Bridge/^ 

The arbitrators were, Robert Constable, esq. of Hotham; Robert Wright, es^ 
of Welwick ; Thomas Grimston, esq. of Goodmanham ; Anthony Sjnetheley, esq- 
of Brantingham; and Thomas Doweman, gentleman, of Pocklington. These 
gentlemen examined all the documents, heard all the arguments on both adea 
of the question, and bestowed considerable pains to ascertain all the points and 
bearings of the subject, and afiter due deliberation published their final award; 
which directed, ^ that the mayor and burgesses of the town of Kingstone-upon«* 
Hull shall, before the 24 June next, disclose the above said bridge over the river, 
so that the inhabitants of Beverley and their successors, and all other the inhabitants 
adjoining the said river, may for ever pass and repass in their vessels, with their 
masts standing, to and from Beverley ; and further ordered, that in consideration of 
the expense of opening the said bridge, that the governors and keepers of the town 
of Beverley, shall pay to the mayor and burgesses of Hull, the sum of £30. ; viz. 
£15. on the 23 June, 1559, and £15. more on the 23 June, 1560."'' And thus the 
question of toll was finally disposed of. 

After this decision the queen granted two charters to the town of Beverley, by 
which all the liberties and privileges conveyed by any of her predecessors were 
graciously confirmed;^ and in the 15th year of her reign, she gave the burgesses 
another charter, which recites that, ^Beverley is an ancient town, and fiH>m time 
immemorial has enjoyed many privileges and liberties, as well by prescription as 
by grants firom divers princes;" and proceeds in due form to -^incorporate the 
town by the name of mayw^ governors, and burgesses of the tonm of Beverley } and 
appoints Edward EUerker to be the first mayor."*® 

In the year 1579, the queen granted letters-patent under the great seal of Eng- 
land, by which her majesty assigned to the mayor, governors, and burgesses, certain 

«^ Corp. Reo. 24 April, 1559. 20 B. «Ibid. 12 June, 1559. 20 C. 

» Ibid. 9 Nov. 1559. 20 D. and 20 E. 

^ Ibid. 4 Jaly, 1573. 20 O. Thb charter, which is most beaatifally iUnminated, bi ditfed at 

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chantries^ lands and tenements, to be applied to the sole purpose of repairing And 
maintaining the fabric of the minster/' with a yearly rent of £4. 13s. 4d. lately 
paid by the churehwardens of Saint Mary's parish, to William Cawood, chantey 
priest at the altar of Saint Catharine, in Saint Mary's church* And in 1581, an 
exemplification of a decree was issued from the exchequer, for ^^the stipends of 
£21. 6s. 8d. payable to the minister of the collegiate church, and £16. per annmn 
to an assistant in the said church, to be paid by her majes<y's receiver at Micha^i- 
mas and Lady-day, by equal portions.^' By this decree, the mayw, governors, an4 
burgesses are empowered to nominate the minister and assistant on any vacancy. 
Four years afterwards she gave to the corporation, by h^ letters-patent, in coiv- 
sequence of a petition from sir James Crofts, knight, comptroller of her majesty's 
household, a further donation of lands, tenements, rents, and hereditaments, in trust 
to them and their successors, for the supp<M*t of the minster church,^' and other 
possessions for the use of Saint Mary's.^^ 

Notwithstanding the munificence of this princess to the town of Beverley, the 
affiiirs of the corporation were at this time in a very disordered state, and some 
public meetings were convened to devise a plan for liquidating their debts. Several 
proposals were made for accomplishing this desirable purpose, but none appeared 
to promise such complete success as the removal of the timber firom Westwood, 
the sale of which would furnish them with a sum of money amply sufficient for 
their present purposes, and leave the ground in a state eligible for improvemcAt, 
and better calculated for the general benefit of tiie town, tiian while covered with 
wood. It was therefore determined, on tiie 31st March, 1587, by Ralph Freeman, 
the mayor, with the consent of the governors and burgesses, '' to make sale of so 
much of the trees and wood, now growing and being in the said wood called West- 
wood, as by them shall be thought good and sufficient for performance of the affairs 
and business so required; that is, to disburse and defray divers several sums of 
money, which otherwise cannot he accomplished."** 

«> Corp. Rec. 2 Jaly, 1579. 20 I. lU^ sVdo Jnlij cone' Maiori gnbernatorib'. et bargennb^ 
vWV Beverlaci inter alia Cant' S'oi Willi' & Jo. in Beverlaci ao o'ia mess' ib'm Cantar' S'ce 
Katberine EcclMe S'oe Marie ib'm iiij" xiij*. iiij.^ redd' ao div'ss aP redd' etterr' ib'm. Tenend' de 
Eastgrenew^^. soceag' p' fidelitat' Anno xxj^ Eliz. p'te nona. Ex. Reg. Pr»p. Bev. 1. 3. p. 18 b. 

4> Corp. Reo. 4 Jane, 1581. 20 L. <' Ibid. 3 Feb. 1585. 20 O. 
^ Chanceiy Decree. 23. Charles T. Vid. infra, par. 3. cap. 3. 
« Wftrbarton's M8S. Lansd. Col. B. Mas. 896. VIII. fo. 178. This docament is signed by 
Ralphe Freeman, mayor; John Troslove, Mich. Warton, Will, Farlery, Peter Harpham, and 

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: The town was now gradually sinking to de^y^ and in 1499^ liie inliKbitan|i 
were incapable of paying their just proportion of the taxes necessary for carryii?^ 
on the business of the state. Their incapability wfts laid before. the queen^ whc^ 
with her usual grace and kindness, remitted a portion of her demand^ and gave 
the mayor and governors a discharge^ by which the town was relieved from the 
payment of the sum of £321. 6s. Od. due to the croWn for third, fourtb, fifUi and 
sixth, fifteenths and tenths, granted to her majesty, by an act of parliament passed 
in the 39th year of her reign, (c, xxvii.) and further exonerating the town frpn^ 
the payment of fifteenths and tenths during the royal pleasure. This document 
irecites, that Beverley, once very rich and populous, was now become so impover- 
isdied by the translation of the staple, lately there kept, to Hull ; that four hundred 
tenements were at this time utterly decayed and uninhabited, and that the town 
expended the annual sum of J^105. in support of the poor, besides the charge of 
maintaining and educating eighty orphans, in knitting, spinning, and other workf 
of industry, according to the provisions of an act of parliament passed 39 Elizabedi.^ 
A long train of misfortunes appear now to have commencedf which cast a 
baleful shade over this once flourishing town, and served to perpetuate its degra* 
dation; yet how melancholy soever may be the task of tracing the steps of its 
gradual decline, we are still relieved and invigorated by a distant prospect of 
progressive improvement and renewed importance. A tremendous hurricane came 
over the town in 1608, which did incalculable mischief. The minster being a 
prominent object, and much exposed to its fury, received considerable damage. 
Its superb vnndows were demolished, its roof stripped of the lead, and fears were 
entertained for the safety of the fabric.^^ This calamity was succeeded by a dread 
of the plague, which now riaged in the north of England, and every precaution 
was used to prevent the infection from being introduced into the town. An order 
was made to exclude strangers ; and no person firom the infected districts was 
allowed to attend the fairs.^* All tiiese preveptive measures were without effect, 

others. A prior ordinance had been agreed on ''that all blown down wood which shall be foand 
in Westwood, shall be placed with the masters of Westwood for the time being, and to be sold 
by them to the most comodity for the use of the oomonalty, provided always that the fynder and 
pouter of the same blown down wood shall have for his paynes for every tree fonrpence.^' Ibid* 
Sep. 3. 1570. 

^ Discharge, dated 7 AprU, 1599. 20 Q. «^ Corp. Rec. March, 1608. 

^* This order appears among the corporation records, and is to the following effect, Edw* 
Nelthorp, mayor. << It is order^ and agreed apon by Mr. Mayor and most part of the governors 

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%xxd in the early part of the year 1610, the town was visited by this scourge of 
4iea¥en, Which raged with such violence as to thin its population. The activity of 
the mayor was unbounded, and this officer was allowed to adopt any measure 
Mrhich might tend to alleviate the general distress at the expense of the corpora- 
tion/* Notwithstanding the unceasing exertions of all ranks t)f people, in the 
month of June twenty-three interments took place in the parish of Saint Mary 
alone, when the average number of deaths was usually but four per month. From 
this period to November, the disease increased so rapidly as to supersede all 
business; The shops were shut up ; the public offices, and even the churches were 
dosed, and numbers left the town. Notwithstanding these precautions, thirty^ 
two persons died in July, and were buried in Saint Mary's church-yard; besidek 
forty others whose remains were thrown into large holes without the performance 
of any religious ceremony.^ In August, the disease became so fatal that in the 
parish of Saint Mary no entries are made in the registers.^' A lazaretto or pesb- 
house was erected on the ruins of the commandery of Saint John of Jerusalem, to 
which those who were infected fled for refuge. But the dead were so numerous, that 
they were buried in tumuli of considerable extent on the western side of the moat* 
— - — -- •■ — 

and bargesses then present that from henceforth during the continuance of this Instant Cross Fair 
(considering the great damage of the sickness in divers places of this countej) that ail and every 
the inhabitants within this town^ being householders, shall in their own persons, if they be able 
men, keep the day ward from six of the clock in the morning till nine at night; and if he be 
nnable in person himself, or that he cannot by reason of his occasions ward himself, that then he 
shall set a sufiBcient man, to be allowed by the governors of that ward or one of them; and that 
the constables of every ward shall eveiy morning present the watchmen that day to be appointed 
to ward by six of the clock before the governors or one of them for that ward, to be allowed or 
disallowed as aforesaid; and that every one offending herein to forfeit and pay 3s. 4d. to be levied 
by distress to the town^s use; or otherwise imprisoned at the discretion of Mr. Mayor and the 
governors, or any of the justices within this town. And it is further agreed that no person or 
persons inhabiting in the city of York or any other places infected with the plague shall be 
suffered to come within this town to Midsummer Fair with any wares or without, exeept be or 
th^y be to travel through the town without wares, having a certificate.^^ 

^ Corp. Rec. 15 June, 1610. ^ Saint Mary's Reg. 
^1 The street called Londoner's Street was closed by a barrier placed at each end during the 
continuance of the plague, and the dead bodies were now conv^ed in great numbers through the 
yard, of the George and Dragon inn, and buried in tumuli in a field adjoining the outer Trinities. 
£x. MS. penes me. The register of Aaint John exhibits the following proportion of dead within 
that parish during the prevalence of the disease. 

March, 1610, 2 burials. 

April 7 

May 6 

June .15 

July, 1610, 18 burials. 
August . . 13 
September 12 
October •• 6 

^< Ex. MS. penes me. In the year 1825, a considerable mass of human bones was discovered 
by Messrs. Tindalb, while excavating the we^t and north-west sides of the moat whieh surrounds 

2 B 

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During tiie whole cbntinnance of this month the members of the corporation 
assembled regularly in the council chamber, to devise the means of reducing the 
calamity within more moderate limits. An order was made to prevent the total 
desertion of the town ; and a fine of ten shillings was imposed on every individual 
who should gOy even to fairs and markets, without the mayor's especial permission; 
and lest this measure should be insufficient to detain the fugitives, imprisonment 
or o&er punishment, at the discretion of the justices, was denounced, and in some 
cases inflicted.** In the same month it was ordained, that every head of a fieonily 
should periodically report, to the constable of his ward, the state of health in his 
house ; and if any member of his family should be attacked by the disease, it should 
be reported within a specified number of hours, under pain of forfeiting forty 
shillings to the town's chest.^ And another resolution was adopted at the same 
time, empowering the mayor to expend any sums of money for the relief of the 
suflerers, to be repaid out of the corporation purse.^ 

The situation of the town at this moment must have been exceedingly appalling 
to those who still retained their health ; but to the wretched sufierers who had 
been attacked by the deadly malady, it was replete with horror and dismay. 
Loathsome to themselves, and avoided by their friends, they almost hailed death as 
a deliverer from the anguish of pain, and the mortification of disappointed hope. 
Happily the disease was not of long continuance. It gradually diminished from 
August till November, when it entirely ceased.** 

In 1613, the minster was become much dilapidated ; but the town was now 
poor, and having been recently weakened by heavy calamities, it was unable, in 
the absence of appropriate funds, to furnish the means for its reparation. But it was 
a noble fabric, and the people of Beverley possessed sufficient spirit to make some 
sacrifice rather than sufler the ornament and pride of their town to sink into utter 
ruin. At this time, the cloisters and other parts of the abbey of Watton lay in 
ruins, and the corporation had some interest with the proprietor, which enabled 
them to obtain a grant of the dilapidated materials for the purpose of restoring the 
decayed parts of their own magnificent structure. Thus provided, an order was 
passed for borrowing £100. at ten per cent, on the credit of the corporation f and 

the Trinities. These were the remainK of the wretched inhabitants who fell a victim to thia 
unreientingr scourge. 

« Corp. Rec. 8 Aug. 1610. « Ibid. 22 Aug. 1610. »« Ibid. 

M Sau eodem MS. Ex. Reg. Saint Maiy. «' Corp. Rec 1 July, 161S. 

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^ey proceeded once more to put the minster in a st^ of repcdr convenieift fyt thi 
exalted purposes to which it was originally designed. 

King Charles I. ascended the thix>ne in 1626, and a few years afterwards gave 
to the corporation of Beverley^ a charter of liberties which established the charter 
pf incorporation granted by queen Elizabeth, and empowered the mayor, recorder^ 
and goyemors to act as justices of the peace within the liberties of the town,^ for 
previously two of the governors only had been annually elected under the charter 
of 2 Henry Y. to officiate in that capacity. The first bench consisted of Francis 
Thorpe, esquire, rrecorders Richard Waide, mayor j William Barrett, Peter Lick- 
barrow, John Chappelow, William Legard, Arthur Fish, Nicholas Waller, William 
Johnson, Robert Manby, Thwaites Fox, William Clarke, Thomas Clarke, and 
John Fotherby.*® 

The town had been recently divided into wards, and an order was made by the 
corporation assigning to each governor his division of the town, and placing it 
distinctly under his peculiar jurisdiction, ^ according to the king's direction." '^ 
In the same year, a writ of quo warranto was exhibited against the town, and the 
recorder was directed to take the proper measures for neutralizing its effiscts.^' 

In 1632, a dread of the plague appears again to have pervaded the inhabitants 
of Beverley, and every precaution was renewed to avoid a recurrence of evils 
which recent experience had taught them to regard with horror. The strictest 
watch and ward was kept, and the town escaped the visitation with which many 
places in the north of England were at this time attacked.** 

It should appear that a very gross misapplication of the funds arising from certain 
property which had been graciously bestowed on Saint Mary's church by the late 
queen Elizabeth, had excited a considerable sensation in the town. A formal 
complaint was instituted, and a royal commission was issued out of the court of 
chancery, addressed to the archbishop of York; Francis, earl of Cumberland; sir 
Matthew Boynton, sir John Hotham, knights and baronets; sir Henry Griffith, 
baronet; sir Thomas Metham, sir William Alford, sir Christopher Hildyard, sir 
Michael Warton, sir Marmaduke Langdale, sir Philip Stapylton, knights ; William 
St Quintin, Nicholas Gtrlington, Francis Thorp, Richard Remington, Michael 
Warton, Robert Cromton, Richard Pearson^ Christopher Constable, esquires; 
Ezekiel Rogers, William Chantrell, Thomas Micklethwaite, John Norton, Henry* 

*» Corp. Bee. 4 Deo. 1 628. No. 21 . ^ Ibid. ^ Ibid. 1 4 April, 1 632. 
«^ Corp. Reo. 4 March, 1680. «» Ibid. 20 Jan. 1630-1 . 


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K^yl^ Rowland Aire, and William Ellisi clerks; gfiving to them, or any four of 
them, Aill power and authority to enquire, either by empanneling a jury or foy any 
more direct method, what lands or other property had been at any time assigned 
te .'Saint Mary's church, and whether any of its possessions had been Actually 
depmriated from the existence of abuses, misdemeanors, breaches of trust, defrmds^ 
or misapplication of the funds; and to exhibit their decree in chancery with all 
oonyenient speed. 

In pursuance of this comnliission, an inquisition Was taken at Beverley, on the 
7th January, 1633, before sir Michael Warton, knight; Michael Warton, and 
Francis Thorp, esquires; William Chantrelly Thomas Micklethwaite, and William 
£ilis, clerks. The jury consisted of Richard Johnson, Launcelot Keld, and John 
Anderson, of Bishop-Burton ; William Johnson, of Cherry-Burton ; Anthony 
Farrer, and Francis Smith, of Walkington ; Robert Johnson, of North-Cave; 
Nathaniel Sumner and Thomas Sutton, of Riplingham ; John Hammond, Henry 
Tindal, and Robert Johnson, of South-Cave; and Thomas CaiT, of Sancton. This 
inquest sat many times at the HalUgarth, in Beverley, which at this time was 
used as the Sessions-house, to examine evidence, and enquire into all the matters 
named in the commission. On a full investigation it appeared that considerable 
property, as well in houses as in lands and rents, had been appropriated to the 
Use of Saint Mary's parish, by queen Elizabeth, and other charitable persons, 
and the benefits of such appropriation had, in many instances, been wrongfully 
detained and misapplied, by alderman Barret and others. The inquisition states, 
that the jury " finde that a parcell of the garth in Wood-lane, belonging to the 
tenement in the tenure of Jefferey Ashton, viz. 27 yards thereof in length, and the 
whole breadth 410, hath been by the space of ten years last past, wrongfully de- 
tainisd and withheld from the said tenement and use of the said church, by William 
Barret, <Mie of the aldermen of Beverley. And further, that the house within the 
North^Bar, late the lands of Robert Farrer, chargeable to pay the free rent of 10s. 
per annum, is now in the occupation of Elizabeth Winch, and that the same is 
behind and unpaid for the space of five years last past; and that the house in 
Burdet-niidding-lane, late the lands of one — Grey, merchant, chargeable to pay 
a free rent of 2s. per annum, is now in the occupation of Richard Webster; and 
that the house called Stout house, in Vicar-kne, chargeable to pay a free rent of 
2s. per annum, is now in the occupation of Charles Billips, one of the aldermen 
of Beverley ; and that the house over again Saint Marie's church, lately the lands 
of one Wilmote, chargeable to pay a free rent of Is. 8d. per annum, is now in the 

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tenure of Alice Leake, widow; and that the tenement without North-Barr, called 
ike Butt, chargeable to pay a free rent of sixpence per annum, is now in the occu- 
pation of Isabell Swales ; and that the house in High-gate, late in the tenure of 
James Adwick, chargeable to pay a free rent of 3s. 8d. per annum, is now in the 
oecopation of William Johnson, or his assigns ; and that the tenement in Burdet* 
midding-lane, late the land of — Padley, chargeable to pay a free rent of Is. 6d. 
per annum, is now in the occupation of William Coulson, baker, or his assigns. 
And that all the forementioned free rents have been behind and unpaid by the 
space of fire years last past.'' ^ 

These illegal detentions, and other instances of peculation having been fully 
investigated by the commissioners, a decree was drawn up and agreed to, which, 
by distinctly marking the specific purposes to which the funds should be in future 
t^f^lied, and by placing them under a responsible control, should prevent the re- 
currence of similar encroachments. The decree provided that the churchwardens 
should enter upon, and take possession of all the church property, whether in rents, 
houses or lands, and grant leases for any term not exceeding twenty-one years, 
in their own names, and those of the mayor, governors, and burgesses ; that the 
proceeds should remain in the joint custody of the senior governor, the vicar of 
Saint Mary's church, and the churchwardens, and be disposed of as follows, after 
paying the out-rents and reprizes incidental to the property. For the repairs of 
the church; for ornaments, utensils, and habiliments of the same; for the salaries 
of the sexton and other inferior officers, and for providing bread and wine for the 
communion ; and the surplus, if any, to be paid annually to the corporation. The 
Casual receipts were directed to be reserved for ten years, as a fund to answer any 
unexpected demand ; and afterwards to be employed yeariy in the repairs of the 
fabric. And it was provided that if the revenues should be insufiicient to defray 
the current expenses, then the rent of the lofts in the church, which constituted 
one of the casual receipts, were appropriated to furnishing the above elements for 
the service of the altar. These purposes being efiected, the churchwardens were 
chained to deliver a true and explicit account of all the receipts and disbursements 
of the preceding year, to the vicar and parishioners, at evening service on Tuesday 
in Easter week; which account, after being examined and allowed, was to be fairly 
transcribed on parchment, and placed amongst the other papers and evidences of 
the parish." 

•» InqnUntion, dated 7 Jan. 1633-4. ^ Decree, confirmed 23. Feb. 1635-6.. 

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Ctl&ap. tm$. 

DiynUes between the king and parliament — Scottish war — King Charles at MeveH^ 

* — Sir John Hotham appointed governor of HuU — The king appears before 

HuUf and demands admission — Is refused — Dedares Hotham a traitor — The 

parliament sanctian Hotham's conduct by a vote of thanks — Violence of the 

.* parliament — Preparations for war — Charles attempts to get possession of Hult 

by stratagem^ and is assisted by a gentleman of Beverley — The pUm dialled 

— Is unsucoessfvl — Active operations commenced by both parties — Charles places 

. a garrison at HuU-Bridge, and stations himself at Beverley with his whole 

court — Lay* siege to Hull— Returns to Beverley — and York. 

- In the fluctuating page of history the reader is often impelled by transitions 
equally sudden and unexpected — 

** From grave to gay, from lively to severe/^ 

In the record of past events, the historian is pledged to the strictest veracity; the 
golden balance of truth is suspended before him, and, faithful to his trust, he can* 
not add to, or diminish from, the materials by which its equipoise is sustained. 
Turn we now from private to public disputes j from the minor altercations of a 
single parish, to the discontents and differences of a mighty nation, which shook 
the constitution to its basis, deluged the country with blood, and ended in the 
temporary abolition of monarchy in England. This period demands a particular 
consideration, because the town of Beverley stands prominently forward as the 
theatre of many interesting transactions; and its representatives in parliament 
took an active and decided part in those scenes of blood and civil warfare ^ich 
have excited the astonishment and execration of mankind; which produced the 
violent and unnatural death of the king, and the elevation of an ambitious dema-^ 
g<^e to sovereign power, upon the ruins of every principle that is virtuous and 
praiseworthy in civil and social life. 

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The illegal imposition of ship moneyi as it was termed, constituted a great sub- 
jeet of national complaint, and formed a primary source of disagreement between 
the king and his people.* The disputed right of levying this tax, however, was 
only a pretext made use of by the parliament to engage the affections of the 
nation. The original question at issue between Charles and his parliament was, 
whether England should be governed by a despotic monarch without any control 
from <ihe people by their representatives ; or whether the nation should continue to 
enjoy the ancient form of government, transmitted through a long race of kings, 
confirmed by Magna Charta, and administered by three distinct branches of the 
legislature, king, lords, and commons. It was an error in Charles's education 
that he had, unhappily, imbibed false ideas of the royal prerogative, which he 
endeavoured to stretch to its utmost limit ; even, as it was asserted by the reformers 
in the house of commons, to the annihilation of all the established privileges of his 
mibjects, and the absolute acquisition of despotic power. To this source may be 
traced all the calamities which deformed the reig^ of this ill-fated monarch ; and 
it was purely the fiiult of his education and not of his principles ; for Charles was 
by nature a man of peace, and his bitterest enemies could not pronounce him a 
tyrant from a disposition systematically vicious, or from habits of a depraved or 
evil cast. Had he succeeded in the accomplishment of this design, if such were 
really his intention, the beautiful fabric of our constitution would have been laid in 
ruins, and the people enslaved under the domination of an absolute monarch. To 
prevent the deg^datioh necessarily resulting from the consequences of such a step, 
^e liberal party made a bold stand to resist the meditated attack upon the liberties 
of the people. The designs of parliament, at this stage of the dispute, extended 
no further than to confine the king's prerogative within its just and legal bounds, 
and to preserve the ancient and approved form of government, which was conse- 
crated by long experience, and conveyed by the sanction of all former kings. 
The celebrated patriot Denzell Holies, at a subsequent period, while lamenting 
the sanguinary encroachments of the independent parly, publickly declared, that 
** he and his, desired nothing but the settlement of the kingdom, in the honour 
and greatness of the king, and in the happiness and safety of the people. And 
whenever that could be obtained,'' he continues, ^ they were resolved to lay down 

* The mayor, governors, and burgesses of Beverley, and divers other places in the county of 
Tofk, were charged with providing two ships of 600 tons, each manned with 1S40 men with 
doable eqnipi^e, and famished with munition, wages, and provisions. Rot Pat. 11 Ch. i. p. IK 

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the sword, and submit to the king's sceptre of peace more willingly than they' ever 
resisted his force and power. This, I am sure, was the ultimate end of many, I 
may say of the chiefest of those, who, at that time appeared."' 

Charles, in an evil hour, determined to compel the Scottish nation, by force of 
arms, to embrace the rites and discipline of the reformed church; forgetting that 
no species of zeal is more obstinate and unconquerable than religious enthusiasm. 
An army was raised in the north for this express purpose, which the king headed 
in person, and the town of Beverley furnished its quota of men.' In October, his 
majesty passed through Beverley,^ and at the same time, sir John Hotham and 
Michael Wharton, esquire, were elected burgesses to serve in parliament, to the 
exclusion of sir Thomas Metham, who was the unsuccessful candidate f and seven 
days afterwards, Mr. Robert Manbie and Mr. Edward Gray were directed to ride 
to York to pay the sums assessed upon the town and its members, towards main- 
taining the companies of sir W. Pennyman and sir T. Danbie.^ The Scots, with 
their usual policy, had adopted the principle of retaliation ; and making an irrup- 
tion into the north of England, they soon penetrated to the very borders of 
Yorkshire. Personal security, instead of hostile attack, was now the general con- 
sideration ; the garrisons of York and Hull were put in a strong posture of defence, 
and an efficient guard was placed on duty night and day at Beverley.^ The 
expenses of this unpopular war soon excited a spirit of insubordination that roused 
the tiger from his lair, whose ferocious activity gained possession of the monarch's 
person, and bathed his talons in his sacred blood. 

The debates in parliament now began to bear a character, which for boldness 
and invective had seldom before been witnessed ; and the demands increased in 
proportion as the unfortunate monai*ch shewed a disinclination to compliance. 
The inhabitants of Beverley foresaw a struggle, ending in civil commotion, and 

2 Holies. Memorial. ' Corp. Rec. 7 September, 1640. 

4 The town was not prepared for the expenses attending this honour. <' Paid at the coming of 
his majesty into this town for ofScers^ fees and gratuities, £47. Os. Od. Trees within and wiiL)Mt 
the Trinities sold to defray the same:' Ibid. Oct 20. 1640. 

^ Ibid. 20 Oct. 1640. It should seem from the coincidence of these dates, that the king was 
in Beverley on the day of election. 

« Ibid. 27 Oct. 1640. 
^ ** It is ordered that whereas there is a guard kept by the troops for the safeguard of every 
inhabitant of this town ; and whereas the nights are both long and cold, and they desiring fire, 
4 that they shall be allowed every night a fire to refiresh them with, at the charge of every inhabi- 
tant of this town that are thought able to be chargeable to the same/^ Ibid. 19 Nov. 1640. 

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reeolved to gusord their owa town, against its effects as far as their facilities would 
permit; for being situated in the immediate neighbourhood of Hull, a garrison 
town^ and on the main road from thence to York, another strongly fortified place^ 
both of which would be objects of consequence to each contending party, they 
ordered, that a regular and sufficient watch should be kept during six days of the 
week ; and watch and ward '^ on the Lord's day during these dangerous times.'** 
And to ensure the due execution of this order, to every governor was assigned the 
care of his own ward on his personal responsibility, with power to enforce obe^ 
dience to his orders.' 

The boldness of parliament increasing with its strength and success, its remon- 
ftbrances became more plain and decided, and the dislike of the king to the leading 
members was proportionably increased. In 1642, the attorney-general was in- 
structed to prefer articles of accusation against Holies and four other principal 
persons of his party, for '^bringing and encouraging the Scottish army to invade 
has majesty's kingdom of England." A seigeant-at^anns was despatched to the 
house to take them into custody, but without success. This attempt was voted a 
breach of privilege ; and a declaration was made, that it would be lawful to resist 
any king's officer by force, who should try to attack any member of that house 
without their own order. At length the king himself, inflamed by disappointment, 
appeared personally in the house and demanded the accused members, who had 
just time, from private intelligence, to escape before his majesty entered. No 
assistance could therefore be rendered to the impatient monarch in the absence of 
the accused, and j;hu8 overwhelmed with vexation^ Charles returned to his palace 
amidst loud and reiterated cries of " Privilege !" 

This summary proceeding was immediately voted a high breach of the privilege 
of parliament; a great scandal to the king and his government; a seditious act, 
manifestly tending to the subversion of the peace; and an injury and dishonour 
done to the five persecuted members, there being no legal charge or accusation 
against them. And the house further declared, that there could be no vindication 
of their privileges, unless his majesty would discover the names of those who advised 
him to such unlawful courses. The king refused to <»mply with this request; 

• Corp. Reo. 17 Jan. 164 1-«. 

^ Corp. Rec. 16 June, 1642. One of the governors having been for some time absent from th« 
town, and his ward being thas neglected, an order was made, that if *^ Mr. Fotherby does not 
attend in his place as a governor^ he shall be dismissed^ and another appointed in his roooK^^ 
Ibid. * 


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and the parliament immediately committed sir Edward Herbert, his attorney^ on 
a charge of violating the privileges of parliament This was a strong and somewhat 
decisive measure, but the members of the house of commons had now gone too far 
to recede with impunity; and were therefore resolved to widen the breach, even 
at the risk of involving the country in a civil war. The king appeared the next 
day in the streets of the city, when the people, rendered bold by the atrocious 
example of their superiors, surrounded his carriage, and loaded him with gross 
insult and agg^vated indignity; so that his majesty, under the dread of creating 
a popular tumult, was reduced to the necessity of secluding himself entirely from 
his parliament and his people. 

Decisive measures were now resolved on ; but it was reserved for one of the 
representatives of the town of Beverley, to perform the fkst act of indignity against 
his legitimate sovereign, as the harbinger of a fierce and bloody intestine war. Sir 
John Hotham was deputed to take possession of the town and garrison of Hull, 
to secure the arms and warlike stores which had been deposited there to be in 
readiness to repel any sudden irruption of the Scots. Various means were now 
used to prejudice the inhabitants of this place against the king, and prevent them 
from embracing his cause if he should make any attempt upon the town ; and sir 
John Hotham, the governor, had received peremptory orders from the parliament^ 
that **no English or any other forces shall be suffered to enter the town but those 
already appointed to be the garrison there ; and such others as by the wisdom and 
authority of both houses of parliament shall be advised and directed to be received 
and kept for the better guard and defence of the town and magazines therein re* 
maining, for his majesty's service and the security of the kingdom."*^ This ordar, 
like all the other transactions of the parliament at this unhappy period, was a 
serpent concealed amongst roses. The magazines were directed to be secured /or 
his majesty's service; when the real meaning was, that the governor, ''at his peril,*' 
should take heed that his majesty did not, by any means, get them into his pos- 
session ; for they Were intended to be used against him, in the civil conflict which 
a certain party in the parliament had already resolved to bring upon the country* 

The crisis now approached, which was to refer the disputes between the king' 
and parliament to the arbitrament of the sword. His majesty had established hi& 
court in the city of York, as a place of personal security j for here he was surrounded 

»o Pari. Hist. vol. x. p. 3741. 

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by a loyal and affectionate population, who were prepared to devote their lives to 
his safety, should any attempt be made upon his liberty or life; and their fidelity 
was openly displayed, although the parliament had stationed a secret committee 
there, who acted as spies upon his person and conduct, and used every opportunity 
of undermining his popularity, by felsehood, calumny, and detraction. Many at* 
tempts had been made by the parliament to remove the magazines from Hull to 
London, but the upper house had hitherto possessed sufficient autibority to prevent 
it. At length however, being afi:uid that the king would become possessed of this 
important fortress, the house of commons issued an order, on their own respon* 
sibility, for such removal ; and so secretly and expeditiously was this order carried 
into effect, that the king was unacquainted with the design, until ships were actually 
appointed to carry the stores away. No time was now to be lost, and his friends 
urged him to take possession of the town of Hull in person^ trusting that the 
governor would not dare to refuse admittance to his lawfiil monai*ch. Sir John 
Hotham however, at this period of his political career, was strictly in the interest 
of the parliament ; and, as one of the representatives of Beverley, he had already 
induced the inhabitants to take the solemn vow and protestation." It appears that 
the king thought differently, for on the 23rd of April, 1642, attended by a small 
number of servants, and several loyal gentlemen of the county of York, the king 
appeared before the gates of Hull, and found them closed, the bridges drawn up, 
the soldiers under arms, and the governor on the walls, prepared to receive him as 
an enemy.'^ To the demand made by his majesty for admittance, sir John 
objected to the magnitude of his train. The king proposed to reduce it; but other 
difficulties were started as an apology for the refusal, which the governor thought 
it his duly to persist in. In a word, sir John appeared unable to determine what 
course to pursue on this sudden emergency; and Charles, after a long and patient 
parley, proceeded to apprize the governor of the unhappy consequences which 
might result from his extraordinary conduct on the present occasion; and entreated 
him to consider well what he was about, as all the blood which might be shed in 
the quarrel would rest upon his head, should he persist in the fatal determination 
of excluding him from the town. Sir John was paralyzed. Divided between his 
sworn allegiance to the king, and the ideas of duty, which, as he imagined, bound 
him to obey the orders of those who had entrusted him with the command; and 

" Corp. Rec. 19 May, 1641. " Clar. Hist Rebel, vol. i. p. 507. 


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beholding, in his mind*8 eye, the distant spectacle of civil dissension, darkeaed hj 
seas of English blood, and embittered by the lamentations of widowed mothers, 
and the cries of destitote orphans, he trembled for the calamities which as yet were 
only in anticipation ; and, in the phrenzy of indecision, he threw himself on his 
knees, avowed his loyalty, and imprecated the vengeance of heaven on himself and 
his posterity, if he intended any disrespect to his majesty by refusing him admission 
into a town which had solemnly been entrusted to his charge by the parKament of 
England. The king graciously afforded him time to recover from his panic; but, 
after considei*able delay, still receiving a direct prohibition to enter the walls, he 
caused a herald to proclaim sir John Hotham and all his adherents guilty of high- 
treason, under the statutes of 25 Edw. III. and 11 Hen. VII. and returned tQ 
Beverley for the night.'* 

The king's feelings, on that evening of mental torture, smarting under bitter re* 
flections on the open indignity which he had received from a subject, cannot easily 
be conceived.'* Still he was willing, if possible, to avert the fatal consequences 
of such an act of disloyalty and disobedience. A messenger was despatched from 
Beverley the next day, to afford sir John Hotham another opportunity of profiting 
by the exercise of his deliberate judgment, with a gracious offer of pardon and 
indemnity for the past, if he was willing to preserve the peace of the kingdom by 
admitting the king into the possession of his own garrison of Hull. Sir John 

u Clar. Hist. Rebel, vol. i* p. 50&. 
'< Hh majesty^s own words may be here cited to shew his feelings on this indignity. *^ My 
repulse at Hull seemed at the first view, an act of so rode disloyalty, that my greatest enemies had 
scarce confidence enoagh to abet or own it. It was the first overt essay to be made, how patiently 
1 coald bear the losse of my kingdoms. God knows, it affected me more with shame and sorrow 
for otbersy then with anger for my self: nor did tbe affront done to me tronble me so much as their 
sin, whi<^ admitted no eoloar or excuse. I was resolved how to bear thisi and much more with 
patience. But I foresaw they could hardly contain themselves within the compasse of this one 
unworthy act, who had effrontery enough to commit or countenance it. This was but the hand 
of that cioad, which was soon after to overspread the whole kingdom, and cast all into disorder 
and darknesse. For His among the wicked maxims of bold and disloyal undertakers, that bad 
actions must always be seconded with worse, and rather not begun then not carried on: for they 
think the retreat more dangerous then the assault, and hate repentance more thaa perseverence 
in a fault. This gave me to see clearly thro' all the pious disguises, and soft palliations of some 
men, whose words were sometimes smoother then oyl, but now I saw they wottld prove vary 
swords. Against which, I having (as yet) no defence bat that of a good conscience, thought it 
my best policy, with patience to bear what I could not remedy. And in this (I thank God) I had 
the better of Hotham, that no disdain or emotion of passion transported me, by the indignity of 
his carriage, to do or say any thing unbecoming my sel^ or unsuitable to that temper which, in 
greatest injuries, I think best becomes a Christian, as coming nearest to the great example oi 
Christ.'' £ikon BasUike. Edit 1650. p. 31. Published at tlie Hague. 

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rejected the proposals, and thus an opportunity was for ever lost of prev^>ting the 
unnatural scenes whidi result from civil warfare. The king returned to York^ 
whence he transmitted a message to the two houses of parliament^ demanding 
justice on the governor of Hull, and all his adheirents; but the parliament had 
resolved on war, and this occurrence was a suflG^ient pretext for promulgating 
their intentions. The members of the lower house concurred in justifying the 
conduct of sir John Hotham, as he had acted under the influence of obedience to 
their commands; and turning the king's complaint against himself, they voted, 
^That the declaring of sir John Hotham traitor, being a member of the house of 
commons, is a high breach of the privilege of parliament; as well as against the 
liberty of the subject and the law of the land.'' ^ 

The pariiament now began to make active preparations for war; and a smaU 
band of loyal Yorkshiremen voluntarily enrolled themselves into a corps for the 
protection of his majesty's person. These were the seeds of civil dissention, which 
soon produced a luxurious harvest of slaughter and blood. The house of commons 
voted an answer to the king's message respecting the treason of sir John Hotham, 
couched in violent and indecent language, and transmitted it to Beverley, where 
Charles then Was; by the hands of a committee, consisting of lord Howard, lord 
Fairfax,' sir Hiigh Cholmeley, sir Philip Stapylton, and sir Henry Cholmdey,'* 
with instructions to secure the town of Hull for the parliament; to prevent any 
armament being formed in Yorkshire for the king's use ; and to require of the 
lord lieutenant and the sheriff to raise the whole county, if circumstances required 
it, and place the force so embodied at the disposal of any person whom the parlia- 
ment might think proper to appoint.'^ 

The king's situation at this time was peculiarly delicate and distressing. He 
had already made a concession to the people renouncing his right to levy tonnage 
and poundage without the consent of parliament,'" and still hoped to preserve 
inviolate the peace of the nation. For this purpose he now employed remonstrance 
and argument to convince a party of their error, who were resolved not to be con* 
vinced ; and who, instead of searching for the means of adjusting all existing differ- 
ences, sought only for plauisible pretexts to justify their own aggressions, and lend a 
sanction to measures which were about to drench the country with blood. Daring 
individuals were now planted about his majesty's person as spies upon all his 

^ Rnshw. Collect, vol. v. >< Clarend. Hist. Rebel, vol. i. p. 684. 
>^ Pari. Hist vol. x. p. 483. ^^ Stat 16. Cfa. I. o. & 

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actions, and though he was acquainted with the designs of the intrudert» he wisis 
averse to their apprehension, lest such an act should be construed into a commence- 
ment of hostilities; a consummation which he contemplated with sentiments of 
apprehension and horror ; for the parliament had passed a resdution, that whoever 
i^uld molest or imprison a member of either house, who was employed in its 
service, should be deemed a disturbs of the peace, and brought to summary 

Many members of both houses, who still retained their loyalty, and foresaw the 
approaching storm, abandoned their seats, and flocked to the king at York, deter- 
mined to avenge the insults he had received, and restore to him the unsullied 
possession of his crown and dignity. This defection of many of die wisest and 
best senators left a dreary vacuum in the house, whidi alarmed and terrified the 
reformers to such a degree, that a vote was immediately passed by the miserable 
relicks, declaring that '* as it appears that the king intends to make war against 
liie parliament, whoever shall assist him in such war, shall be accounfced traitors by 
the fundamental laws of this realm; and that such persons ought to suffer as 
traitors."^ The plausible subtlety of this resolution must appear evident It 
accuses the king of an intention of making war, when the parliament had actually 
been in arms against him, at least from the period of his repulse before the gates 
of Hull, which was an instance of direct hostility, avowed by the parliament, and 
sanctioned as their own act and deed. From that period too, sallies had beea 
made from the garrison with armed men,^' who burned and plnnda-ed houses, and 
took the lives of their fellow subjects under circumstances of deliberate cruelty 
which usually mark the progress of long and bloody wars.^ This point of time may 
be accounted the commencement of the rebellion ; and though Charles, from an 
impulse of tenderness towards his subjects, hesitated to comply withthe proposal 
of the Yorkshire nobility and gentry, who strenuously urged him to raise the 
county and take the garrison of Hull by force,'' yet all this while the parliament^ 
like the savage boar in the dark recesses of his native forest, were secretly em* 
ployed in sharpening their tusks, and preparing for the work of destruction'. 
Thus, while the king at York amused himself with issuing proclamations, to 

" Pari. Hist vol. x. » Ibid. vol. xi. p. 1 16. 

<> Clarend. Hist Rebel, vol. i. p. 718. 

*> Remoostrance of the nobility and gentry of Yorkshire. Drake. Ebor. p. 156. 

» Drake. Efeor. p. US. 

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indttce his subjects to return to their allegiance, and prevent an effusion of blood; 
the parliament^ with other sentiments than those of peace, were assiduously 
engaged in active operations. They seized upon the navy, and appointed the earl 
of Warwick, lord hig^ admiral of England ; and when war was formally declared, 
each party professed to contend for the same object; and the respective orders for 
levying forces were expressed in the same words* The royal declaration specified, 
that his majesty took up arms ^ to maintain the Protestant religion, the king's 
just power and authority, the laws of the land, the peace of the kingdom, and the 
privilege of parliament." The declaration of the parliament was the samc^ 
without any variation of words or phrases. How truly the rebels adhered to their 
professions the sequel fully shews. 

The next step taken by the parliament, was to provide the town of Hull with a 
sufficient force to resist the attack which the king was expected to make upon it 
They appointed a committee to assist sir John Hotham in his defence of that 
citadel, oonsisting of Mr. Peregrine Pelham, one of the members for Hull ; sir 
William Strickland and Mr. Allured, the members for Hedon ; Mr. John Hotham, 
the son of the governor, and representative of Scarborough ; Mr. Henry Darley, 
member for Malton; sir William Airmyn, member for Grantham; and Mr. 
Warton, the other representative of Beverley.** These commissioners were in* 
vested with full powers to keep the town of Hull, and to repel any attempt that 
diould be made to force it ; to remove or appropriate stores ; to arm the popula- 
tion if necessary ; to use their utmost diligence to prevent forces being raised for 
the royal cause; and to clear the parliament ^ from all imputations and aspersions, 
and throw all the odium of these proceedings on the king and his party .'^^ 

Charles now began to see that his enemies were bent on his destruction ; and 
having experienced the extreme hopelessness of argument, persuasion, and remon- 
strance, he roused himself at length from his inaction, and determined to make an 
attempt upon Hull. But it was now too late; and he had forfeited by delay, and 
an aversion to shed the blood of his subjects, the propitious moment when he 
might successfully have carried the place ; and once in possession of its stores, aU 
the subsequent horrors would have been prevented; for it is highly probable that 
at that period, and under these circumstances, the parliament would have been 
inclined to listen to terms of pacification, which might have restored Charles to 

^ ParUam. Hist vol. xi. p. 1 1 8. » Ibid. 

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ills throne clothed with the legitimate authority which he had reeeiired irom }m 
ancestors. Aware of the impracticability of obtaining the town by force in his 
present weak and unprovided state^ he had recourse to stratagem. Mr. Beck* 
withy of Beverley^ a gentleman warmly attached to the king's interest, had a soh- 
inJaw who was a subaltern officer in Hull garrison. Measures were privatdy 
Concerted between this gentleman and other friends of the unfortunate monarch 
to gain over lieutenant Fowkes to their interest; and for this purpose, Beckwith 
wrote an invitation to his son-inJaw to spend an evening with him at his house in 
Beverley, as he wished to communicate with him on business of the utmost impor- 
tance. The lieutenant obtained permission to visit his father-in-law, and was 
commanded to return to his duty the next day before two o'clock. When he 
arrived at Mr. Beckwith's house, he was ushered into a private apartment, where 
he found a large party of gentlemen apparently engaged in conversation of ex- 
traordinary interest, as their countenances betrayed the utmost anxiety and intense 
thought. That their deliberations were of a secret nature was evident from this 
circumstance, that one of the party was concealed under a mask which covered 
his whole face. Fowkes considered this man well, and mentally- pronounced him 
to be sir Joscelyn Percy, a known adherent of the king, and the son of Henry, 
the eighth earl of Northumberland.** 

Mr. Fowkes was received with great cordiality by the party to which he was 
introduced; and a conversation, which appeared to have been interrupted by the 
entrance of the young soldier, was resumed without any apparent reference to 
himself. The horrors attendant on domestic warfare were described by one of the 
party in animated language ; and the delirium of the parricide was instanced as 
one of the dreadful results, who, in a civil conflict, should be paralyzed with the 
sickening discovery that the blood which stained his victorious weapon, had been 
drawn from the life-veins of his parent, and that the foe whom he had just laid 
dead at his feet, was no other than the venerated author of his own existence. 
From general topics of this character, the conversation naturally turned to the 
present posture of affairs in England, and the inevitable probability that such 
scenes would soon be realized in this unhappy land; and they all united in 

^ One of the manuscripts in my possession asserts, that the gentleman in the mask was no 
other than Charles, king of England, whose anxiety prompted him to be present ineog. for the 
purpose of directing the proceedings in a point of such moment to his future interests. I think, 
however, that this interpretation ought to be rejected, because it is wholly unsupported by any 
substantial evidence. 

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deploring the isvils which must result from the usurpation of sovereign power which 
the parliament appeared inclined to assume. £yen lieutenant Fowkes deprecated 
#ny attempt to deprive the king of his legal rights; and declared, that while h^ 
possessed a sword and a hand to wield it^ nothing should seduce him fix)m hi$ 
6wom allegiance, nor wrest from his sacred majesty those powers and privileges 
which his ancestors had bequeathed to him, confirmed as they were, by law and 
ancient usage. So little, adds my authority, were even the soldiers themselves 
acquainted with the dark designs of their crafty leaders. 

This <^pen declaration excited visible emotions of surprise in the whole party, 
and particularly in the masked visitor. One of the company immediately explained 
to him, with great eagerness, the outline of the present dispute between the king 
and parliament; that the latter had an army in pay against the king, of which he 
(Mr. Fowkes) formed a part; that, unless it were prevented by some master-stroke 
of policy, this country would soon become the theatre of war; that, as his father- 
in-law was an adherent of the royal party, if he himself continued in the service of 
the parliament, their swords would be mutually pointed at each other's throats; 
and concluded by*'saying, that it was in his individual power to preserve the lives 
of thousands who would otherwise be slain in the dispute; and by a single act of 
obedience to the commands of a monarch, whom he had already professed his readi- 
ness to serve, he might have the glory of tranquilliziug the country by soothing all 
its stormy passions to repose ; and be hailed by mankind as the preserver of the 
king, and the protector of the lives, liberties, and property of his fellow countrymen, 
as well as his dearest connexions. Mr. Fowkes enquired with great eagerness 
by what means this happy consummation was to be effected. By the simple expe- 
dient, said the other, of delivering up the citadel of Hull to the king; which, with 
the assistance of captain Lowenger, the commander of your division, may be 
accomplished with the greatest ease. It is impossible to prescribe the exact process, 
he added, which must depend on many local and casual circumstances; but it may 
be airanged between yourselves with absolute certainty of success, and on the 
completion of the project, I am authorized to propose that the captain shall receive 
^ gratuity of £1000. and yourself £500. ; and that the same sums shall be annually 
paid to each of you during the remainder of your lives. 

Lieutenant Fowkes was not rich, and he flattered himself that he was possessed 
of a proper feeling of attachment to the king; he was now in his father's house, 
surrounded by his father's most intimate friends. His sense of duty however told 
him, that the proceeding to which he had been solicited to lend his aid, would, on 


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fais part, be little short of treason/ and his conscience whispered that it mili^t b^ 
attended with infamy, should he be fortunate enough to escape condign punishlnetit* 
On the other hand, he mentally enquired, what is treason ? It is no other than aA 
offence committed against the person or dignity of the monarch; but by this act he 
should essentially serve the monarch, and therefore, it could not be pronomiced 
treason in the strict and legitimate sense of the word. Again his ideas wandered 
to the opposing argument; and what, thought he, will be the opinion of my as^ 
sociates and brother officers of such a dishonourable breach of trust? He was 
puzzled and bewildered by his own thoughts; and was only roused from his ab- 
straction by a purse of gold, as an earnest of future fortune, and advancement in his 
profession. He at length jiromised to consult his superior officer, captain Lowenger^ 
and make his father-in-law acquainted with the result, but absolutely refused to 
enter at present into any positive engagement. With this understanding they were 
obliged to rest satisfied; and the party broke up, leaving Mr. Fowkes and his 
father-in-law to make any further arrangements, should mature and deliberate re- 
flections induce the soldier to enter more explicitly into their views. 

The next day, lieutenant Fovrkes returned to the garrison, and without delay 
communicated the circumstances to the governor, who was the intimate friend of 
his father-in-law, and, as he knew, not only a gentleman by birth, fortune, and 
education, but also possessing affections well disposed towards the king's persoil^ 
and little desirous to see the country involved in civil war. Sir John thought this 
proceeding somewhat extraordinary, and charged Fowkes to keep it secret from 
every person but himself; and cfarry on the correspondence with Mr. Beckwith as 
though every thing was favourable t6 their mutual views. 

Several letters now passed^ between Fowkes and Beckwith, all of which were 
inspected, and some even dictated by the governor himself; and the correspondence- 
closed with a letter from Fowkes, in which he communicated a plan, said to hare- 
been agreed on between himself and captain Lowenger, for delivering the town of 
Hull into the king's hands without the hazard of a single life. A day was named, , 
on which it was said that both these officers would be on duty ; the captain at the 
head of the main guard, and himself at the north gate ; and that, if his majesty 
would be there with a thousand horsemen, half of them with a foot soldier mounted 
behind each, he would be prepared to admit him; and marching straight to the 
main guard, captain Lowenger would immediately deliver into his hands the whole 
military strength of the town. Mr. Beckwith was rejoiced that the plot was so near 
its completion; and promisi^ perfect success without the existence of any risk; 

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Vid.comi^imicated it to tbe king, by whose command preparations were made for 
CMrrying it into execution. This was notified to Mr. Fowkea on Monday; and the 
nco^t dii^ was appointed for the accomplishment of this most important enterprize. 

Sir John Hol^am now began to entertain some compunction for the part he had 
^ken in this business, and foresaw that his duplicity might occasion much un- 
necessary bloodshed. To prevent this he summoned a council of war, and laid before 
the amemUy a detailed statement of the case; and, as he had anticipated, many of 
the members contended strenuously for admitting the forces into the town, and 
then, after putting every one of them to the sword, to possess themselves of the 
king's person. But the governor protested against such a wanton efiusion of blood, 
and proposed to give his majesty notice that they were privy to his plot; and to 
recommend him to relinquish his intention of making any attempt upon Hull, as 
such a {proceeding might be attended with fatal consequences. This course was 
not by any means palatable to a portion of the council; but sir John Hotham per- 
sisted in it, and despatched his own secretary with a letter to the king, apprizing 
him of their knowledge of his intentions. This disclosure put a period, for the 
present, to the king's designs upon Hull, on account of its utter impractibility, in 
the absence of arms, ammunition, and money sufficient for a reg^ar siege.^ 

Sir John sent an express to acquaint the parliament with the particulars of the 
plot which had been thus frustrated;^ but they had received, from some of the 
dissatisfied members of the council, a private account of the transaction, by which 
so favourable an opportunity of gaining possession of the king's person was wan- 
tonly rejected; and though they passed a vote of thanks for his conduct in this 
affair, they also placed spies upon his actions,^ which ultimately brought him to 
the scaffold. Beckwith was pronounced guilty of high-treason against the parlia- 
ment, and an order was issued for his apprehension. He was taken at York, just 
before the king departed for Nottingham, but was rescued by his majesty's orders, 
who told the messengers that they might inform their employers that when they 
delivered up sir John Hotham to his justice, he would deliver up Beckwith to 
their's; and until that period he would protect him fix>m injury.^ 

^ The above accoant of this transaction has been drawn np from MSS. in my possession, and 
contains a correct statement of the fkctB. It is somewhat differently related in TiokelPs Hall, 
p. 382—385. 

» Vid. sir John fiotham's Letter, dated 3 Jane, 1 642. » Clar. Hist Rebel, vol. i. p. 710. 

^ Yicani. Jehovah-Jireh, p. 84. 


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The parliament bow proceeded to active operations. They removed the super* 
flnous arms and stores from Hull to London^ and struck the first publick blow by 
raising money^ levying troops, and manning the fleet The king, in his own 
defence, was obliged to follow their example in the best manner he could. His 
queen retired to Holland, where she disposed of her own private jewels, as well bs 
Ihose of the crown ; and with the money purchased a considerable quantity of arms 
and ammunition ; which, after many hair-breadth escapes, were safely transferred 
to the king at York. Thus relieved from his embarrassments by the affectionate 
^licitude of his wife, Charles felt inspirited with all the dignity of his exalted 
rank, and proceeded with great alacrity to raise and embody regiments of horse 
and foot fer his immediate service, and soon found himself at the head of a gallant 
army, devoted to his cause, and headed by .the principal nobility and loyal gentry 
of the kingdom. The king despatched a troop of horse into Holdemess, to secure- 
a supply of stores which were on board of a vessel riding at anchor in the river 
Humber. This troop marched through Beverley on the 2nd July, 1642, and 
accomplished the purpose of their expedition with equal zeal and success. On the 
same day, a company of foot soldiers called Strickland's regiment, consisting of 
about 300 men, was commissioned to secure a strong post on the side of Beverley 
nearest to Hull, that the town might not be subject to any sudden attack from the 
f irrison in the latter place ; as the king had now determined to fix his head quar- 
ers at Beverley j and the soldiers accordingly took possession of a private house at' 
Hull-Bridge, near Beverley, in the night, where they were joined by the earl of 
Newport, the earl of Caernarvon, and several other noblemen, the high-sheriff of 
the county, sir Thomas Gower, being with them. This post was held for some 
time by about 700 soldiers under the command of colonel Wyvil." 

On the 4th of July the king removed his court to Beverley,'* his plate and 
plenishing being carried with himj took up his residence at lady Gee's house,** 

^' Depositions at the trial of Charles I. 

»2 Parliam. Hist vol. xi. p. 256. There is a story in circulation that when Charles visited 
Beverley minster, the old painting was pointed out to him which represents the anachronism of 
king Athelstan presenting Saint John of Beverley with a charter, on which is inscrihed the well 
known couplet, Als fre, &c. It is said that the king immediately confirmed these liberties by 
exclaiming, " Even so free be." 1 know not on what authority this story can be authenticated. 

^' Depositions at the trial of Charles I. I am not able to pronounce decisively where this 
house was situated, unless it was near the North-Bar. In a MS. possessed by the present repre- 
sentatives of the Gee's family, containing "a note of such deeds and evidences as doe concern 
the title of all the lands and possessions which was the Inheritance of sir W. Gee, knight, late of 

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wiii liie prmte and the duke of York ; and invented the earl of Linds^ with ihe^ 
chief command of his army, which was stationed there, that he might the more 
speedily execute his designs on the garrison at HuU^ which he now determined to 
reduce hy force* of arms. He appointed three or four regiments under the com'* 
mand of sir Robert Strickland, and lieutenantHxdonel Dunoombe, as a guard of 
honour about his person f^ ^md had likewise wilh him a small train of artillery* 
His aihny altogether consisted but of 3000 foot and 1000 horse. 

The court of this monarch, in his adversity, was more splendid than those of 
many sovereign princes at the summit of power ; and the town of Beverley now 
e'xhibited a scene which its inhabitants, doubtless, contemplated with sentiments of 
honest pride and satisfaction. He was attended by all his faithlul nobility ; ^ not 
<me," says Clarendon,'^ ^ remained at York;"^ besides a numerous retinue of 
private gentlemen. Whilst he remained at Beverley he received considerable ac« 
^jessdons to his treasury by the voluntary g^fts of his loyal subjects,*^ which enabled 
him to make head against the formidable power of his. enemies. Before he pro- 
ceeded to lay siege to Hull, he published a proclamation,'* explaining his viewsu. 

Bishop-Barton, in the county of York, deceased/^ is the following entry. " The messuage and 
Iflnd in North-Bar-Street bought of Henry Story and his wife. The indentare of bargaine and 
saile thereof to William Gee, merchant. Dated 8 May, 24 Eliz." The large house where the 
row of Bar houses now stand, with its gates of iron, was taken down within the last sixty years. 
This Gee had houses also on the east-side of Wednesday-Maifcet; in Waiker-gate, Lair-gate^ 
Keld-gate^ and East-gate. 

^ Depositions at the trial of Charles I. ^ Qarend. Hist Reb^ vol. i. p. 710. 

^ The following is a list of the loyal nobility who formed the monarches court at Beverley, on 
the present occasion. The lord Keeper, duke of Richmond, marquis of Hartford, marquis of 
Hamilton, earls of Cumberland, Bath, Southampton, Dorset, Salisbury, Carlisle, Northampton, 
Devonshire, Clare, Westmoreland, Lindsey, Monmouth, Newcastle, Dover, Caernarvon, New- 
port, Thanet, Huntingdon, Bristol, Rivers, Cambridge, irnd Berkshire; lords Mowbray, Strange, 
Willoughby, Longaville, Rich, Andover, Fauconbridge, Lovelace, Paulet, Newark, Coventry, 
Dunsmore, Savillf, Seymore, Capell, Paget, Mohun, Faulkland, Chandos, Gray of Ruthin, and 
Charles Howard of Charlton; Mr. Secretary Nicholas; Lord Chief Justice Bankes; Mr. Comp- 
troller, and Mr. Chancellor of the Exchequer. Drake. Ebor. p. 150, 155. 

*^ These voluntary contributions gave such high offence to the parliament, that Charles found 
himself under the necessity, in some instances, of issuing writs of protection. A document of 
this kind, addressed to the vice-chancellor of Oxford, is preserved in king Charles's Works, pub- 
lished in the same volume with Eikon Basilike, already referred to. It expresses his determination 
''to protect and defend those who shall be persecuted for that cause, by having contributed to 
Our defence and protection. Given at our court at Beverley, 18 July, 1642.'' These donations 
however, were a source of great satisfaction to the king's friends, and a pamphlet was published 
about this time, entitled, << Exceeding welcome News from Beverley, 1642." In Bibl. Bodl. 
C.l«.15. Line. ^ 

w Vid. Append. G. 

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and iiitentkms; and accompanied it by a memige to the house, in which ha en* 
treated the m^nberi to return to their allegiance^ and prevent, by their obedience 
to the laws, the calamities. atljfsndant on a civil war. The house had already 
passed a vote -for arraying an army, and establishing the earl of Essex in the com^ 
mand, and therefore the message was answered by a contemptuous petition to tlie 
king at Beverley, which had b^^ previously drawn up, and contained a reference 
to the usual topics which were intended to throw upon Charles the odium of die 

The active and efficient preparations made for the si^e, had disconcerted the 
garrison at Hull ; and the governor having in vain endeavoured to amuse Charles 
with open protestations of loyalty and attachmen V^ in which he was joined by all 
tile officers, who endeavoured to atone by hollow and insincere professions, for the 
errors of disloyalty and rebellion ; Hotham at length cut through the banks of the 
Humber, and inundated the whole surrounding country/' This proceeding was 
followed by a general order to strengthen the fortifications; and every practicable 
effi>rt was made to sustain the expected siege ; but their best defence was the 
element with which the flat country was inundated to a considerable depth; for it 
prevented the royalists from making regular approaches, or erecting batteries to 
bombard the town.** The govemor^s policy, however replete with present safety^ 
was most injurious to the country, and ultimately to himself; the fine meadows 
and pastures were ruined; the cattle destroyed; the means of supplying the 
garrison with provisions circumscribed ; and aU the hope of the industrious occu- 
piers of the soil, buried beneath the salt wave. His majesty beheld the universal 

M Tid. Append. H. 
^ A treaty is Baid to have snbsiBted at tbis time between sir John Hotham and the king, for 
the possession of Hnll ; the former having stipulated, says Clarendon, to deliver up the garrison, 
whenever the king shoald appear before it, on condition of receiving a fall pardon for his former 
oflTences. Clarend. Hist Rebel, vol L p. 709. Bat he was unable to perform his stlpalation, for 
he did not possess the confidence of his ofBcers ; and even his own son viewed his oondact with 
the eye of jealous suspicion. Ibid. vol. i. p. 710. 

^1 Vicars. Jehovah-Jireh. p. 116. 
^' The attempts made by the king upon Hull were pronounced by the parliament the fiiBl 
commencement of hostilities; for in the charges afterwards exhibited against the unfortunate mo- 
narch, it was urged, <' that he the said Charles Stuart, for the accomplishment of his designs^ and 
for the protecting of himself and his adherents in his and their wicked practices, to the same ends^ 
both traitorouslv and maliciously levied war against the present parliament, and the perale therein 
represented. Particularly upon or about the 30th day of June, in the vear of our Lord 1642, 
at Beverley, in the county of York ; and upon or about the 30th day of July, in the year aforesaid, 
in the county of the city of York, Ae:' State Trials. 8vo^ edit voL iv. col. 107L 

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dbtolatibh vn^ regfet and sympathy, and deplored mwt^paihe t i c aU y ito Hb codumIi 
litte first ftiiits c^'tLit dread^ harvest of afflictiou which his unhiqppy^ peopk wen 
now destined to teap. Two hundred men were incQisantly employed in.ictttting 
wide and deep drains to carry off the water; and others we^ 'busily engaged in 
the work of destruction by diverting the current of fresh :water with which the 
town of Hun was ^supplied; and even the mills belonging to the inhabitants wa« 
burnt and destroyed/' Two forts were erected by the royalists, the one at Hessle^ 
and the other at Paul, to prevent any supplies f>eing thrown into the town by 
water; and 200 horse were stationed at Barton with directions to scour the country, 
and obstruct the communication between Lincolnshire and Hull. Notwithstanding 
these precautionary measures, the parliament, by a prompt and decisive stratagem, 
succeeeded in throwing a strong reinforcement into the town by water, and soon 
convinced the monarch that they possessed the advantage over him both in discip- 
line and numbers. Every thing being now prepared, the parliament gave the 
signal for active (^rations, and the first blood that was shed in this unhappy con- 
test^ save and except a few insulated murders which had been committed by 
H'otham*s party in their sallies from the garrison of Hull, wa» drawn by captain 
Pigot, a parliamentary officer, who commanded a shi^ of war, stationed in the 
Humber. A vesiiel laden with ordnance was sent over to the coast of Lincolnshire 
to construct a battery, which, in case of emergency, was intended to act in concert 
with that at Paul. Captain Pigot disputed its passage, and comm^iced an 
engagement in sight of the garrison. The royalists defended their charge with 
great gallantry, though they fought under every disadvantage, determined that the 
stores should not fall into the enemy's hands. They contended to the last ex- 
tremity J and at length being overpowered by their adversary's weight of metal, 
they received a fatal broadside, the vessel sank, and every soul on board perished 
in the water.** 

The sword was now dravm, and the siege of Hull was prosecuted with vigour,, 
but without success. After many ineffectual attempts, the king relinquished all 
thoughts of reducing the fortress, and returned to Beverley; but the rebels had 
followed him by a circuitous route, and unexpectedly crossing the imperfect tlitches 
at the North-Bar, beat down the centinels, and penetrated into the very heart of 
Ae town, before the royalists were aware of the pursuit. Charles was desired by 

*' y icars. Jehovah:Jireh. p. 1 1 8. ** TickeU. Hall. p. 436.. 

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ills officers to take refuge in the Hall-gartb ; and when he ^ag piaoed i^ f^afe^, 
they called out the troops, and gave the rebels battle in the streetSr disappointed 
in their design of securing the king's person, they made but a feeble resistance, 
and soon fled Mrith precipitation to their place of security within the walls of HulL^ 
This bold proceeding excited apprehensions for the king's .pjersonal liberty, and 
the council pressed him to retire tp a place of greater strength. Having therefore 
entrusted the protection of the town of Beverley to a single regiment, he finally 
retreated with his court to York. 

iSri^ap. S)r. 

Constematum of the inhalbUants of Beverley afUr the hinges departure — London^ 
merchants arrive at Beverley ^ and petition for leave to sell their goods — Pre^- 
cautions for strengthening the tonm — Parliamentary troops take possession of 
it — Sir John Hotham apprehended ai Beverley — Battle in the streets between 
the earl of Newcastle and sir T. Fairfax — Troops of the latter routed-^ 
Royalists sack the town — Commission for a treaty of peace— Practices of the 
independents — Trial and execution of the king — Change of measures — P&fvs 
huiU in the minster nave^ 

The inhabitants of Beverley, thus abandoned by the army in which all their 
hopes of protection centred, were impressed with sensations of considerable alarm^ 
under the anticipated expectation that the town would now be occupied by a de- 
tachment of the republican troops from Hull, who were at this time employed in 
committing barbarous ravages in the neighbourhood. All labour was suspended ; 
anxiety deprived the people of their accustomed cheerfulness, and the authorities 
were at a loss how to conduct themselves in this pressing extremity, divided as 
they were in opinion respecting the merits of the dispute between the king and 
his parliament; though the inhabitants were yet generally loyal; and v ell affected 

^ Ex» MS. penes me. 

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towards their lawful monarch. The town was characterized by an awful stillness, 
yet the streets were full of people. Even women and children were silenced b} 
their fears ; and might be seen pacing from house to house with pale cheeks, and 
terror in their looks, to seek for consolation in the opinion of those who needed it 
themselves. Ktiots of men were assembled, apparently in deep consultation, in 
the market-places and other parts of the town; yet little was said, and that only in 
a mysterious and subdued tone of voice, for nothing could be certain but their 
fears. All was darkness and uncertainty. Rumours, various and contradictory, 
were afloat, and none knew what to receive as authentic, or what to reject as false. 
In the midst of all this consternation, a body of London merchants entered the 
town to claim protection, and the privilege of exposing their merchandize for sale. 
They had been accustomed to attend the fairs at Howden, and came this year as 
usual to dispose of their wares, but had been excluded, probably by the king's 
party, lest they should disseminate republican principles amongst the inhabitants ; 
for it was well known that the citizens of London w^ere devotedly attached to the 
parliament. They requested, therefore, of the mayor and governors of Beverley 
permission to hold a fair within their tovni ; promising that if their petition was 
granted, they would in future be regular in their attendance at the chartered fairs 
already established in the borough. A corporate meeting was summoned by Mr. 
Nelthorp the mayor, to determine a question of such importance to the interests of 
the town in the present decayed state of its commerce ; and this appearance of bu- 
siness for a time diverted the attention of the people from the calamities by which 
they were threatened. The discussion was long and stormy, for the worst passions of 
human nature were now afloat throughout the country, and the council chamber of 
Beverley, on this occasion, afforded no pleasing specimen of their prevalence. The 
royalists and republicans arranged themselves on two sides, and contended like 
combatants at mortal arbitrament. The former argued that their charters afforded 
no sanction for a fair at this season ; and expatiated on the inexpediency of admit- 
ting these people who were violently opposed to the king, at a moment when the 
eye of the royal party was upon their actions ; when a regiment under the same 
control was in the very heart of the town, and they might be called to an account 
for their conduct, and made to suffer an exemplary punishment. The other party 
ridiculed their fears, and spake of the advantages which must necessarily result 
from the introduction of such a fertile source of merchandize ; and the value of 
such a connexion as that of the London merchants. In the end interest prevailed 
over expediency, and it was ultimately resolved that although they did not possess 

2 E 

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the power of holding a fair at the prevent Beason, yet the Londoners should be 
allowed permission to open their own shops and dispoise of their merchandize in 
the High-streety without being subject to the tolls usually paid to the corporation ; 
and that, as they were respectable merchants, no pedlar or petty chapman should 
be allowed to compete with them on the same terms, but all other persons attend* 
ing with goods should be subject to the tolls which were customary in the town of 

This proceeding found employment for the inhabitants, and in some degfree 
allayed the agitation which had so lately prevailed among them* The merchants 
set out their stalls on each side o£rthe street, and produced their goods for inspection, 
consisting of mercery, haberdashery, cutlery, and other wares, which were offered 
for sale on liberal terms to the country dealei*s/ For a few days this novel sight 
was pleading; all was bustle and traffic; and a stranger would have thought he 
had been in a land of peace and mutual confidence, so little did the inhabitants 
appear to be affected by the circumstances of blood and warfare, which, even at this 
moment, were passing without their gates. Soon, however, was the scene to be 
changed for care and pain, trouble and anxiety. The wily merchants by their 
brief connexion with the town, had augmented all the former fears of the inha- 
bitants, by exaggerated statements of what was passing in the metropolis; by 
magnified details of kingly aggression, and the oppressive burdens imposed by 
arbitrary power; and soon succeeded in conjuring up before the imagination, a 
sanguinary and insatiable monster, under the name and shape of Charles Stuart, 
who delighted in blood, and was only happy in the midst of slaughter and devas- 
tation; whose design was to establish an absolute monarchy, and triumphantly 
erect popery and the inquisition on the ruins of the Protestant establishment 
They gave to the king's friends the reproachful epithets of ungodly oppressors, 
lying malignants,' atheists,^ sons of Belial;' while those of the parliament were 
complimented with the terms godly, prudent, wise, and circumspect men.^ By 
such means the people's fears were more actively excited; indifference began to 
assume a form of promptness and decision, and they entertained soon (many of 
them for the first time,) a marked hostility towards his majesty's cause. 

' Corp. Rec. 16 Sept. 1642. 

» Barseirs MSS. Lansd. Coll. B. Mos. 896. VIII. fo. 273. 

s Ticars. Pari. Cbron. vol. i. p. 123. « Ibid. p. 396. « Ibid. p. 433. 

' Ibid. vol. ill. p. 57. et passim. 

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' The fair wais now Ovw, and the towtf appealed desolate. Its strefsitsy lately sq 
foil bi life and animslion^ were left solitary and forlom» Former fears were che- 
rudied and increased by new sources of terror and alarms so that the u^abitants 
of Beverley had no reason to be proud of their new acquain't^ce; and soon the 
agitation of the town became universal and excetoive. A death-like silence reigned, 
for, whatever might be his feelings, each person restrained himsdf from any ex^ 
pression of terror, although it was visibly depicted on every cheek. The universal 
question — what is to be done ? could not be accurately determined^ for the town 
was inadequately fortified ; its banks and ditches out of repair; and if an army 
appeared before it, the gates could not, in its present state, remain closed; and, 
how repugnant soever to the views or feelings of the inhabitants, the troops must 
be admitted, and not only maintained at th^ir expense, but the town would be 
subjected to the unrestrained licence of a dissipated soldiery, the privacy of domestic 
retirement invaded, and the feelingfs of individuals outraged by the riots and de- 
bauchery which always accompany the presence of a mercenary army in time of 
civil commotion. At length the evil appeared at their very gates; the troops from 
Hull in their frequent sallies, had been heard in consultation about the sack of 
their town; and, notwithstanding the impression which they had received from the 
London merchants, the recent acts of the republican soldiers, in plundering and 
burning the surrounding villages, had given rise to terrors which dictated the 
necessity of preparation. A corporate meeting was therefore summoned, and it 
was unanimously determined, that wide and deep ditches should be made at the 
west end of every lane leading to Westwood, over which, foot-bridges only should 
be placed ; and that the three bars or gates of the town should be repaired, and 
kept locked and guarded by the constables, from nine o'clock at night till six in 
the morning, to prevent any surprise in the dead of night, when they would be 
equally unprepared to treat or to resist/ Still the -general voice of the inhabitants 
appears at this period ta have been in favour of the king, though some were 
doubtless tainted from the effect of evil communication, for not many days before 
the above resolution, Mr. Manby, a most zealous and uncompromising royalist, 
was sworn into the office of chief magistrate for the ensuing year; a situation, at 
this period, of great trust and confidence, as the custody of the town was in his 
hands; and he possessed much discretionary power which might be exercised either 

' Corp. Reo. 13 Oot. 1642. 

2 E 2 

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to the advantage or detriment of the inhabitants, in proportion as his own private 
sentiments might chance to accord with the views of the prevailing party. It is 
evident, therefore, from his election that the majority thought and wished that the 
royalists would be ultimately successful. Their calculations however were erroneous, 
and soon the troops from Hull took possession of the town of Beverley, and it re- 
mained theirs throughout the whole continuance of the war, and was regularly 
garrisoned with a strong party of soldiers, as a means of strengthening and pro* 
tecting the town of Hull. 

The first great battle was fought at Edgehill, the earl of Lindsey commanding 
the royalists, and the earl of Essex the republicans. The field was well contested, 
and both parties claimed the victory ; but the greatest loss was sustained by the 
king's army, for the brave earl of Lindsey lost his life in the conflict, and died 
covered with eighteen honourable wounds. The flames of civil war now spread 
through the land, and the two armies, as fortune gave them the pre-eminence, 
committed their devastations and exercised their cruelties with impunity. Civil 
war is always exterminating. Private feuds become mixed up with the public 
dispute, and personal hatred, or thirst for revenge, produces appetites which can 
only be satiated with blood. Property became insecure; the public taxes were 
claimed by both contending parties ; requisitions of aid were issued, and the tovpn 
of Beverley was included in a royal command to fit out a ship of 800 tons for the 
king's service, manned with 260 experienced seamen^ and provided with double 

Beverley was now converted into a depot for prisoners ; and they were guarded 
by the inhabitants themselves in the absence of regular troops, who were frequently 
called away on actual service. Corporate meetings were regularly held to provide 
against any emergency that might occur j for situated as they were between York 
and Hull, the former possessed by the royalists, and the latter by the republicans^ 
they were subjected to the consequences of every vicissitude of both the ccmtending 
parties. At one of these meetings an order was made, that each Governor, ac- 
companied by a burgess, should perambulate the town in rotation, "during the 
continuance of these dangerous times," for the purpose of seeing that the constables 
and guard are on duty, and preventing any collusion or plotting, which might 
endanger the safety of the town.® And shortly afterwards it was ordered, that the 

« Swinden's Yarmonth. • Corp. Rec. 16 Feb. 1 642-^3. 

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snm of sixty pounds be raised by assessment on the inhabitants, and collected by 
the aidennen in their respective wards, to be applied to the purchase of powder^ 
match, firing, and (he maintenance of prisoners, in compliance with the order of 
the lieutenant-general; and if any person refuses to pay his just proportion of the 
assessment, notice shall be given of the deficiencies to that ofiicer, that measures 
may be adopted to enforce the payment.'^ 

Sir John Hotham at length began to tremble for the consequences of his own 
disobedience. Much blood had already been shed, and the contest did not promise 
a speedy termination. He formed a design therefore, of abandoning his own party^ 
and embracing the king's cause ; hoping by this step to atone^ in some degree, for 
the miseries which he had contributed to bring upon the nation. The negotiation 
was conducted by the queen, with whom he stipulated to deliver up the garrison 
under his command; but his actions were inspected with too much jealousy to allow 
him the power of accomplishing his undertaking. The attempt however was 
made. He discharged captain Bushell from prison, who, with a party of sol- 
diers made two several attacks upon Beverley, in the hope that the possession of 
that town might facilitate the execution of his design ; and succeeded in forcing 
one of the bars ; but he was ultimately beaten off by a stronger party from within, 
and lost his life in the struggle.'^ These events bore evident marks of the treason- 
able intentions of sir John Hotham, which other corresponding transactions tended 
but too strongly to confirm, and orders were issued by the parliament for his 
apprehension. But the unfortunate governor had received a secret intimation of 
their design, and escaped, after a guard of soldiers had invested his house. He 
fled with precipitation from the town on one of his fleetest horses, and left his 
pursuers far behind, intending to take refuge in his house at Scorbro', which he 
had previously fortified, and secured by a garrison of soldiers devoted to his 
interest,'^ under whose protection he might have proceeded forward to York, and 
have found safety with the royal party. Dreading however, a pursuit, he forsook the 
public road, and fled with the utmost rapidity to Stone-Ferry; but the boat was 
not at its moorings, and he had no time to lose, neither would he venture to remain 
in that exposed situation, because his person was well known to the country people, 
and therefore he made the best of his way to Wawn. Here his malignant fortune 

i<> Corp. Reo. 24 Feb. 1642-3 " Vicars. Jehovah-Jireh. p. 368. 
» Rashw. CoU. vol. v. p. 276. 

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again prevailed. The ferry-boat had proeeeded up the river with a party of plea* 
sare, and he was once more dii^ppoinied in his hope of crossing the water. The 
mi-etched fogitrre ^as now utterly at ft loss what course to pursue, conscious that 
the tidfngs of his flight Woulcl lioon be made public, and that escape or concealment 
would then be equally imptucticable. His sole remaining consolation was, diat 
haply the inhabitants of Beverley were yet ignorant that he had abandoned his 
charge, and he determmed to proceed thither with all possible es:pedition, and 
Confide himself to the honour of those friends with whom he had always held a 
confidential intercourse as the representative of the town in parliament 

At this time the troops in Bevierley were under the command of colonel Boynton, 
and amounted to near 1000 men. Sir Matthew Boynton, his father, was invested 
with a command in Hull garrison, and on the governor's flight, had despatched an 
express to his son, apprizing him of the circumstance, and communicating the 
order for his apprehension. The soldiers were drawn up in the Market-place when 
sir John Hotham arrived ; and, on the sight of them, he felt irresolute whether it 
would not be expedient to retrace his steps before he was recognized; but the 
soldiers presented their arms at his appearance, as is usual to a superior officer, and 
this manoeuvre encouraged him to ride up and place himself at their head. The 
inferior ofiicers, being altogether unacquainted with sir John's defection, obeyed 
his orders to march, and be led them towards the North-Bar, considering that if 
he should succeed in conducting them to his house at Scorbro', he should be pre- 
pared to endure a siege of sufficient duration to cover his escape to the royal army. 
But, alas ! for the instability of all human calculations, he had not proceeded many 
yards before he was met by colonel Boynton, who, seizing the bridle of sir John'» 
horse without ceremony, declared him his prisoner as a traitor to the commonwealth. 
Resistance was in vain, and sir John submitted himself implicitly to his nephew's 
direction.'^ Still, all hope had not forsaken him, for the drowning man will en- 
deavour to preserve his life by struggling with a hazel wand. In Beverley he had 
many sincere friends on both sides of the question, and he calculated on the possi- 
bility of escaping through some collateral street, and secreting himself under the 
first roof which should present itself to his eye as containing an occupier in whom 
he could confide. He knew that three of the body corporate" were staunch royalists^ 

>^ Rushw. Collect vol. v. p. 276. 
>^ These were Mr. John Fotherby, Mr. Robert Manby, and Mr. W. Ellerington. 

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nn^ tinder present circumstaDces^ would doubtless afford him their protection; 
and the town contained many private gentlemen of the same firm and unyielding 
principles. These reflections were the work of a moment, and he concluded that 
the experiment was worth trying. As the party advanced through the streets^ 
Hotham suddenly struck his spurs into his horse's side, and darting down a cross 
lane with the swiftness of an arrow, vanished from their sight. By this time the 
town was raised and the streets were full of people. When colonel Boynton saw 
his prisoner take this precipitate step, he despatched a company of soldiers in 
pursuit of the ftigitive, and charged the populace, at their perils to assist in hii 
capture. Poor Hotham had little chance of escape, beset as he now was, by num* 
hers; and after some ineffectual attempts to ride through the crowds by which he 
was soon surrounded, he was knocked off his horse with the butt end of a musquel^ 
^nd finally secured.'^ The garrison at Scorbro' was now marched to Beverley, 
and the town was strengthened by the parliament with other additional forces.^* 
The rescue of sir John Hotham was attempted the next day by a body of his ma- 
jesty's forces, who invested the town of Beverley for that purpose, but were 
repulsed by colonel Boynton with considerable loss. Thus abandoned to his fate, 
this miserable man was long detained in prison, and not brought to trial from a 
deficiency of evidence to prove his guilt. At length he was tried, together with 
his son, who was apprehended about the same time with himself, on a similar 
charge ; and they were both found guilty, condemned to death, and executed at 
the beginning of January, 1645.^^ 

England now exhibited the sad spectacle of cities beleaguered, villages plundered 
and burnt; and the face of the country displayed a shocking picture of waste and 
desolation. And all this carnage and misery was produced under the semblance 
of religious duty. The army in which Cromwell held a command, boasted (how 
truly, let their irregularities testify) of the most perfect discipline and undisputed 
subordination. It was pretended that drunkenness and profanity were effectually 
restrained by the imposition of penalties. ^^If any man swears, say they, he 
forfeits 12 pence; if he be drunk, he is set in the stocks, or worse; if one calls 
the other roundhead, he is cashiered ; insomuch that the whole country where they 
come, leap for joy of them, and come in and join them.''" Notwithstanding this 

>^ Ex. MS. penes me. ^^ Rashw. Collect vol. v. p. 276. 
>^ Clarend. Hist. Rebel, vol. ii. p. 620. ^^ Special Passages. Cromwelliana. p. 5. 

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boasted purity^ the perpetual invasions of private property, and the violations of 
domestic peace, which characterized equally the royal and the parliamentary 
armies ; added to other terrible calamities and privations, made thinking men of 
both parties anxiously desirous of peace. But such unnatural divisions are not 
suddenly allayed , and much valuable blood and treasure were expended before 
either party would consent to lay down their arms. 

Sir Thomas Fairfax was now established in the command at Beverley, with 25 
troops of horse, and 2000 foot,'^ which had been thus strengthened as a security 
for Hull, whither his father had retired after his defeat at Atherton Moor. But 
the earl of Newcastle, following in the rear of the vanquished republicans, came 
on the town of Beverley before the roundheads were aware of his approach, and 
attacked them furiously in the streets with a superior force. The rebel troops 
behaved with much intrepidity, and the townsmen on each side joining in the 
affray, many lives were lost. In one place might be seen soldiers engaged in fatal 
fight; in another, women and children bewailing the doubtful fate of husbands or 
parents; nearest relations arrayed on different sides; high words and hard blows 
were heard in every quarter, when the deafening sound of ordnance ceased but for 
a moment; and soon the streets streaming with blood, were strewed with bodies 
wounded, dying, and dead. The royalists were victorious, and pursued the flying 
republicans to the very gates of Hull ; and most happy was he who c^ulc| find 
protection within the walls.*** Returning to Beverley, a new scene of confiision 

»» Rttshw. Collect, vol. v. p. 280. 

^ General Fairfax himself gives a different account of this transaction, bat I have reason to 
-believe that the brief statement in the text is correct. The gallant general acknowledges to no 
more troops than "the horse and 600 men/' while in the genuine collections of Rush worth, 
already cited, (ut supra) we find that he had with him at Beverley, "25 troops of horse, and 
2000 foot.'' Again, Fairfax estimates his loss at only three men ; now an entry in Saint 
Mary's register records the death of 13 royalists slain in this skirmish, and it may be reasonably 
supposed that the loss of the republicans would be much gTeater, owing to the disproportion of their 
force. The vicar of Saint Mary's at this time was a staunch republican, and he might probably 
suppress the numbers slain on the side of his own party. The account presented to us by Fairfax 
is as follows. " The town being little, I was sent to Beverley with the horse and 600 foot; but my 
lord of Newcastle now looking on us as inconsiderable, was marching into Lincolnshire, &c.'' 
—Memoirs of Gen. Fairfax, p. 95. Edit. Knaresborough, 1810. "The earl of Newcastle came 
to besiege Hull. I lay at Beverley in the way of his march, and finding we were not able to 
defend such an open place against an army, I desired orders from my father to retire back to Hull, 
but the committee then had more mind of raising money, than to take care of the soldiers ; and 
yet these men had the greatest share in the command at this time, and would not let any orders 
be given for our retreat; nor was it fit for us to return without order. The enemy marched with 
bis whole army towards us. Retreat we must not; keep the town we could not So to make oar 

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and distress was exhibited there; for the town was given up to plunder, and was 
divested by the soldiers of much portable property.*' And while the inhabitants 
lamented for the loss of their valuables,^ they attended the interment of thirteen 
royalists, and probably many more republicans in Saint Mary*s church-yard, who 
had fallen in the late combat*^ 

These proceedings were too terrible not to alarm all good men; and the demand 
for peace became so general throughout the country, that after much preliminary 
argument, commissioners on both sides were formally appointed; who met at 
Oxford, in 1644, to deliberate upon terms which might bring this unnatural war- 
fare to a period. His majesty attended in person, and had the commissioners of 
the parliament been invested with a real power to treat, much blood might have 
been spared; for the parties appeared to entertain very little difference of opinion 
respecting the main points in dispute; and the ensuing commotions would have 
been wholly prevented, by the restoration of the king to his rightful throne on firm 
and constitutional principles. The treaty failed ; but its results were of some im- 
portance ; for the views of the more violent party were now laid open; and several 
officers in the republican army threw up their commissions, when they discovered 
the deep laid schemes of the cabal, under whose authority they were held. The 

retreat more honourable and nsefQl, 1 drew oat all the horse and dragoons towards the enemy ; and 
stood drawn up by a wood side all that night Next morning by day, onr scoots and theirs fired on 
one another. They marched on with their whole body, Which was about 4000 horse and 12000 foot 
We stood till they were come very near us ; I then drew off, having given directions before for 
the foot to march aWay towards Hull, and thinking to make good the retreat with the horse. 
The enemy with a large party came up in our rear; the lanes being narrow, we made good shift 
with them till we got into Beverley and shut the gate, which we had scarce time to do, they being 
so close to us. In this business we lost Major Layton, and not above two more. The enemy not 
knowing what forces we had in the town, stayed till the rest of the army came up, which was 
about a mile behind. This gav- ou: foot some advantage in their retreat, it being five miles from 
Hull, and the way on narrow bcnks, I sent the horse by Cottingham, a more open road, who 
got well thither, they overtook the foot and made good their retreat, till we got to a little bridge 
two miles from Hull, where we made a stand ; the enemy followed close, our men gave them a 
good volley ofshoty which made them draw back, and they advanced no farther. So leaving a small 
guard at the bridge we got safe to Hull." Ibid. p. 97-101. 

** Vicars. Pari. Chron. vol. iii. p. 30. 

» About this time, Mr. Robert Manby, the mayor, was disfranchised for going with the 
marquis of Newcastle, and taking with him the mace, and probably the seals and other emblems 
of authority belonging to the corporation. Corp. Rec. 

*" The entry in Saint Manx's register is as follows^ « Thirtene slaine men on the king's ptie 
was buried the 30th day. (June 1643.) All our lives now at the stake; Lord deliver us for b^ 
his sake.'' ^ 


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army was now re-modelled, on true republican principles, and persons invested 
with the command, who were entirely devoted to the cause which the parliament 
had in view. 

At this time it is highly probable, that Mr. Warton, the only remaining member 
for Beverley, returned to his allegiance; for he now resigned his situation in 
parliament, and Messrs. John and James Nelthorp were elected to supply the 
vacancies.** Mr. Warton was subsequently persecuted, and perhaps ruined by the 
intrigues of the parliamentary party. He afterwards received the honour of knight- 
hood from the king, but was so impoverished by the confiscation of his property, 
that he could scarcely maintain the rank of a gentleman. His eldest son, a 
blooming youth of nineteen, fell at Scarborough, in defence of his sovereign. To 
preserve the wreck of his property, he was under the necessity of compounding 
with the ccmimissioners of the parliament by a grievous fine j and experienced, by 
the total ruin of his fortune, the unrelenting severity of fanatic intolerence, and 
revolutionary hate." 

In 1646, colonel Rossiter, in company with Leven and Pointz, reduced Newark, 
and were directed to watch the motions of the Scottish army in the north, into 
whose custody the king had voluntarily placed himself for the security of his 
person. This act was considered by the more moderate party as a virtual termi- 
nation of the war; and they expected, with some degree of solicitude, that the 
monarch, entirely divested of certain protection, as his own army was now dis- 
solved,** would agree to the original proposals of the parliament, and be content to 
hold the crown of England as his predecessors had held it, and govern his subjects 
by the wise and prudent laws which had been enacted by former monarchs for the 
common welfare of the state. But the moderate party amongst the parliamentarians 

^ Corp. Rec. 27 Sep. 1645. « Wool. Life of Warton. p. 2. 

^ The corporation of Beverley now began to make arrangements for settling all their military 
accounts on the anticipation of a speedy peace. And it was ordered^ that ** whereas a troop of 
men and horses ander the command of capt Bainesi were lately billeted at divers houses within 
this town, and according to orders from the committee of York the charges were to be allowed 
and defrayed forth of the monthly assessment payable within the borough and manor of Beverley; 
and whereas there are now assessments gone forth for the months of April, May, and June last; 
it is ordered this present day by the mayor, governors, and burgesses assembled, that William 
Sherwood is nominated and appointed to demand and receive the said assessments of the col- 
lectors therewith chargeable ; and he the said William Sherwood forthwith to bring the moneys 
into this chamber, that the said billets and charges may be discharged and satisfied, and the 
remainder thereof to be returned according to the tenor of the said committee's order.'' Cwp. 
Rec. Aug. 1646. 

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had entirely lost its influence in the housJe, and its adherents were completely 
disappointed in their expectations. For now a new party had arisen in the state, 
which became an instrmnent in the hands of a bold and fearless desperado, to 
elevate himself to the summit of sovereign power on the sacrifice of his master. 

Cromwell began now to entertain in his own breast those ambitious views which 
subsequently placed him on the throne; and he hid them from the world under 
the cloak of religion. He was a professed Independent ; a sect which pervaded 
alike the city, the country, and the camp. All ranks of society were full of its 
professors. Soon, in every town and village the spirit of fanaticism was prevalent^ 
and superseded the chaste and sober practice of genuine religion ; and when the 
independents perceived the superiority they had acquired over the minds of the 
people, they threw oflf the mask, and adhered in practice no longer to the princi- 
ples they had formerly professed in theory. The flame, long suppressed, now 
burst forth with an irresistible violence that carried all before it. They openly 
challenged the superiority, says Hume, and even menaced the church with that 
persecution which they afterwards exercised against her with such severity. They 
had a majority in the house, and voted the Liturgy an abomination to the godly, 
and even prohibited the use of it under heavy penalties.*^ They were no respec- 
ters of persons ; and it was one of CromwelVs sayings, that if he met the king in 
battle, he would fire a pistol in his face as readily as against any other man**' 
Slaughter and spoliation were preceded by long prayers ; and murder, as Holies 
expresses it, was no sin to the visible saints.'^ Even the subversion of the altar, 
and the murder of the king, were esteemed acts of piety and devotion to God, and 
were accompanied by the outward forms of religion. With the bible in their 
hands, the impious regicides brought a virtuous monarch to the block ; with a text 
of scripture in their mouths, they overthrew the altar and the throne. 

This sect, with Cromwell at its head, was now established at Whitehall; and 
this ambitious individual, having taken possession of the king's rich beds,'** began 

The zeal of the populace was irritated by every practicable expedient against the church 
and its ministers; and William, bishop of Lincoln says, in this year, «* the times grow high and 
tnrbnient, and no one knows where the rage and madness of the people may end. I am just 
come from Boston, «he continues/' where I was used very coarsely.'* Vid. Thompson's Boston, 
p. 56. And in Hull, a party of fanatic soldiers robbed the churches of the Books of Common 
Prayer, and carrying them to the Market-place, amidst the loudest and most savage acclamations 
of joy, the sound of trumpets, and the beating of drunks, committed them to the flames ! Hadley's 
null, p. 199. 

" Hume. Eng. vol. vii. p. 224. » Holies. Memorial. «> Whitelock, Memor. p. 362. 


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to intimate that he felt himself fully competent to govern the kingdom." The 
king was the golden ball cast before the two parties, the parliament and the army, 
and the contest grew so warm, that it was feared the nation would be again in-> 
volved in blood. But the army having the greater power, got the king into their 
hands, notwithstanding all endeavours to prevent it;*^ and he was soon brought to 
trial ; openly insulted in the face of his subjects ; and at length, under the sacred 
pretence of religion and justice, was cruelly and deliberately executed, declaring, 
with his dying breath, that he was not only innocent of committing the first act of 
hostility against his people, but that it was never his intention to infringe or over* 
turn their legal rights or chartered liberties.^ The friends of the deceased monarch 
consoled themselves for his loss by assembling daily before his statue at the Old 
Exchange; but the eye of the parliament was upon them, and the oppressed 
royalists were soon deprived of this poor g^tification. The statue was ordered to 
be broken down and removed, and in its place the following inscription was 

Exit Tyrannus, Regum ultimus, anno libertatis 
Angliae Restitutae primo. Anno. Dom. 1648. Jan. 30. 
On the elevation of Cromwell, the corporations were purged of such portion of 
their members as were inclined to favour the restoration of monarchy; and at 
Beverley the three gentlemen already named, Fbtherby, Manby, and Ellerington, 
had been formally displaced, and three independents, William Wilberforce, John 
Johnson, and William Waide were placed in the vacant situations." The orthodox 
ministers of the church were also ejected in 1648, and their places occupied by 
fanatics;*^ and as a final blow at the establishment, the parish registers were 

*i Major Hnntington^g Reasons. ^ Memorial of T. Fairfax. 

*^ Respecting^ this bloody transaction, even Fairfax could say, <' my afflicted and troabled 
mind for it, and my earnest endeavours to prevent it, will, I hope sufficiently display my dislike 
and abhorrence of the fact. Memorial, nt supra. 

>^ Fotherby was displaced in 1642, Manby in 1643 or 1644, and Ellering^n in 1645. 

^ << A sermon was preached in Saint Mary^s church on Thursday after the 20th March, 1648, 
by Mr. Oxonbridge, nominated by the committee of plundered ministers. And the sum of £40. 
was ordered to Mr. Oxonbridge and Mr. Wilson, out of Nafferton and Skipsey, by the cominittee 
of plundered ministers, to be paid and retained for the use of the corporation. Mr. Wilson 
having had satisfaction by the parishioners for his part, and Mr. Oxonbridge requiring nothing." 
Corp. Rec. 1648. In Palmer's Nonconformist's Memorial, the following ejected ministers are 
mentioned. Christopher Nesse, M. A. bom at North-Cave, preached. at Beverley; Joseph Wilson, 
and — Ponnoy, ministeni at the same place, and Peter Clark, M. A. born at Beverley, preached 
at Kirby-Uuderall. 

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removed from the custody of the clergyy** and the solemnization of matrimony waa 
committed to the hands of the civil magistrate.^ The usual business of the town 
of Beverley, interrupted as it certainly must have been during the late commotions^ 
now proceeded in its usual course; although the inhabitants had suffered severely 
l^ the heavy expenses to which they had been subjected, in furnishing men for 
the army, and providing them with necessaries/* The fairs and markets were 
continued as usual ; and the London merchants, finding superior facilities for the 
sale and delivery of their, goods at Beverley, continued to use its fairs with ad- 
vantage for many years, although a restrictive regulation had been made by the 
body corporate for the protection of their townsmen, that every London merchant 
who remained at Beverley more than twenty days afler his wares had arrived at 
Hull, should be subject to a fine of £20. a week, for any prolonged stay beyond 
that period.** 

The church of Saint Nicholas, it is said, was destroyed in the civil wars ; but 
we are not furnished with any authentic document to shew at what precise period, 
or under what circumstances the destruction was effected.^ The parishioners, 

^ ** The oiBoe of registering was taken firom the ministen^of seuall parishes and committed to 
men chosen hy y« sofir^es of the parishion's on the 29th of Septemher> 1653, hy an act of a (soe 
called) pariiament in that yeare. Soe that from that time till this yon are to search one Boke, 
wherein are the registers of Saint Johns and Saint Martins jointly till April, 1657, firom which 
time to this, the register of Saint Martins was continued in the same hoke &c. — In both which 
there have been many omissions ; because (as I suppose probably) people denied the payment to 
the register, imposed by that foresaid parliament for that oiBce.'' Ex. Reg. S. Johan. 

^ The form of a marriage register, under this dispensation, was as follows : — A. B. bachelor, 

and C. D. spinster, made entry of their intended marriage the day of ; whose banns 

were published upon the day of ; the day of ; and the day of 

instant, in the open market-place^ of every of the respective days, at the hours appointed by act of 

parliament, without exceptions, and were married on the day of , by , one of the 

justices of the peace. 

'* The corporation books contain numerous entries io this effect; a few of which I subjoin. 
** A letter to be written to Col. Bethel concerning the raising of an assessment (or the proportion 
thereof) of £14,000. for two months." 19 Oct 1648. << Billets for the provost marshall and 
soldiers paid by the corporation.'' Ibid. *< Ordered that Mr. Wilberforce and others go this day 
to Hull for the procuring £2000. either at the Trinity House there or elsewhere, and that 4 alder- 
men and 4 burgesses of this town will engage for the same.'' 12 July, 1 650. ** Money given to 
widows whose husbands slayed in service." January, 1650-1. ''Ordered that concerning the 
moneys and plate lent unto sir John Hotham for the use of the public, Mr. Nelthorpe shall be 
certified that the same will be doubled." 20 Feb. 1650-1. << John Giles, in consideration of the 
soldiers kept their guard in his house eighteen nights, shall be paid ten shillings." 6 Sept 1659. 

^ Corp. Rec. 18 Sept 1645. 

^ It is probable that the nave of the building, then in a dilapidated state, might have been taken 
down during the siege of Hull, by the earl of Newcastle ; as materials of every kind would be then in 

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altogether unprovided with the means of attending the puhlick worship of God^ 
made a formal application to the mayor and governors, as the trustees of Saint 
John's church, that they might be provided with accommodations in the minster}^' 
and represented that ii the nave were fitted up with pews, its spacious area would 
be abundantly sufficient for the inhabitants of Saint Nicholas, as well as those of 
Saint Martin and Saint John. A corporate meeting was accordingly summonedy 
and after mature deliberation it was determined to accede to their request, and to 
borrow a sum of money sufficient for the erection of pews in the nave, to be repaid 
by the sale of the seats. This resolution was carried into effect, and Mr* Ward 
tendered £100. by way of loan, on the security of the corporation. It was therefore 
ordered, *^ that the £100. borrowed of Mr. Ward towai'ds building the seats in the 
minster, shall be taken as for the use of this corporation ; and those men eng^aged 
for the said monies unto the said Mr. Ward, shall be saved harmless by this cor- 
poration. And that Mr. Ward, Mr. Joseph Stancliffe, Mr. Acklom, and Mr. 
Hunter are to be overseers for the said work."" At the same time the corporation 
undertook to build galleries at their own risk, though their fimds were not in such 
a flourishing state at this time as to admit of any g^tuitous sacrifice, and they 
hoped, from the numerous and urgent demand for pews, to be remunerated by 
disposing of them to private individuals. 

The pews and galleries were soon erected, and early in the year 1660, a cor- 
poration order was made, ** that Mr. Ward, Mr. Stancliffe, Mr. Acklom, and Mr. 
Hunter, together with the ministers and churchwardens of Saint Martin's and 
Saint John's parishes, should be empowered to sell all and every the pews which 
are newly built in the minster, and to give an account of their actings therein to 
this chamber."^' And at another meeting an order was made for granting to the 

reqnisition, to construct the forts and batteries necessary for a snccessfnl attack upon that town ; 
for in these unhappy times the churches were not spared by either party; and it was recom- 
mended to the earl when he raised the siege, to fortify Beverley minster, and convert it into a 
S^arrison for the protection of the town. TickelPs Hall, p. 487. The tower or steeple was 
however left standing, for we find amongst the corporation records a licence which was granted 
in 1693, to the mayor, aldermen, and the rest of the inhabitants of Beverley, by John, archbishop 
of York, to take down the old steeple of Holme church, and dispose of the materials in repairing 
the parish churches << of Saint Martin and Saint Mary,'' in Beverley, as the occasion should 
require. Corp. Rec. 2 Aug. 1693. 

<* The parish of Saint Nicholas was subsequently united with Saint Mary's. Vid. infra, 
P. 3. c. iii. 

*« Corp. Rec. 1659. ^ Ibid. 27 Feb. 1659-60. 

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same committee the corporation seal, to be attached to the assignment of the pews 
so sold*^ Several pews were now disposed of and regularly transferred, and some 
of the purchasers were careful enough to proclaim the reality of their contract by 
causing their names to be painted on the panel of the seat door.^ The corporation 
erected pews for the accommodation of their own members, and paid thirty pounds 
towards the pulpit and the minister's pew, the same sum being also allowed out of 
the parish purse ;^ and it was ordered that ** when all the pews were sold, and the 
work finished, a general account should be produced, and if there be any overplus, 
the same should be paid back proportionably to the purchasers of the other pews."^^ 
At the end of the year however, the pews were not all disposed of; and the cor- 
poration ordered, ^ that all the pews in the minster which remain unsold, be 
nailed up forthwith." ^^ And this formed the concluding order respecting the 
propertjr of these pews/* 

^ Corp. Reo. 16 May, 1660. 

^ An evidence of this cnstom was discovered when the galleries were removed in 1826. On 
one of the doors was legibly painted. Mart Acklom, her Pew. 

^ Ex. Reg. S. Johan. 1659-60. 

«^ Corp. Rec. 12 Nov. 1660. ^ Ibid. 31 Jan. 1661. 

^ The minster is called a firee church, and at present it is used as snch, bat how it became so 
is an inquiry which it may not be easy to solve. The account given above tends to shew that it 
must have been either from the indisposition, the inattention, or the inability of the parishioner? 
to purchase DBM^uIties, that the seats have become unappropriated, and hence by prescription, free. 
Some faculties, I am informed, were obtained, and the property thus protected, would doubtless 
be considered legal. By a general view of the ecclesiastical law on this subject, which is not 
quite so clear as might be wished, I should conjecture fliat all pews which were originally held 
wiikaui a faculty, though the individuals might be possessed of an indefeasible right by purchase, 
would be maintained ^ possession only, and could not be alienated or transferred at pleasure ; 
and if the families of the original purchasers should become extinct, or have waived their personal 
right, either by secession from the establishment^ or by leaving the town, the pews would become 
vested in the minister and churchwardens, in trust for the general benefit of the parishioners ; and 
fhey would possess the power of establishing any other feunilies in the vacant seats ; or they 
might pronounce them absolutely /re6, if such a measure would, in their opinion, conduce more 
to the general interests of the church. 

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m^* IS. 

The Restoration — Purgation of the borough — Charter of Charles IT. — Relics of 
Saint John of Beverley discovered — Pestilence at Beverley — Excommunicatums 
— Charter of James IL — Election contest in 1685 — Costly present to Saint 
Mary's church from the London merchants — Suit between Hull and Beverley 
— Abdication of king James — Extensive prqxirations for repairing and beau- 
tifying the minster — North gable screwed up — Ornaments and decorations — 
Election contests of 1722 and 1727 — Improvement of the Beck — Excom- 

The acts of an usurper are of no interest in a local history, except they bear an 
immediate connection with the subject under discussion. This was not the case 
with the town of Beverley during the usurpation of Cromwell, or the brief space 
in which his son wielded, with an unsteady hand, the sceptre of government 
Unequal to the fatigues, and alive to the dangers of the lofty situation to which he 
had been unwittingly exalted, he resigned his dignity after a sway of eight days*^ 
continuance ; and a new parliament was convened, into which the secluded members 
were subsequently admitted, and king Charles II. was soon restored to the throne 
of his ancestors, to the great joy of the whole nation ; he was proclaimed at Beverley 
on the 12th May, 1660, amidst the ringing of bells and other tokens of general 
rejoicing;' and made his publick entry into London on the 29th of the same month* 

The boroughs now underwent a second purgation, and the council chambers 
were cleared, by royal authority, of all the individuals who were violently attached 
to the republican party ; and at Beverley these appear to have had a decided ma- 
jority on the bench. The following aldermen were removed on this occasion. 

' King Charles II. proclaimed May 12. Ten shillings given to each warden of every company, 
to spend amongst them for the solemnization of this day. Also 10s. amongst the constables, &c. 
—Corp. Rec. 1660. 

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because they refused either to take the oaths, ot subscribe to the dedaration ;* 
J<teiah Acklom, William Waide, William Forge, William Coulson, Thomas 
Hudson, Timothy Gray, and Thomas Milner ; and their places were supplied by 
seren gentlemen of loyal principles, viz. Thomas Johnson, Thomas Clarke, George 
Davies, Thomas Gossip, Thomas Davison, Stephen Goakman, and John Todd.' 
Added to this change, sir Hugh Bethell declined the representation of the borough, 
and Michael Warton was elected in his stead,^ much to the credit of the inhabi- 
tants, for he had been dreadfully persecuted, and almost ruined, by the infliction 
of republican vengeance.* 

In 1662, the king granted a charter to the town, confirming all the ofiicers in 
their respective situations, and constituting them a body corporate and politic^ 
under the name of the mayor, governors, and bui^esses of the town of Beverley. 
This charter contains a code of laws for the good government of the borough; 
recounts their rights, privileges, and immunities; appoints a court of record to be 
held every Monday, for the purpose of holding pleas of such things as may happen 
within the town, with a view of frank pledge, and other privileges, on payment 
^of certain annual quit rents to the king.* It confirms their markets and fairs, and 
protects them by a court of pye powder;^ and secures all their other liberties, 
privileges, franchises, &c. by whatever names and titles they may have been con- 
ceded, whether by letters-patent or otherwise.' 

At the latter end of the year 1664, on opening a grave in the foody of the 
minster, a vault of squared freestone was discovered of about 15 feet in length and 
2 feet in breadth, within which was a sheet of lead 4 feet long, containing some 
ashes, beads, brass and iron nails, and other decayed funeral remains.' On the 

* The declaration ran in this form :— « That it Is not lawfal, under any pretence whatever, to 
take up arms against the king; that they do ahhor that traitorous position of taking arms by the 
king's authority against his person^ or against those commissioned by him ; that no obligation 
la3-s Qpon them, or any other persons, from the oath commonly called The Solenm League and 
Covenant; and that the same was in itself unlawful, and imposed upon the subjects of this realm 
against the laws and liberties of the kingdom.'' 

' Corp. Rec. June, 1660. < Ibid. 12 June, 1660. « Wool's Life of Warton, p. 2. 

« Vid. a copy of this charter in the Appendix. I. ^ Vid. infra, part 3. cap. 1. 

* Corp. Rec. 5 Sep. \S Ch. II. No. 22. The expenses attending this charter amounted to 

J&4ill. 4s. Ud. 

* To this account I may add, on the authority of Mr. Warburton, Somerset Herald, that 
" a knife and a pair of silver slippers were found also in the grave;" and this able antiquary 
supposes, from the information of Mr. Michael, that this was the identical knife which Athelstan 
pledg^ed upon his altar. Lansd. MSS. 896. VIII. fo. 217. There may be some probabUity in 

2 G 

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leaden covering was an inscription'® importing that in the year 1188, the church* 
was burnt on the night following the festival of Saint Matthew the Aposde, in the 
month of September; i^d that in the year 1197, a search was instituted after the 
relics of Saint John, when these bones were found in the eastern part of the 
sepulchre, and deposited here, and therewith also a mixture of dust and mortar 
was found, and also re-interred." In the same year a pestilence again raged at 
Beverley, although every practicable expedient appears to have been resorted to 
for the purpose of averting this dreadful calamity from the town." The dead were 
conveyed to the Trinities and buried in heaps, and the lazaretto was again in 
requisition as a sick hospital ; and after the visitation was ended, it was strictly 
enjoined that the pest-house should be preserved and kept in g^d repair, to serve 
for a similar purpose, should the same calamity again renew its attack upon the 

this acconnty for it was not a very long period after Athelstan floarished that the bones of the saint 
were taken up and enshrined; and there is nothing unnatural in the supposition, that this invalu- 
able pledge might be deposited with them. Vide ut supra, p. 61. 

^^ Gent Rippon, p. 76. 

" The Latin inscription was as follows: — Anno ab incamatione Domini MCLXXXVIII^ 
combusta fuit h»c Ecolesia in mense Septembri, insequenti nocte post festum Sancti Matthan 
Apostoli; £t in Ann. MCXCVlIi VI. Idus Martii, facta fuit inquisitio Reliquarum Beat! 
Johannis in hoc loco; et inventa sunt hac Ossa in oriental! parte Sepulchri, et hie recondita; et 
pulvis oemento mixtus ibidem et inventus, et reconditus. 

>' Thus, in the month of June, 1637, ** it was ordered, in respect of the eminent danger of 
infection, that there shall be no public meeting within this town which may occasion a concourse 
of people either men or women; and that upon woman^s occasions, as cbildbearings or christen* 
mgs, and the like, there shall not be above ten persons at once, and those to be of their especial 
friends and neighbours, without the licence of the mayor and two governors, whereof one to be 
for the ward, upon pain of twenty shillings, to be forfeited by the party that causeth the meeting* 
And that no person shall receive any goods from Hull| as linen cloths, wool, or woollen, upon 
pain of five pounds.^^ Corp. Rea 12 Junci 1637. In the next month all communication with 
null, where the plague now raged with much violence, was wholly prohibited under heavy 
penalties. Ibid. 25 July, 1637. By such means the visitation was at this time averted. Appro* 
h.ensions were again entertained in 1645, when it was ** Ordered that whereas there is much 
danger by reason of the plague dispersed abroad in the country, that there be a sufficient watch 
and ward kept at the out ends of this town, to keep out vagrants and other suspected people, 
unless they have sufficient testimonial under the hand of a man of eminencie for their travel.^^ 
Corp. Rec. 28 April, 1645. 

1' In a lease of so recent a date as 1751, we find the following covenant: — <'And the said 

Jonathan Midgley for himself, his executors, &c. doth covenant and agree that in case any 

plague, pestilence, or other contagious distemper should, by divine permission be inflicted upon 
any of the inhabitants of this town as heretofore, that then, upon any such melancholy visitation, 
the said Jonathan Sdidgley shall leave, surrender, and yield up the said close and premises during 
the continuance of such visitation, for the same use, intent and purpose, as before.^^ 

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It appears that the independent faction which hrought the late mpnardi to the 
•caffold, were now busily engaged throughput the kingdom in making interest to 
gain a preponderance in the cities and boroughs ; for we find a precept addressed 
to the high-sheriff of Yorkshire by the king in council, on this subject, which was 
officially communicated to the mayor of Beverley ;*^ and in obedience to its pro- 
visions, very few of those persons were admitted to any public office in the cor* 
poration who possessed an influence during the Protectorate; for the inhabitants in 
general had never cordially embraced the measures of republicanism, but submitted 
with reluctance to its imperious domination. William Coulson and William 
Wilberforce, (ancestor of William Wilberforce, esquire, late M. P. for Yorkshire,) 
were the only two of this party who subsequently held offices in the corporation. 
About this time some very extensive excommunications took place in Beverley. 
A considerable number of persons, both male and female, received sentence iu 
1667, by a writ of Richard, archbishop of York, dated 23rd October j some of 
whom were absolved on their repentant submission; while others, more incorrigi- 
ble were subjected to the disgrace of public or private penance. Their crimes were 
adultery, fornication, and incest In 1671, another writ of excommunication was 
issued by Robert Hitch, archdeacon of the East-riding, dated October 31, for 
similar practices ; and several penances were inflicted in 1684.'^ 

From the very commencement of king James's reign, his principal desiga 
appears to have been the restoration of the Roman Catholic religion. To accom- 
plish this end the more effectually, he endeavoured to place all public offices in the 
hands of persons well affected towards papal supremacy, by procuring the sur- 
render of all the corporation and colonial charters, and granting new ones, with 

>^ The writ was couched in the following^ decisive terms. ^< After our hearty comendacons. 
His Ma^^ haring rec<< frequent informacon from seueral parts of this kingdom, that divers p'sons 
formerly displaced by the Com" aathorized for reg^nlating Corporacons in pursuance of an Act of 
Parliam^ and o" do without taking the Oath and Deelaracon appointed by the Statute of the Idth 
of his Ma^'^ Raigne Endeavour to be elected and re-admitted into the several offices of Maiores, 
Bayliffes, Sheriffs, Aldermen, and Townesclerkes & other Offices in the respective Cittyes and 
Burrougbes of this kingdom, with design, as may be justly apprehended, to disturb the peace 
4t happjness of His Ma^^*^ Government. His Ma*^ thereupon hath commanded us to pray & require 

?ou to signifie his pleasure unto the Major, Bayliffes, Aldermen, or other officers in every Citty A 
"owne Corporate within the County of Yorke ; that they do not henceforward admitt any p'son or 
p'sons into any office whatsoever in any of their Corporacons bat according to the Rules prescribed 
in the Act of Parliament. And soe not doubting of your care herein, we bid you heartily farewell. 
From the Court at Whitehall, the 28th day of September, 166S. Signed by the whole Council. 
— £. MS. penes me. 

■^ Ex. Reg. S. Johan. 


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especial powers reserved to the crown, of confirming the appointment of all the 
principal officers. Pursuant to this scheme, he granted a new diarter to the 
corporation of Beverley, by which they were again incorporated under the new name 
of mayor, aldermen, and burgesses. This charter was similar in substance to that of 
Charles II. but it contained a proviso to this effect; ** that it shall and may be 
lawful for the king, his heirs and successors, at any tim^ and at all times, by 
order in privy council, to remove from their respective offices^ the mayor, recorder, 
aldermen, and capital burgesses, common clerk, or any one or more of them, and 
that after such removal, there shall within convenient time, others be chosen in 
their room." '* By this clause, the king was constituted sole master of the cor- 
poration, and could at pleasure change the whole magistracy ;'^ and did actually 
remove the W(H*thy recorder, sir Edward Bamard,^^ and seven of the aldermen. 
James Moyser, esq. succeeded to the vacant recordership, and John Acklom, 
Smnuel Johnson, Thomas Clarke, John Gunbie, William Clarke, Benjamin 
Lambert, and Edward Wilbert were appointed aldermen, in the room of William 
Dunn, William Wilberfwce, Edward Gray, John Sugden, William Coulson, 
Edward Howson, and William Nelson, who were dismissed.*^ This proceeding 
appears to have excited some disgust amongst the members of the body corporate; 
for very shortly afterwards, Samuel Johnson and Thomas Clarke, two of the 
newly appointed aldermen, resigned their gowns, and Thomas Slatter and Joshua 
Naylor were elected to supply the vacancies.** 

The family of the Wartons, of Beverley Parks, appears to have recovered some- 
what from the ruinous destruction by which it was impoverished during the civil 
war J for in 1686, Michael Warton and sir Ralph Warton had a smart contest for 

t< This charter is g^ven in the Appendix K. 

. *' The renewal of the charter cost the corporation £432. lds« 4d. and three sums of £40. Ss. Od. 
each, were presented to Mr. Dymoke, Mr. Fotherby, and Mr. Ashmole, for their trouble in the 
arrangements, to purchase a gold ring» with the arms of the corporation engraven thereon. Ex. 
MS. penes me. 

^' Sir E. Barnard was a scholar and a finished gentleman. His private virtnes made him 
estimable in the opinion of bis acquaintance; and he is said to have been ^'the honour of King* 
stone-upon-HulIy the delight of Beverley, and the ornament of the law.^* The reason of his 
dismissal is not easy to be determined, for he was a man distinguished by the soundest principles 
of honour and strict integrity. He did not long survive his removal, but died on the 19th day of 
November, 1686, and was buried in Saint Mary's Church, where is a plain, but elegant marble 
table to his memory. Vid. infra, part iii. cap. 3. 

» Charter of Jas. II. Corp. Rec. U March, 1684. No. 23. » Corp. Rec. 168«. 

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(he borough against sir John Hotham, and succeeded in throwing him out It is 
.true, sir John complained of undue and illegal practices on the part of his oppo* 
nentSy and at the meeting of parliament instituted a petition against them, but on 
cool reflection he deemed it wise to let the matter rest, as probably his own conduct, 
during the beat of the contest, would not endure a rigid investigation. The petition 
therefore was never heard.*' 

The fairs at Beverley were now regularly attended by the citizens of London ; 
and it is evident they found the traffic very advantageous, else it is scarcely to be 
believed that they would have travelled with their wares to so great a distance 
from home. A still further proof of the benefit which they derived from their 
speculations in this town, is supplied by the fieict, that in the year 1086, ^ certain 
worthy citizens of London who of late years kept Beverley mart," entered into a 
voluntary subscription, and made a splendid present to the church of Saint Mary ; 
consisting of a velvet carpet, with gold and silken fringe for the communion table ; 
a gilded common prayer book, covered with velvet, suspended by silken strings; 
a large pulpit cloth of velvet with deep gold and silk fringe ; and a pulpit cushion 
of velvet on both sides, with noble tassels or knobs of gold and silk interwoven at 
each comer, and a valance of velvet fringed to correspond, to be suspended from 
the cushion.** 

The privilege enjoyed by the burgesses of Beverley, of passing through the river 
Hull into the Humber, free of toll, was ever regarded by the port of Hull with a 
jealous eye. It had the appearance of an encroachment; and men are equally apt 
to be jealous of imaginary indignities, as though they were real. The people of 
Beverley however, only exercised a privilege which was used by them long before 
the town of Kingston-upon-Hull possessed a single charter of liberties. In the 
year 1687, it was determined by the latter port to make another attempt to sub- 
stantiate their jurisdiction over Beverley. The water bailifi^ was directed to seize 
some fir deals belonging to a merchant of Beverley, which brought on a law suit, 
but the jury once more gave a verdict in favour of the merchant.** 

Towards the conclusion of king James's reign, the monarch again issued a writ 
of quo warranto against the corporation ; and by an order from the king in council, 
dated 11th June, 1688, James Moyser, esquire, was removed from the office of 
recorder, and Thomas Alured, esquire, put into his place; aldermen Christopher 

*■ Oldfield. Boroagbs, vol. v. p. 336. 
^ Ex. MS. pene9 me. » Gent. Hall, p. 184. Hadley, p. 268^ 

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ChappeloWy John Fotherby, William Clarke, and Joshua Naylor w^e also dii^ 
diarged^ and their places supplied by John Sugden, John Thorpe, J<^ Brighan^ 
and Thomas Milner. Four capital burgesses, named Henry Johnson, Henry 
Thirskf Edward Coulson, and Edward Webster were dismissed, and the vacancies 
filled up by Edward Coulson, Peter Thompson, Richard Booth, and John Gor- 
wood.'^ These were abitrary measures ; and James was soon convinced that they 
were calculated to alienate the affections of his people; for the Prince of Orange 
was now on the seas, and the country looked up to him for a redress of their gri^ 
vances, and the firm establishment of the Protestant religion in these dominions* 
The feeble attempt of James to make atonement for his errors by issuing a pro- 
clamation, in which he revoked the writs of quo warranto^ and pronounced his 
former charters valid where new ones had not been granted, was now too late; 
and he abdicated the throne and privately departed out of the kingdom, which 
placed the crown on William's head without a struggle/* 

Some regiments of Danish soldiers having landed at Hull, for the service of the 
new monarch, they marched to Beverley, and the sick, as well as the ammunition 
and ordnance were forwarded at the expense of the corporation.^ During their 
short stay two young men, belonging to one of the regiments, having had a quarrel 
on the passage, which could not be decided on board the vessel, sought the first 

*« Corp. Rec. 1688. 

^^ The charter of Beverley had been svrrenderedy enrolled, and recorded, as is mentioned III 
the proclamatiou above referred to ; and while the corporation, amidst the various and discordant 
mmoars which agitated the country, were in anxious expectation of its renewal, the town clerk 
received the following letter, which shews the unsettled state of affairs, and the general hostili^ 
which every where prevailed against the exiled monarch. <' To Mr. Christ Tadman, — Sir, The 
stupendious and surprizing news of the last nights revolucon has putt a stop to the proceedings of 
renewing the Corporacons. For last night, or rather this morning, about 4 a clock the king went 
away privately down the river with no other company but y* L^ Chancello! Sir Edwl Hales and 
the Lf Dunbarton. ^Tis thought they have gone for France. But that which is as strange is, to 
see the peace and tranquility y^ hitherto continues in this great city. I bad proceeded no further 
then only to draw up the long Ch. of Beverley in the same terms with that of Ch** II. But it 
cannot go on now, any more than the Parliam*. Elecions, for that I am informed the writts are 
most of them witheld, and none given out but where the sheriffs have already taken out their 

gatenty which are not. above a quarter of the whole number, I am Yr very humble Servant, 
. Gwillyn. N. B. The Queen and Prince bf Wales went away the night before*'* Ex. MS. 
penes me. 

^ <« Mr. Maior incurred the sum of £14. Is. Id. in twnveying sick Danish soldiers, and ammu- 
nition waggons, lately landed in Hull. Ordered to be paid.'' Corp. Rec. 16 Dec. 1689. 

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ppportunily of a private meetiiigy to settle th^ differenee. by the sword ; and their 
&te is recorded in a doggrel epitaph still remaining in Saint Mary's eharch<-yard :— * 

<< Here two jonng Danish soaldiers lie. 
The one in quarrell chancM to die ; 
The other^s head — by their own law. 
With sword was severed at one blow." **" 

It was now nearly a centnry since the minster had undergone any substantial 
repairs ; and from the magnitude of the edifice, and the absence of funds sufficiently 
productive, it had become so much dilapidated about the commencement of the 
eighteenth century, that its restoration was despaired of. The windows were shat- 
tered, the roof decayed, the gutters, battlements, and other parts perishing from 
neglect, and the whole transept was an absolute rain. The north gable had fallen 
away from the building, as it appeared, irretrievably ; for the upper part overhung 
the foundation, at least three feet and a half; and fears were entertained that it 
would speedily fall, and involve the choir and other connected and dependent 
parts in its own destruction. At this time (1706) sir Charles Hotham and John 
Moyser, esquire, were the representatives for Beverley ; the latter of whom, happily 
for the town, was an adept in the science of architecture. His active mind con-» 
templated the ruinous state of this once magnificent fabric, and he determined that 
it should be restored to its former splendour. He proposed a general subscription 
for this purpose, and set the example by placing the sum of £ — • against his own 
name. While thus benevolently engaged, the term of his parliamentary deputation 
expired, and he was succeeded by sir Michael Warton, who subscribed £500. 
towards the repairs of the minster. These noble examples were followed with 
avidity by others who regretted the decay of their magnificent church, and by 
means of a brief and private collections, the funds became adequate to the purpose 
of repairing and beautifying the structure. Mr. Hawkesmoor, a London architect, 
was employed to survey the building, and make an estimate of the expense; and 
he pronounced that it would cost £3,500. to restore it to its pristine beauty and 
perfection. Sir Charles Hotham and sir Michael Warton, the members, together 
with the mayor and aldermen of Beverley, petitioned the king to allow them the 

^ In the reijrister of Saint Maiy's parish are the followingr entries. 1689. Dec. 16. Daniel 
Straker a Danish trooper baried.— Deo. 23. Johannes Frederick Bellow (beheaded for killing 
the other) bnried.. 

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privil^e of using the materials of the decayed monastery of Saint Mary at York; 
and a licence was granted, enabling them to pidl down and carry away such ma^ 
terials as might be necessary for their purpose, during the period of three years. 
Accordingly, a g^eat quantity of stone was removed to Beverley by water/* and 
the projected improvements were commenced with spirit, and carried on with 

During the progress of the work sir Michael Warton died, and bequeathed by 
will the sum of £4,000. as a fmid to keep the minster in perpetual repair; and 
named as the trustees, the archbishop with the dean aiid chapter of York, and the 
mayor and recorder of Beverley ; and his exectitor, sir Michael Newton, was di- 
rected by a decree in chancery, to pay the interest of this sum at five per cent to the 
churchwardens of Saint Martin's parish, until the same could be eligibly vested in 
the purchase of lands of inheritance.'^ This increase of means gave a new impulse to 

« Drake. Ebor, p. 577. 

^ In the year 1714, a grievoas murrain amonggt the catUe occasioned considerable losses In 
the town and neighbonrhood of Beverley. The stock on the common pastures suffered severely; 
and a small portion of land was fenced off, to separate the cattle that were infected from the 
rest, that the distemper might be prevented from spreading. In this murrain 5418 cows died, 
and 439 calves. Ex. Reg. 8. Johan. 

^ Sir M. Warton left, in addition to this sum of £4000. to the minster, the further legacies 
of £1000. to the hospilal in Beverley founded by his father, and £500. to the charity school, with 
which sums certain estates were purchased in Dalby, Partney, and other parishes in the county of 
Lincoln; and it was enacted, 46 Geo. III. that <' the whole clear rents, issues, and profits 
thereof, after deducting the necessary costs and charges relating to the said trust, should be 
divided into 21 equal parts and shares; and two of such parts or shares thereof should be applied 
for the said charity school, and three other of such parts or shares thereof applied for the said 
hospital, and the remaining sixteen parts or shares applied for keeping the said minster in perpe- 
tual good repair.^' From these estates, and the chantries assigned to the minster by queen 
Elizabeth, a considerable saving was subsequently made, and the trustees were enabled to vest 
further sums in the purchase of other property. With this surplus another estate was purchased, 
at Dalby and Dexthorpe, in the county of Lincoln, for £630. ; £760. was vested in the Beverley 
turnpike; £300. in the Alford turnpike; and in 1806, there remained in the hands of the 
receivers £331. 14s. 9|d. the sum of £204. Us. Od. remaining on mortgage of the premises al 
Partney. Act, 46 Geo. ill. And the property which had accrued to this church by the donation 
of the chantries, lands, tenements, and rents comprized in queen Elizabeth^s letters-patent was as' 
follows : — 25 tenements in Minster-Moorgate ; 5 tenements in Fleming^gate ; 1 close near Saint 
Nicholas's church; 5 tenements and 1 coach-house in Keld-gate; 1 close in Paradise; 11 
tenements and 1 close in East-gate; 7 closes in Grove-hill lane; 3 tenements in North-Bar- 
within ; 5 tenements in High-gate ; 2 tenements, a garden, and closes in Beckside ; I close at 
Etton ; a tenement at Crossgarths; a tenement in Newbegin ; closes in Lurk-lane ; 2 tenements 
and a close in Back-street; a tenement in Well-lane; 3 tenements in Lair-gate; stables ia 
Corporation yard ; 2 tenements in Saturday-market ; 2 tenements in North-Bar-without ; a close 
in Osier-yard ; a house and close ; a batbing-house ; and the house formerly occupied by the 
head master of the grammar school. Act, 46 Geo. III. for the curates of the minster. 

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tbe woiky aoid maay eTpmAre deooratjons urere added, wbich, fiom the false taste 
which prevailed at that period, have some of them been sinoe removed as super* 
iuous deformities. The task of reinstating the north gable in its true perpendicular 
was the most arduous and difficult, but it was acoHnplished by an ingenious device 
of Mr. Thornton, of York, who invented a machine with which he screwed up 
this ponderous wall, and replaced it in its true situation." The floor was taken up, 
and A new one laid in its present ornamental form; during the process of which 
operation, the bones of Saint John were taken up, and replaced in an arched vault, 
immediately beneath the second rose in the groining of the roof, at the east end of 
the nave. The following inscription was added to the former one,*' engraven on 
a sheet of lead. ^^The same relics having been dug up, were replaced and 
honoured with an arched vault of brickwork, the 25th March, 1726, when the 
tesselated pavement of this church was first laid.*'" At this time also the nave 
was completely fitted up with new pews, a pulpit and galleries for the perform- 
ance of divine service, and all the plans of Mr. Moyser, both for ornament and 
utility, were carried into full effect ^' These plans, unfortunately, were to be 
executed at a time when there was little reason to expect, that in the construction 
of the proposed embellishments and additions, any attention would be exerted to 
make them harmonize with the building in which they were to be placed. Our 
ancestors, it has been well observed by an author in the Archaeologia, in the former 
part of the last century, and in that before it, despising gothic architecture, and 
blind to all its beauties, neglected, rather than destroyed, the remains of it in 

'' Vid. infra, part III. oh. ii. Thornton was a clever man> but rather tenacioas of his powers. 
We are told by the editor of Dr. Stakeley's Letters, Bibliotheca Topogr. vol. i. p. 186, that <<he 
had frequently heard from the late Mr. Samuel Buck, who died August 17th, 1779, aged 83, the 
following anecdote relative to this undertaking. Being at Beverley at the time they were screwing 
up the gable, he observed that one of the screws had given way ; and though his silence might 
have been attended with the most fatal consequences, Mr. Thornton received his information with 
manifest disgust, as if offended at the accidental failure of his skill.^' Thornton died at YoA, 
and was buried in Saint Olave's church. On the south side of the altar is a mural monument 
erected to the memory of this artist. The sculpture is within an ellipse of black stone, and the 
shield bearing the inscription is supported by cherubs. A skull and cross bones decorate the 
base, and the whole is surmounted by an urn and flame. Immediately over the inscription is a 
shield, bearing, az. a chevron or. inter two compasses and a sphere. In chief ar. three flowers. 
The inscription : — ^Near this place lies the body of William Thornton, joiner and architect, who 
departed this life September Z3, 1721, aged 51 years. 

^ Vide ut supra, p. 234. 

** The original inscription is in latin, and is here subjoined. Reliquiae eadem effossae et ibidem 
recompositn Fomice Lateritio dignabantur XXV. die Mensis Martij Anno Domini MDCCXXVI. 
quando et tesselatum Ecdesiai hujus Pavimentum primo fuit instratum. 

2 H 

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England. They built up Grecian altars and altar pieces^ and galleries^ in gothic 
churches and chapels; and these strange improper things of their erection and 
invention seem to have been the only objects of their admiration.'^ These obser^ 
rations are general, but so exactly descriptive of what took place in our minster, 
at the time in question, that we might almost feel disposed to think tbey had a 
particular reference to it. Every thing was formed on Grecian models ; the galleries 
were supported by done pillars, and a dome with doric triglyphs. Before the old 
altar screen was placed a wooden one of Grecian work, on which stood eight 
beautiful Corinthian pillars, supporting a splendid triumphal arch, surmounted by 
a magnificent gilded eagle. The pulpit, the reading-desk, the cover for the font, 
all made at the same time, were all in the same taste; and by way of climax of 
absurdity, an entrance screen into the choir was erected, in which the Grecian 
and pointed styles were mixed together, and a kind of non-descript monster was 
produced, referable to no species of architecture."^ 

While these peaceful improvements were in progress, the town was occasionally 
agitated by the intemperate disputes and political cabals of an electioneering con- 
test. In 1722, sir Michael Warton having retired from the representation of 
the borough by reason of bad health, his nephew* Michael Newton, esquire, was 
recommended to the burgesses as his successor. The election however, was violently 
contested by EUerker Bradshaw, esquire, who tried every means to ingratiate 
himself with the electors, but was unable to secure a majority of votes, for on the 
day of election the numbers were, for Michael Newton, esquire, 552 ; sir Charles 
Hotham, 493; and EUerker Bradshaw, esquire, 353. As the former stood too 
high numerically, to be easily unseated, Mr. Bradshaw petitioned the house of 
commons against the return of the latter; and complained that sir Charles Hotham 
was not a burgess, and therefore incompetent to represent the borough in par- 
liament; that he was guilty of treating; that he had used threats and other undue 
and illegal practices, to influence the votes of the burgesses, &c. ; but the petition 
was withdrawn, and no report was made upon it.'* 

At the following election, in 1727, Mr. Bradshaw was more successful, after a 
contest of unusual obstinacy and perseverance. It would be well, were it possible 

" Kerrich, Observ. on Goth. Archit. Archaeol. vol xvi. p. 299. 

« Coltman's Short Hist, of Beverley Minster, p. 53, 54. 

^ Oldfield. Boroughs, vol. v. p. 336. 

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to add, that the means used to ensare success were strictly honourable and praise* 
worthy, and conformable equally to the dictates of morality and the constitution 
of the country. Unhappily this was not the case ; and the credit of the borough 
would be less liable to impeachment, if the records which remain of this venal 
election could be wholly expunged ; for this was the famous contest which origi<- 
nated the statute against bribery, 2 Geo. 11.^ The historian however, must relate 
occurrences as they actually took place, for he can neither add to, nor diminish 
from the records of truth. A petition was preferred against the return of Mr. 
Bradshaw, which brought on a full investigation before the house of commons ; 
and such a scene of gross corruption was elicited, that although the return was not 
disturbed, the legislature found themselves under the necessity, for the honour of 
the house, and in vindication of public morals, to provide against a recurrence of 
such practices by a formal statute; and a bill was passed, entitled, ^An act fw 
the more effectually preventing bribery and corruption in the elections of members 
to serve in parliament;'' and the preamble states, that '^whereas it is found by 
experience that the laws already in being have not been sufficient to prevent 
corrupt and illegal practices, &c." 

The town had now, in some degree, recovered from its former depression, and 
the inhabitants were determined to make a spirited attempt to restore its facilities 
fi>r external traffic. The canal or beck, during the decayed state of the place, had 
imperceptibly warped up, and could not be kept open for want of a sufficient fund 
to defray the necessary expenses thereof; the staiths were out of repair, and abso- 
lutely useless ; and the roads leading from the town to the river Hull, were in so 
ruinous a condition, that carriages could not pass upon them without extreme 
danger ; to the great decay of the trade and impoverishment of the town. It is 
true, the corporation, with a laudable anxiety for the public welfare, had expended 
periodically for many years, considerable sums out of their own private revenues, 
in cleansing the river, and repairing the staiths and roads, but at length their 
income was so much reduced that they were unable to continue the work they bad 
so benevolently begun ; and it had become absolutely necessary for the purposes of 
commerce, that the beck should be made wider and deeper, and a permanent fund 
created for keeping it in perpetual repair." 

Many plans were proposed and rejected ; and at length, John Warburton, esq. 
Somerset Herald, a man well versed in such speculations, was desired to give his 

»^ Oldfield. Boroughs, vol. v. p. 337. »• Act for cleannng Beverley Beck, fo. 1. 

2h 2 

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attentian ta tke tsnifaject ; who delivered, for the consideration of the totm, as all 
.effectual means of renewing all the desired advantages, the fdUowing ^ Proposab 
for cleaning and keeping clean Beverley heck from the head of the harbom- to the 
foot of the low mill race on both sides, and deepening it three feet and a half. 
First, that an engine boat be built after the manner of those used in Holland and 
Jlanders, to draw up the weeds that now hold together the mud, and stop the soil 
and dirt that is washed into the harbour of the said river at the time of land floods, 
£10. Os. Od. The expense of men and horses in working the said boat, £10. Os. Od. 
Secondly, it is proposed that one lock or pail* of floodgates be a'ected on the upper 
side of the great bridge, and that the sides oi the key be raised by battlements, in 
order to make a more capacious basin for collecting water into at times of flood, 
which by being flushed out again at low water, wiU wash away and dissolve all 
that loose ousey matter which cements, holds together, and obstructs the ^ux 
and reflux of the tides and fresh water floods, and if not timely prev^ited, must 
inevitably occasion the said river to overflow its banks whensoever the spring tides 
and land floods shall oppose each other; and thereby may occasion the loss of some 
hundred acres of ground which lies contiguous to the said river, and particularly 
the town's pasture named Figham ; and will no ways prejudice sir M. Warton's 
low mill, or the navigation of the river Hull, £60. Os. Od. Thirdly, that one pan* 
of floodgates be placed on the upper side of the little bridge, at the head of the 
harbour ; and that a reservoir or basin be made proportionably th^eunto, in order 
to keep water in, to be flushed out as occasion may require, to scour and keep 
clean ihe space between the two bridges;. the charge will be £10. Os. Od. For 
cutting, cleaning, and planting willows by the sides of the river, to secure and 
prevent them being washed down for the time to come, £20. Os. Od. Fourthly, it 
is proposed that Holm church beck, which now runs by Holm church into the 
canal, be brought in at the head of the canal ; and that such of the town ditches 
which now run into Walker beck be cleaned and kept open, in order to bring^ 

Fifthly, that the charge for cleaning the said beck he 

collected by voluntary contributi^m ; and that the names of the chief bene&ctors,^ 

^ In. MS. pauca desunt 

^ In 1699, the Beck was cleaned out, as is above recommended^ by subscription, and the 
following is an account of the several sums collected on the occasion. Christopher Thompson 
being the mayor : — 

£. s. d. 

8ir Michael Warton 30 

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with thf maui they give^ be recorded on a table to be set up in the OUd-^jbanl of 
this eorpcacation/'" 

To those proposals the following objections were made. ^^ Mr. W. proposal 
to place a pair of floodgates to stop the watar in untQ it is low in the other par^ 
of the beck, and thai to let the water suddenly out of that reservoir to drive the 
8lu%e out of the way below; the sludge having been first loosened by other 
means. This would be an easy and cheap way of cleansing and keeping clean 
the becky if it would but answer in practice, but I am afraid it will miscarry for 
the reas(ms following. The flowing and ebbing of the tides in the river Hull is 
but very slow on account of that river being so narrow^ and the great distance 
fincHn the Humber, and the firee passage it hath many miles beyond Beverley beck. 
This causes the water to take a long time rising to a small plum height^ an4 
.Bev»l^ beck must be the same time rising to the same height, which being sp 
short causes the water to move so slowly that its motion can do little or nothing to 
carry out any slu^e, &c. for cleansing the same by the tides. Suppose the water 
in the reservoir were pen'd up to a yard above the surface of the water below it on 
the other side of the bridge; it is evident that the beck below the High*bridge is 
near eighteen times as long as that between the bridges, and consequently, if a^ 
&at water were laid on the surface of the water below the bridge, it would but 

£. s. d. 

Sir Ralph Warton 10 

Mr. Ralph Warton 10 

Mr. Charles Warton 5 

Saturday Market Ward 14 4 5 

Within North-Bar 11 13 

Beckside and Flemuigate 2 14 6 

Withoat North-Bar • 2 13 6 

ToU-Oavel Ward 5 13 6 

Norwood, &c 6 13 

Wednesday Market • ••••.••• 6 9 6 

Keldgate and Newhigging Wards .••• 6 11 6 

Borrowed of Mr. Sanders •.. 50 

E. Robinson, for wood sold him. ... 10 

£ 171 12 11 

Total Disbnrsements 197 1 6 

Total Receipts., 17112 11 

Paid more than received 25 8 7 

^1 Warbnrton's M88.^Laii8d. C6U. B. Mns. 896. VIIL fo. 19Q, 195, 197. 

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raise that water one-eighteenth part of a yard^ and that ia no more than two inchesr; 
and if the water in the reservoir was raised two yards higher than the water in the 
beck below, it would raise the other only four inches ; and what can four inches of 
water do towards carrying away sludge? Where the water is above one yard 
deep, I think it will prove but a very slow motion as seems very plain, if it be 
considered that the whole body of water in the beck must move together^ for it 
will not roll over the water like an ager."** 

These preliminary disquisitions paved the way for improvement ; estimates were 
at length agreed to/^ and in 1727, an act was passed for cleansing, deepening, and 
widening the beck; for repairing the staiths and amending the roads; and that 
these purposes might be effectually accomplished, the mayor, aldermen, and 
burgesses were empowered to levy certain tolls for the remuneration of those who 
might advance money for the works; and when they were repaid, to serve as a 
perpetual fund for keeping them in a state proper for the purposes of general 
traffic. The duties allowed by this act, being found, by experience, insufficient, 
application was made to parliament in 1745, for an increased toll, which might 
enable the corporation to prevent the works from falling once more into a state of 
ruin; and an advance was allowed to be made in a certain proportion as prescribed 
in a schedule appended to the act A clause was inserted, empowering the justices 
of the peace to compel the owners or occupiers of houses or land contiguous to the 
streets to keep clean their frontage, and to remove all accumulations of filth and 
dirt» which might otherwise be conveyed into the beck, and thus tend to impede 
the navigation. 

4' Lansd. MSS. B. Mas. 896. VIII. fo. 193. 

^^ Mr. Lelham's estimate was as follows: — 

£. s. d» 
For dressing Beverley Beck on both sides, and deepening it 3 feet^ 

2 inches at the bottom; the length thereof is 1353 yards, or 246 V 369 12 

roods, at aboat £\. 8s. per rood of 16) feet 3 

For jettying the banks with piles and brushwood ^0 

For a lighter to take the rnbbish away in • 40 

For making a finn to the said lighter for deepening the beck, if the / 35 q 

water cannot be turned another way ) 

d,000yards of paving, at 12d. per yard 1^0 ^ ^ 

A bridge over the mill damm, with three arches 28 

Total, £. 672 12 
The annual charge for keeping it clean^ dire. £8* Os. Od« 

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In this century^ numerous sentences of excommunication were pronounced 
against individuals residing in Beverley, and penances were performed both in the 
minster and Saint Mary's church;^* which tend either to arraign the morality of 
the town, or to exhibit a fixed determination on the part of the parish officers, to 
prevent, by signal punishment, the commission of crimes which were calculated 
to outrage public feeling, and overturn that principle of order and decorum which 
forms the great barrier of civil and social virtue. How far the application of this 
remedy, provided by the discipline of the church, might be effectual to promote 
this salutary purpose, it may be somewhat difficult to pronounce ; certain it is, that 
the prevention of crime is infinitely preferable to its punishment; and the labours of 
the nineteenth century are uniformly and assiduously directed to the means of pre- 
vention, by instilling proper principles into the plastic mind of youth, that the 
ripening man may be prepared for the practice of virtue, by being instructed how 
to trace the line of demarcation between right and wrong with unerring precision; 
and justly to estimate the nature of that fixture punishment which will assuredly be 
awarded to the commission of crime, and of the eternal reward which must inevit- 
ably result from a course of piety and virtue, enforced by the devout practice of 
our most holy religion. 

^* I have selected the foUowing instances bf this punishment out of the numeroas lists con- 
tained in the vestry minutes and tegisters df Saint John and Saint Mary. In the united i>aii8hes 
of Saint John and Saint Martin, no less than 143 were either excommunicated or did penance 
between the years 1 709 and 1766. The number was also great in the other two parishes. Their 
offences may be estimated from the following extracts taken out of Saint Mary's records. 

17269 Sept. Joseph North and Maiy his wife; Thomas Newmarch and Maiy his wife, and 
John Blardon and Jane his wife, were presented for anti-nuptial forni- 

1726, Nov. 2. Thomas Day and Ann his now wife, of the parish of Saint Nicholas, were pre- 
sented for the same crime. 

1743, Dec. 4, Sarah Ayre performed public penance for fornication with Stephen Gray. 
Dec. 11. Stephen Gray performed public penance for fornication with Sarah Ayre. 

1744, Nov. 4. John Ayre performed public penance for adultery with Mary Sagg. 

1747, Ap. 26. Richard Burton performed public penance for fornication with Ann Wright. 
Decree signed April 23. 

At the archdeacon^s visitation was presented p. churchwardens of Saint Mary^s, 
Mary Holmes, for fornication, she having borne twin bastard children, 
the father unknown. 

1750. Susannah Hopkin did penance for incest with Thomas Hopkin, her son-in-law. 

1750. Joan Wilkinson and Jane Lyon, spinsters, were presented for fornication with 

John Plaister, on the 9th October, 1750, at Plaxton. 

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&^t9^ m. 

Accession of Crcorge ITL — Drainage — Act for aagmenimg the revenues of the 
curates of the minster — War with America — HteS dock act — Addresses and 
petitions — French revolution — Beverley volunteers — Scarcity of com — Attack 
on the king — Dqrredations — Act for apponUing an additional assistant curate 
— Act for lighting and watching the town — Superb illumination for peace — 
Illumination for queen Caroline — Coronation festival — Improvements in the 
minster — Gras works — BaUoon. 

The accession of George III. to the throne of England was at a point of time 
peculiarly felicitous. The arms of Great-Britain were successful in every quarter 
of the globe; and her navy swept the seas with triumphant dignity, asserting its 
unlimited sway on its native element, and exacting obedience and submission from 
all the nations upon earth. This supremacy soon produced a general peace^ which 
was celebrated at Beverley with every demonstration of joy; and a loyal address 
was voted to his majesty by the corporation, which was presented by lord 
Egremont, and received by the king in the most gracious manner.' 

' To the king^s most excellent majesty. The hamble address of the mayor, aldermen, and 
burgesses of Beverley, in the county of York. 

We, your Majesty^s ever loyal subjects, the mayor, aldermen, and burgesses of Beverley, in 
the county of York, beg leave to approach your royal presence with our most sincere congratu- 
lations on the happy return of peace, an event most desirable in its own nature, and peculiarly 
interesting to a commercial nation. 

Your majesty's wisdom, which the most flattering series of good fortune could not mislead, 
sensible that the tide of military gloiy is ever the most dangerous when it is the most rapid, 
stopped the desolating hand of war, and restored to your subjects, and in its consequenoes to all 
Europe, the blessings of peace ; — blessings which to us are the more dear, because we have seen 
the great ends of the war fully accomplished, the injuries which these kingdoms have received 
from foreign powers vindicated, their ability to annoy us hereafter circumscribed, our colonies 
protected, and a vast territory added to the British empire. 

These are real glories which no time can ejBace, no faction obscure : the fame resulting from 
military achievments, however splendid and magnificent, is nevertheless accompanied witii oala- 
mity and terror. But during this more happy period the liberal attainments of science, the copious 

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Tlie inhabitants of Beverley and the surrounding district, now that the country 
was relieved from the expenses and vicissitudes of an extensive continental war, 
began to direct their thoughts towards the peaceful pursuits of agriculture^ and the 
improvement of the soil. The low lands in the vicinity of Beverley appear to have 
been always subject to inundation, arid consequently of little comparative value, 
until by the modem system of drainage they have been brought into a regular and 
systematic course of cultivation. And this is not the only benefit which has been 
conveyed to the inhabitants by the exercise of this system ; it has fertilized the 
soil; it has given to the community much land which had hitherto been of little 
service; and, which is of still greater importance in a physical point of view, it 
has banished those epidemic diseases which were generated by the constant exha- 
lations proceeding from the stagnant waters and morasses by which the town of 
Beverley was surrounded. 

In times far remote, the country had been subject to violent and sudden floods, 
proceeding from a rush of waters from the Wolds, the consequences of a rainy 
season, which frequently broke the banks of the river Hull, and covered the low 
lands to a considerable depth, so that people were obliged to use boats for the 
purpose of attending Beverley market. To remedy these inconveniences, frequent 
commissions' were issued to examine and repair the banks and sewers. Notwith- 
standing every precaution the evil was of perpetual recurrence, and in 1763 — 4, 

advantages of commerce^ and all the amiable arts of peace will flourish nnder the protection of a 
prince of virtaes too exalted to derive his fame from any other source than the tnie happiness of 
his people. 

Given nnder our common seal the 17th June, 1763. 
• << In the 26 Edw. III. John Sutton of Holdernesse, Tho. de Seton, Will, de 8kipwvth, and 
John de Wilton were appointed to view the banks, &c. upon the coast of Humbre, betwixt the 
towns of Hesele and Ravensere ; and also upon the coast of Hull betwixt Beverley and Kingstone* 
upon-HuU.'' Pat. 26 £dw. III. Some time afterwards, <' Sir Sunon de Heselardton, knt Roger 
de Fulthorp, Thomas de Beverlee, and Walter de Rnddestone, were appointed to view and 
repair the banks, &c. in the towns of Lokyngton, Watton, Scorburgh, Kiiingwyk, and Besewyk ; 
which, by the descent of the fresh waters from the Woldes into the river of Hull, were broken.*^ 
Pat 47 Edw. III. ** So also in the following reign, a commission was issued to sir John de St 
Qnintin, knt John de Lokton, Will, de Holme, Robert Sturemy, Hugh de Ardeme, and Will, 
Hundegate, for those upon the river of Hull, and parts adjacent, from the towns of Killingwyk, 
Scoreburgh, Watton, Besewyk, Lokyugton, and Rotsee, to the towns of Ake, Eske, £rughome, 
and the manor of Berghe.^' Pat 10 Rich. II. And subsequently a commission was directed to 
<' Lawrence de Allerthorp, clerk. Will. Gascoigne, Rob*- Tiiwhit, Will. Newsome, Will. Hund- 
gate. Rich, de Beverley, and William Wandesforde, for the banks of the river of Hull, and 
parts adjacent, from Etton, Lockyngtone, Scorburghe, Ake, and Berghe, to Beswyk, Wattone, 
Hotone, Craunsewyke, andSkeme.'' Pat 1 Hen. I V. Dugdale on Imbank. and Drain, pp. 131, 
132, 133. 


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^fitora stonny \^iitevi the baj^&of the Hall wete broken, and tbetnnipike road from 
\¥hittero6$< to Bevei^l^ stood four &et deep in water for a considerable length of 
tima Aa acfi of parlianaent was pirocured to enable the proprietors of land to drain 
the hyeli and this was fiiUy acicomplished by means of the HoldeEness drainage, 
at an expense of between fifty and dsiy thousand pounds.' 
' Nor were the interests of religion neglected amidst the anxiety which was now 
cidsplayed for agricultural improvements. An act of parliament was procured, 6 
GlEK). III. intituled, '^ An act for vesting certain estates in the county of Lincoln 
in trustees, and to enable thetn to appropriate the rents and profits thereof; and 
also certaiB sums of money, subject to the trusts declared by the will of sir Michael 
WaJTton, knight, deceased, for the augmentation of the revenues of the curacies of the 
lai;Q coUegiate church of Saint John in Beverley, in the county of York, and for 
erecting an organ in the said church, and for other purposes therein mentioned/' 
Under the provisions of this act, several improvements were made in the internal 
eooioomy of the minster, which were alike calculated to promote the benefit of the 
cuvates and their parishionera; and an organ was erected upon the screen which 
separates the transept firom the choir, by Snetzler, at an expense of near £800. 

The disorders in North-America, which ultimately involved this country in war, 
having commenced, his majesty issued a proclamation in 1775, declaring those 
colonies to be in a state of open rebellion, which was published at Beverley with 
all the accustomed formalities ; and a full meeting of the corporation being subse- 
quently convened; a loyal address to his majesty was unanimously voted, in which 
they declared their ** abhorrence of the present unnatural rebellion in some of the 
colonies in North- America, as well as of those factious and evil minded men both 
at home and abroad, by whose means the same hath been, and still is principally 
promoted and abetted;" and professed themselves incompetent to express their 
^^detestation of all those societies or sets of men, who,, contrary to the allegiance 
they owe and have sworn to his majesty, are now, by their inflammatory letters 
and publications, in a most daring manner, sowing the seeds of sedition amongst 
their fellow subjects, and thei'eby endeavouring, as much as in them lies, to involve 
us at home as well as abroad, in all the calamities of a civil war."^ 

An act having passed, 14 Geo. III. enabling the Hull dock company to lay a 
duty on all vessels having ingress or egress to or firom the docks, they proceeded to 

^ Strickland. Agricult. p. i 94. 
^ Given under the common seal of the corporation, 27 Sep. 1775. 

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impMe certain rates upon vessek firom Beverley and other places on the river HuU^ 
which did not enter the haven, but only passed the North-Bridge. This was, in 
eflfect a revival of the ancient dispute ; for the burgesses of Beverley claimed the inde* 
fimsible rig^t of a free passage into the Humber^ without payment of any duty or 
impost whatsoever, as secured to them by charter, prescription, and legal award ;^ 
and a new dock act having subsequently beo(mie necessary, they petitioned the 
house of commons for relief/ 

The ratification of the definitive treaty of peace between Great-Britain, France, 
and America, was signed in 1783; an event which produced an address to the 
throne from the corporation of Beverley, who expressed the warmest sentiments of 
gratitude and congratulation fw the humane and just measures which his majesty 

' Vid. at sapra, p. 19a 

* To the honourable the commons of Great Britain in parliam^. assembled. 

The humble petition of the gentlemen, merchants, dealers and tradesmen of Beverley, in the 
£ast-riding of the county of York> and the neighbonrhood thereof^ whose names are 
hereunto snhscribedy Shbwbth — 

That yonr petitioners observe by the votes that a bill is depending in this honourable house 
for &c. (Here the title of the Hull Dock Bill was inserted.) That the river Hull is an ancient 
najvigable river, and by the said act proposed in the 14th year of his present majesty's reigUi there 
are payable and paid to the dock con4>any thereby constituted certain rates or duties for certain 
ships and vessels coming into or going out of the harbour, basin or dock, within the port of 
Kiagstone«upon-HuU, as in the said act is particularly mentioned and described. 

That some of the ships and vessels which may have occasion to use the said river Hull, up to 
or near to the said town of Beverley and other places above the town of Kingston-npon-Hull, 
may not have occasion to use the said basin, dock, quay or whar^ or any quay or wharf whatso- 
ever in the said harbour or haven called Hull haven, lying between the river Humber and the 
bridge at Kingston-upon-Hull, called Hull North Bridge. That as such ships and vessels have 
an incontestible right to pass through the said harbour or haven, your petitioners conceive it to 
be a hardship on them, and a grievous burden on the trade and commerce of the said town of 
Beverley, and other places lying above the said Hull North Bridge, that ships and vessels only 
passing through the said harbour or haven as aforesaid should be charged with and compelled to 
pay the same rates and duties as are imposed on ships and vessels actu^ly using the said basin or 
dock, quay or wharf. 

Your petitioners, therefore, humbly pray thai provision may be made in the said bill for 
<nftiy»pting from the payment of the said nUes and duties imposed under the said act of the 14th 
year of his present majesty's reign, all such ships and vessels as shall come or go coastwise 
from or to any port or place whatsoever in Great Britain to or from any place in or up the river 
Hull, or any other river, cut, stream or canal which now falls, or shall at any time hereafter fall 
into the same river, and which shall not come into or go out of the said basin or dock, or use the 
same or any quay which now adjoins, or shall at any time heroafler adjoin thereunto, or any.quay 
within the Humber, conmionly called Hull Haven, lying between the river Humber and the 
bridge at Kingston-upon-Hull, called Hull North Bridge, or that your petitioners may have such 
other relief in the premises as to this lionourable house shaU seem meet* 

And your petitioners shall ever pray. 


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bad pursued in terminating a long and expensiye war, and restoring to his snlyject^ 
the blessings of peace/ This was followed in 1764, by another, in which his ma* 
jesty is thanked for the dismissal of his ministers, ^ whose principles and ccmduct,**' 
says the address, ^ were ill suited to obtain the confidence, or answer the just 
expectations of the public, at this arduous juncture ;"' and a third in 1786, of 
congratulation on his escape from the desperate attempt made by Mai^fHret Nich** 
olson upon his life/ The subject of slave emancipation having now become popular,' 
a petition from the corporation and inhabitants of Beverley was< present^ to the 
house of commons in 1788, recommending the abolition of ^ a traflSc so disgracefril 
to a free country, and to promote among those who are already in a state of s^vitude 
such means of instruction as may contribute to their civilization and fiituire hap* 
piness ;'" '^ and in 1789, the joy for his majesty's recovery from the dangerous malady 
by which he had been attacked, produced an address of congratulation to the 
throne;" and another to the queen, on the same happy event '^ 

Shortly afterwards, the French revolution once more lighted the torch of war, 
and it soon blazed, with horrible coruscations, throughout the whole continent of 
Europe. The place of hostile contention was not confined to any one country, but 
the sword of the warrior was unsheathed in every kingdom, and even this island 
was threatened with invasion. In 1793, England heard the first menace of an 
attack upon her shores ; and three years afterwards preparations were made by the 
French, on a very extensive scale, for that purpose. They constructed rafts and 
flat^bottomed boats without number, and assembled a well-appointed army of 
veterans, on the sea coast opposite Britain, which was pompously denominated^ 
^The army of England." Though all these mighty preparations were calculated 
rather to alarm the weak than to intimidate the brave, yet the ministry thought it 
necessary to put the nation in a posture of defence. Circular letters had been 
directed to the lords-lieutenant of the several counties in England so early as the 
year 1794, apprizing them that his majesty would graciously accept the services of 
any temporary corps of cavalry or infantry, which should voluntarily associate to 
serve near their own homes, and protect their own property from the designs of 
an invading foe. This resolution was no sooner made publick, than one spirit 

^ Corp. Rec. 7 April, 23 Geo. III. 

• Corp. Rec. 16 Feb. 24 Geo. III. » Ibid. 26 Geo. III. 

>^ Records of Hull, 1788. i> Corp. Rec. 30 Mar. 29 Geo. III. 

13 Corp. Rec. 29 Geo. III« 

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appeared to animate the whole nation; and rieh and poor vied with each other in 
protestations of loyalty to their king, resolving to hazard their lives in defence of 
the oonstitntion. The whole population of England was soon in arms; and the 
ii^ahitants of Beverley were amongst the first to stand forward in def(»ice of the 
country. At the very earliest notice that the services of the inhabitants, in a military 
capacity, would be acceptable to the government, a numerous corps of volunteers 
was embodied; and on Christmas-day, 1704, they appeared for the first time 
dothed and accoutred, and made a very respectable and martial display. They 
mustered in the Market-place, and proceeded in order to Saint Mary's church, 
where an appropriate sermon was preached by the Rev. Robert Rigby, the vicar; 
and from this time they made a rapid progress in acquiring a competent knowledge' 
of military tactics. When the experiment of invasion was really contemplated, the 
Beverley volunteers had attained a high state of discipline ; and were fully prepared 
to act in concert with the regular army, as an efficient part of a disposable forces* 
to repel any attempt which might be made on the rights or liberties of the king or 
his people." 

War in itself is a dreadful calamity and a scourge; but its difficulties and pri- 
vations to the inhabitants of this country, were now increased by another divine 
visitation, which heightened the miseries of the labouring classes, and in some 
districts drove them to desperation and consequent outrage, fomented, as the pas- 
sions of the suffering people were, by the poison of sedition and discontent, actively 
disseminated throughout the country by corresponding societies, and the advocates 
of anarchy and revolution. A scarcity of com prevailed during the year 1795, to 
such an alarming extent as almost to threaten absolute famine; and the prices 
advanced so high as to place the most necessary article of provision beyond the 
reach of working people. To the honour inhumanity, however, be it said, that the 
more opulent used every possible exertion to neutralize the calamity, and to avert 
the evils with which poverty and indigence were at this time assailed ; and the town 
at Beverly afforded a conspicuous example of such benevolence. At the quarter 

» The first officers of this corps were Col. Cmger, Christopher Macheli, esq. capt — Lang^on, 
esq. captain, and Moses Green, seijeant. It was considered a circumstance highly honourable 
to the town of Beverley, that this corps wds superior in nnmbers to what was famished by 
the port of Hull ; and it is said that a very spirited letter had been addressed to the inhabitants 
of the latter plaoe^ inciting them to imitate the example of this patriotic town. Hall Advertiser. 

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sessions held in June, a regulation was made to prevent feredtallmg, or vOther pecu^^ 
lation in these eventful times ; and it was ordered thiat all grain idioiild be bought 
and sold by the Winchester measure only. And a subscription was entered into 
for the purpose of purchasing com; and selling it to the poor at such prices as 
should enable them to procure a supply necessary for the consumption of their re- 
spective families, and the amount was very considerable. The right honourable 
lord Yarborough gave fifty guineas ; John Wharton, esquire, fifty pounds ; Richard 
Watt, esqmre, of Bishop-Burton, ten guineas ; and other names were added by the 
more wealthy inhabitants of Beverley and 0ie neighbourhood for smaller sums, 
which enabled the committee effectually to relieve their indigent neighbours from 
the embarrassments which had been caused by a defective harvest, and a consequent 
scarcity of provisions. 

The dissentions of the country, however, had attained an alarming msis, and 
insurrections were every where apprehended. The most daring insults were 
ofiered to the king as he proceeded through St. James's Park to open the parlia- 
ment, both by inflammatory speeches, and actual hostility. Stones and other 
niissiles were thrown at the carriage, several of which struck it with considerable 
violence; and on his return the attacks ware raiewed with such persevering' 
rancour, that after his majesty had quitted the state coach, it was completely 
demolished by the infuriate populace. Sudi a wanton outrage, committed on the 
person of the sovereign, roused the well affected portion of the community to a 
sense of duty. On the 4th of November, copies of the king's ploclamation relative 
to these outrages were submitted to parliament, and ordered to lie on the table. 
Addresses to his majesty poured in from all quarters } and at a full meeting of the 
corporation of Beverley, in the Guild-hall, it was agreed, neni. dis. to forward an 
address to the throne on the daring insult which had been offered to his majesty's 
person on his way to and fix)m the parliament houseJ^ And the next day his 
royal highness Prince William of Gloucester honoured the corporation with his 
company to breakfast He was entertained in the council chamber, and after 
breakfast the freedom of the borough was voted to him by the corporation, and 
presented by Robert Osborne, esq. the recorder, which his royal highnes was 
pleased most graciously to receive.** 

Meanwhile disorder and insubordination progressively advanced, until personal 
property became insecure ; for the illiterate people, having the pernicious doctrines 

" Corp. Rec. $ Nov. 1795. '« Ibid. 6 Nov. 1795. 

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of unalienable right and natural equality continually sounding in their ears from 
demagogues charged with the subversion of peace and social order^ soon became 
impressed with the actual belief that the indefeasible rights of man authorized them 
to seize with a strong and lawless hand, those goods which appeared to be super- 
fluous to their more opul<ait iieighhours; and hence robberies became frequent, 
and delinqnency was increasi^d beyond all former precedent The year 1796, was 
p^egnafeit with these evib At. Beverley to an alarming extent. Many persons were 
plundered on the highway when leaving the markets. Shops out of number were 
feloniously broke open ; and though the magistrates were exceedingly active their 
autbcNrity appears to have been disregarded, if not openly and successfrdly defied. 
Mr« Wilson, of Beverley, was robbed on his return from Hull. Mr. Hunsley's 
shojp was robbed ; but an example was occasionally made ; and a felon of the name 
of T. Baper, was sentenced to a seven years transportation for havii^ committed a 
robbery at Beverley. These disorders passed away as the film of error and decep- 
tion was removed fix>m the eye; and the good sense of Englishmen returning 
after a temporary mania of delui^ion and violence, every thing resumed its former 
aspect of peace and tranquillity throughout the country. 

At the latter end of the year, a dispute arose in the parish of Saint Mary's 
respecting the means of raising men for the army and navy, pursuant to the pro- 
visions of an act of parliament At a vestry meeting an order was made, em- 
powering the churchwardens to ofier a bounty of forty guineas each to volunteers 
who were willing to enter into his majesty's service.*® This order appears to have 
created some imfavourable sensation in the minds of the parishioners, for another 
vestry was convened soon afterwards, at which the vestry clerk was ordered to 
draw up a case for the opinion of counsel, whether the assessment now laid ifor 
advancing bounties to volunteers in his majesty's navy be strictly legal; and it was 
further resolved that an appeal be made at the next general quarter sessions for 
the peace on account of such rate.*^ Soon however the dispute was settled, the 
latter order rescinded, and the original resolutions confirmed.'^ 

The income of the curate and assistant at the minster being much too limited 
for the sphere of life in which they were placed; an act of parliament was obtained 
" for appointing new trustees of certain estates in the county of Lincoln; and for 

»« Vestry Minutes, 28 Nov. 1796. 
«' Vestry Minutes, Dec. 1796. »• Ibid. 4 Jan. 1797. 

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authorizmg the applioatioii of part of the rents and profits thereof, and of othar 
estates towards the augmentation of the stipends of the cnrates of the late ooU^ate 
church of Saint John of Beverley, in the county of York; and for appointing 
another assistant curate of the said church/"* By the provisions of this act, the 
trustees were empowered to augment the salaries of each curate, by such propor- 
tionate payments out of the trust funds, as should make their income respectable, 
and constitute a proper remuneration for the arduous and incessant duties of their 

In 1808, a project was formed for l^hting, watching, and regelating the town, 
that the uniform march of civilization, which was conveying its benefits to other 
opulent places, might also be visible here ; and nothing is a more unequivocal 
i^ptom of the improvements of modem times than the universal impulse which 
has pervaded all classes of society, for the introduction of lamps into the streets to 
fiicilitate the pursuits of business or convenience when the sun has withdrawn his 
light, and to prevent the disorders which so frequently arise under the veil of 
darkness. For this purpose an act was obtained, to enable certain commissioners 
therein appointed, of whom the mayor, recorder, and aldermen form, ex qfficiOf a 
part, to levy a rate upon the inhabitants for the above purposes, which rate was 
restricted to a maximum of two shillings in the pound per annum.'' From this 
time the town exhibited a new and imposing i^pearance ; and many of the noc- 
turnal disorders which were not of unfrequent occurrence before this salutary 
regulation, were now entirely suppressed. 

The decisive victories which reflected such lasting glory on the British arms, and 
destroyed all the aspiring hopes of Buonaparte, by placing his capital at the disposal 
of the combined powers, and condemning him to perpetual exile, w»e followed by 

» Title of Act, 1806. 
*o By this act it was provided, ^ that from and after the appointment of the said additional 
assistant curate, divine service shall be performed in the said late collegiate charcb or minster of 
Beverley tfriee every day in the year; and the said two assistant curates shaU by turns read 
the morning and evening prayers according to the form prescribed in the boo^ of Common 
Prayer used by the church of England ; and they shall likewise perform all the occasional dnty 
of or belonging to the said chnrch or minster ; and the performance of the servicei^ aforesaid, \ij 
the said two assistant curates, shall be nnder the immediate inspection and regalation of the said 
curate or minister; and the said curate or minister shall preach in the said church or minster one 
sermon in the moniing, and another sermon in the afternoon of every Sunday in the year ; and 
also one sermon on such other days whereon sermons have been by the said curate or minister 
usually heretofore preached/' 

» Stat. 48 Oeo. III. 1808* 

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« general peac^> This happy event, as may be rappoaed^ after the long pctiod 4i£ 
priyation and suffering which the people of England had submitted to endnw, 
rather than witness the degradation of her flag, was receiyed with every testimony 
of congratulation and joy. The proclamation was accompanied, throughout the 
country, with the splendour of a public festival; and the superb illuminatioBt 
which graced each town and village in the land, served to shew the unanimity of 
sentiment which pervaded every bosom. The inhabitants of Beverley displayed 
their loyalty by an undisguised demonstration of their principles. On the SOdi 
May, 1814, a numerous party of gentlemen dined together at the Tiger inn to 
celebrate the birthiday of Mr. Pitt, by whose system of politics the war was brought 
to such a happy termination, where the feelings and sentiments of the assembly were 
exhibited by loyal toasts and constitutional orations ; and Tuesday, the 28th of 
June, was devoted to the solemn business of proclaiming peace. Ringing of 
bells and other symptoms of rejoicing commenced at an early hour; and before 
mid-day the following procession was arranged at the Guild-hall : — 

Twenty-four Constables with Banners. 

Baud of Masic. 

The Mayor, Aldermen, capital Bargesses, dkc 

The principal Inhabitants of the Town and Neighbonrhood. 

The Tradesmen and other Inhabitants. 

Brethren of the Constitntional Lodge of Free*Masons, No. 5Si. 

Benefit Societies. 

Society of Odd Fellows. 

This procession made its first stand at the cross in Wednesday Market, where 
the proclamation was formally made amidst the reiterated cheering of the people ; 
it then moyed forward to the Saturday Market-placci where it was received with a 
royal salute from eight gmis, and peace was again proclaimed at the cross. After 
proceeding through the North-Bar to the extremity of the town, the assembly 
retmmed to the Saturday Market-place, and sung the national anthem of 6oD 
SAVE THE King in full chorus ; separating until the hour of dinner with loud 
acclamations. The day concluded with a superb illumination, the most striking 
feature of which was the Market cross. The columns were adorned with spiral 
wreaths of brilliant lamps, interspersed with laurel, olive, and evergreens, the 
emblems of victory and permanent peace, and the urns were decorated with ele- 
gant festoons of small lamps tinted with every ..^riety of colour. The whole was 

2 K 

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rarmounted with a splendid crown of glory oompoded of variegatedskmps, idiidi; 
were arranged with snch taste and delicacy as to produce an effect eqnally striking^ 
and sublime. The cross^ thus arrayed in its habiliments of yari^ated. flame, 
exhibited the appearance of some rich palace of fairy land, whidi had been de*^ 
corated with pearls and diamonds by an invisible agency, for the reception of a 
beloved princess of more than mortal beauty and accomplishments.^ On the 4th 
of July, a meeting of the corporation was convened for the purpose of placing the 
feelings and sentiments of the town more permanently on record; and it was 
unanimously agreed to present a dutiful address to his royal highness the Prince 

*^.On this memorable occasion, the following^ well-execnted transparencies and devices excited 
public attention. The mayor displayed, in variegated lamps, a magnificent O. R. crowned ; and a 
transparency, in which, as the chief magistrate, he displayed the arms of the corporation, with 
the words perseverance, and true blue. The windows of general Vyse were ornamented' 
with wreaths of variegated lamps and stars, amidst which appeared the crowned G. R. in flame: 
and a similar device was conspicnoas in the windows of sir William Pennyn^an, general Garth, 
Mr. P. Hansley, Mr. Tigar, Mr. Muschamp, Mr. H. Johnson, Mr. Ferraby, Mr. Bland, and Mr.' 
Norris, the latter gentleman having added the word peace. The whole length of Mr. Walker^s 
front wall was illnminated with a zigzag line of lamps, and a triumphal arch, dedicated to peace 
and loyalty, blazed over his entrance gate. The house of Mrs. Sterne exhibited great taste and 
delicacy, llie whole surface of the front door was occupied by a fine transparency ; the windows 
were decorated with Grecian arches; and the G. R. and crown were introduced with great effect. 
Colonel Machell exhibited many appropriate transparencies and mottos, brilliantly intermixed with 
lamps and diamonds, both at his house and the bank. W. Beverley, esquire, had the words 
William Pitt, and a splendid star. Dr. Brown had a transparency with £. R. P. A. in lamps. 
Mr. Duesbery's house was elegantly festooned with lamps, and the word peace ; to which he 
added, with much judgment, a transparency of the duke of Wellington. Mr. Lockwood^s win* 
dows were ornamented with Grecian arches in variegated lamps; Mr. S. Hall had P. P. in lamps; 
Mr. Carrick, the word peace, with a transparency; Mr. Ramsey the same word, and Mr. P. 
Gordon, G. P. R. ; Mr. Brigham, peace, in a double row of lamps, the letters six feet long, 
surmounted by a brilliant star. The Tiger inn was festooned with lamps, and the transparency, 
displayed, << John Bull himself again ^' ; and the Cross Keys had <' John Bull in his element,^* and 
^* Long live Wellington,^^ in lamps ; the Blue Boar had a ludicrous transparency of Napoleon's 
journey to Elba; and the Hall Garth, peace. Mr Joseph Hall had his windows festooned with 
diamonds, and a transparency with the following device ; — On the right was a figure of Britannia, 
attending to the earnest prayer of an African slave, who was placed in the centre of the picture^ 
while the genii of France, on the left, appeared to cement his chains. Britannia thus speaks : — 

Let union every nation join, 
Of every clime from pole to pole ; 
No more the sable slave shall groan, 
Since he's, like us, a human soul. 

The post-office had a splendid appearance, ornamented, as it was, with two brilliant transpa* 
rencies. First, the dove and olive branch, with the motto, ''Peace to all nations." Second, 
Britannia seated on a rock, with her usual emblems, the lion and cornucopia, crowning the duke 
of Wellington with laurel ; in another part of the picture was a naked figure bearing a scroll, 
with the names of Badajos, Salamanca, Madrid, &c. and in the back ground were seen ships 
in full sail, as emblems of commerce, &c. &c. About half after twelve, a balloon ascended at 
the North-Bar. 

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^Legent on t&is auspickitiB ^eTeIlt" . At the same coart» it waiB also resolved to fbiy 
waid a petition to thelegpislatiire praying for the abolition of the slave trade.^^ 

Another display of the same nature^ but on a very different occasion, followed, a 
few years afiterwards. It is uiinecessary here to detail the state of feeling exhibited 
in this country at the time when the bill of pains and penalties against the late 
unhappy queen Caroline was pending in the house of lords. Suffice it to say, 
that the general excitation was never equalled except under circumstances of actual 
rebellion. The question was ^itated throughout the land with a violence whi<di 
led to ill-will and hatred, and often to acts of open hostility amongst all orders and 
descriptions of men. The press, that mighty engine, by which states and empires 
may be upheld or overthrown, was actively employed on both sides, and, inde- 
pendently of the periodical journals, pamphlets were multiplied with ostentatious 
profusion; hot blood produced hard words; the language was distorted to produce 
vituperative epithets and contumelious expressions ; while public morals were 
assailed, and domestic feeling outraged by imputations and disclosures at oiice 
revolting and indecent. The number of addresses which were presented to this 
unfortunate woman is incredible ; and the splendour and processional pomp 'by 
which they were accompanied, afforded to them a degree of popularity which their 
intrinsic merits failed to command; and when the bill of pains and penalties was 
finally abandoned, the nation was shook to its centre vnth acclamations and re- 
joicings, in which the town of Beverley bore its part, and displayed a satisfaction 
at the result, which it is doubtful whether the inhabitants really felt, by getting up 
an illumination, which, though inferior in point of splendour to its magnificent 

•* ITie following is a copy of this address : — 

' To his royal highness George, prince of Wales, regent of the United Kingdom of Great- 
Britain and Ireland. The datiful address of the mayor, aldermen, and bargesses of the town of 
Beverley, in the county of York, in common coancil assembled. . . » 

* May it please your Royal Highness. We, his majesty^s loyal subjects, the mayor, aldermen, and 
burgesses of the town of Beverley, in the county of York, in common council assembled, begf 
leave to present to your royal highness our heartfelt congratulations at the restoration of a glorious 
and honourable peace. 

We have viewed with wonder and gratitude, the wisdom, firmness, and vigorous exertions of 
your royal highness, your council, and your forces, both by sea and land ; and the pre-eminent 
services of your brave and faithful allies, in conducting and bringing to a happy termination the 
ino«t arduous contest for the deliverance of Europe from the greatest tyranny that ever visited the 
civilized world. May your royal highness long live, and may you be repaid by the affection and 
prosperity of a loyal and happy people, and by the esteem and admiration of surrounding nations. 

Given under our common seal at Beverley aforesaid, the 4th. day of July, in tbe 54th year of 
his majesfy's rdgn. 

>« Corp. Rec. 4 July, 1814. 


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pDedacessoiv is said to hayie been almost genelral. Some gentlemen^ howeyer, di^ 
daining to sancticm a measuM which was so decidedly at yariance with their own 
opinions^ refused to gratify the predominant cupidity of the mob^ so far as to 
exhibit publickly sach decisiye tokens of a feeling which they could not entertain j 
and it was anticipated that their firmness in this particular would be productiye 
of some disturbances* The judicious measures adopted by the magistrates to 
preyent the oceurrenee of any acts of lawless yiolence, were, howeyer, attended 
widi success, and <»ily two windows were broken during the ccmtinuance of the 
iUumination. But aflber the candles were wididrawn, and darkness had interposed 
bar yeil to fayour the designs of a few heartless d^peradoes; they sallied forth 
when the peace officers had retired to rest, and demolished the windows of almost 
eyery perscMi who had discountenanced the evening*s display. 

The coronation of Greorge IV. was appointed to be solemnized on the 19th of 
July, 1821, and the inhabitants of Beyerley were determined to haye a splendid 
ffiA in its hcmour on the same day. A publick meeting was summoned at the 
Ouild-hall on the 13th, to consider on the propriety of entering into a subscription 
finr the purpose of enabling the poor to unite in the rejoicings of that occasion, and 
it was unanimously determined that a fund should be immediately raised for the 
purpose; when 6. L. Fox, esquire, one of the representatiyes, contiibuted fifty 
guineas, the corporation, ten guineas, S. Hall, esquire, the mayor, and seyerd 
other gentlemen, fiye guineas each; and sundry smaller sums were adyanced, 
amounting altogether to more than two hundred pounds. The day was ushered 
in by the ringing of bells in both churches; and coronation cakes were distributed 
at the minster to upwards of 2,000 children. At twelye o'clock the authorities and 
gentlemen of the town and neighbourhood met in great numbers at the Guild*hall; 
and after some preliminary arrangements, a procession was formed of the corpo^ 
ration and other public bodies, attended by the inhabitants, who uniformly displayed 
the utmost readiness to do honour to the auspicious occasion ; and the gay party 
proceeded to Saint Mary's church in the following order : — 

Peiscms bearing appropriate Bannersk 

Band of Mosic. 

The Members of the Corporation. 

The Gentry, Clergy, and Inhabitanti. 

The Brethren of the Constitntional Lodge of Freemasons, No. i^^ 

Benefit Sooietiea. 

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Divine service commenced at one o^clock, and a sermon adapted to the solemnity 
was delivered by the Rev. R. Rigby, the vicar; after which^ the procession ad^* 
vanced from the west door of the church up the east side of North-Bar-Street as 
far as the New Walk, and returned down the west side of the same street to the 
cross in Wednesday Market, whence it proceeded to the Guild-hall. Here the 
assembly dispersed for the present, after performing in full and solemn chorus th^ 
national anthem of Odd savb the King. At three o'clock dinner was sarved 
up at the different inns and public houses to two thousand persons, the expense of 
which was defrayed from the subscription fund, each person being allowed one 
quart of ale; and an el^ant dinner was provided at die Beverley- Arms, at the 
expense of the corporation, to which the principal gentlemen of the town were 
invited ;** nor were the ladies unwilling to testify their loyalty on this occasion, but 
dieerfuUy did honour to the ceremonies by appearing with joyous countenances in 
their gayest attire at a brilliant assembly in the evening, which terminated the 
rejoicings with harmony and spirit 

The property of the minster having sustained a considerable increase, it had 
been resolved by the trustees of the fund, to engage some competent person as a 
permanent architect and overseer, that the improvements of the fabric which were 
in contemplation, might be carried on by gradual steps, and in one uniform style 
of workmanship and decoration, without the disgusting varieties which occur by 
successive repairs under the direction of diflferent and perhaps inefficient artists; 
and in the year 1813, Mr. Comins, a pupil of Shute of York, was engaged for this 
purpose. Under his management, the deformity exhibited in the Corinthian altar 
s<»'een was cleared away, and the church promised to display marks of its pristine 
beauty and chaste decoration. Considerable progress was also made in the restora- 
tion of the ancient screen which had been basely disfigured, and in many parts 
destroyed by the barbarous devastations of former ages.^ But it was reserved for 
Thomas Hull, esq. M. B. to give the finishing stroke to the absurd ornaments of 
modern interpolation ; and during the mayoralty of that gentleman in 1823, he 

^ The following were amongrgt the many loyal and congtitntional toasts which were drank at 
this dinner: — Oar graoions sovereign king Geo. IT. and may he long live to reign over a loyal 
and free people. Dake of York and the army. Lord Melville and the navy. The archbishop 
of Canterbnry and clergy of the realm. The lord chancellor, the judges and sages of the law. 
Lord Liverpool and the king's ministers, Ac. &c. dkc. 

^ The execution of this screen is a fine specimen of the art of sculpture in the present day^ 
and does infinite credit to the acquirements of Mr. Comins ; whose masterly performances in the 
vestonition of the exterior, are also coniqpioaons in various other parts of the building. 

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determined to effect a complete reformation by taking down and removing the 
<jrreciah pews and galleries in the nave, and fitting up the choir for divine sarvice 
with pews of uniform appearance ; that one style, in unison with the chaste'beauties 
of English architecture, might be preserved throughout the whole building. 
' In an English building of purity and excellence like Beverley miiister, the 
introduction of such Grecian anomalies as were perceptible in the altar screen and 
tile galleries, the pulpit and every other arrangement in the nave, as well as the 
selection and appropriation of this part of the fabric for divine service at a time 
when the population was less considerable than at present, reflect a want of Jndg.^ 
ment in our predecessors, which can only be attributed to the defective taste of the 
iige in which they lived. It remained for those, whose improved ideas and ma^ 
turied experience had convinced them of the impropriety of such absurditiesi to 
enquire into, and endeavour to ascertain the expediency and practicability of 
translating the service from the nave into the choir. If this could be accomplished, 
no further obstacle would interpose to prevent the removal of the galleries and 
other unsightly incumbrances; and the necessity of such a measure was apparent 
from the existence of many complaints, not only of the great coldness incident to 
such an open situation as the nave, but also from the difficulty which many of the 
cong^gation experienced of hearing and seeing the officiating minister during the 
performance of divine service, which alone would have been of sufficient importance 
to justify the change. The subject was taken into consideration in the above year; 
aiid followed up with great industr'y through the exertions of Dr. Hull, to whose 
i£u;tivity, zeal, and perseverance the public are indebted for the correct and valu- 
able improvements which have been recently made in this magnificent edifice. 
The information obtained by an accurate survey and admeasurement of the choir 
was communicated to the corporation at a council meetings and was received with 
tax unanimity of sentiment and feeling rarely met with in a cwporate body ; the 
only doubt at present entertained by a few individuals^ being confined to the prac- 
ticability of providing sufficient accommodation. 

The able designs, however, of Mr. Fowler, of Winterton, accompanied by clear 
and faithful specifications, supported and established, as they were^ by those of 
Messrs. Rickman and Hutchinson, removed all difficulties now existing; but 
other obstacles were at length suggested, which had a tendency to' impede and 
embarrass, though they did not eventually frustrate the design. As the minster 
was considered a, free church, a popular clamour was excited amongst the parish- 
ioners, and a petition on the subject was forwarded to the archbishop of York. A 

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i^TffOBie meeting was once more summoned^ and it was resolved that a depntatiott 
from their body, consisting of the mayor, as one of the trustees under the will of 
sir Michael Warton, and four aldermen, should wak on the archbishop and the 
dean and chapter of York, who are also trustees under the same will, and submit 
the plans and specifications for their inspection and approval. This meeting took 
place on the 27th of August, 1824, at the deanery in York ; and on the 9th of 
September following, the archbishop, the dean and chapter, and the corporation 
again met at the minster, when it was finally agreed that the proposed alterations 
should be made. On the 6th of December, an order was formally issued by the 
corporation for the work to proceed without delay ;*^ but it was not till the 30th of 
July, 1826, that the choir was opened for divine service, and it was found to be 
more than amply sufficient for the congregation, notwithstanding the constant 
attendance of many individuals from the adjoining parishes.'" 

In 1824, the commissioners under an act of parliament obtained in 1808, for 
the better watching, lighting, and improving the town, contracted with Mr. Malam 
to light the streets with coal gas for twenty-one years, at the rate of £400. per an- 
num, which was agreed to be paid out of the rate laid by the commissioners for that 
purpose ; and Mr. Malam, in consequence of this contract, built very extensive 
gas-works at a considerable expense, and the streets were first lighted with this 
material in the month of December in that year. It was subsequently doubted, 
however, whether the act of 1808 would legally authorize the commissioners to 
Ught the town with ffosj but to secure Mr. Malam, who had now incurred the 
principal expense, and to relieve themselves from any responsibility, they deter- 
mined to apply to parliament for permission to extend the powers of the act, and to 
confirm the agreement with Mr. Malam. An act was therefore passed for that 
purpose in 1825 ; and it was enacted, ^ that it shall and may be lawfiil for the said 

^ Corp. Rec. 6 Dec. 1824. 

'* The completion of this work, execated throughout in a style conformable with the general 
character of the edifice, and calculated, in every respect to fulfil the proposed intentions of those 
who projected its introduction, reflects the highest credit on the good taste, judgment, and 
liberality of the trustees; and the public must feel that much is due to Mr. Fowler for the 
accuracy of his designs, the chaste and uniform harmony in the arrangements, and the excellence 
displayed in the execution of the whole. The only remaining decoration which may be con- 
sidered objectionable is the organ screen; and surely a more inappropriate introduction in 
an English church was scarcely ever witnessed ; yet while we contemplate, with such satisfoction, 
what has already been accomplished, we do not despair of seeing this screen removed to make 
way for another more consistent with the style of the building, and more suitable to the 
solemnity of the place. 

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oofammoners by and out of the monies authorized to be raised by the said recited 
f^t OF ^is acty from time to time to cause the streets, lanes, and other public 
passages and places in the said town and liberties of Beverley, to be lighted with 
gas or oil or any other material, at such times of the year and in such manner as 
they may think proper; and to enter into any contract or contracts with any person 
or persons, company or corporation, for lighting the same, and for furnishing 
pipes, lamps, lamp irons, lamp posts, and all other things necessary for that pur- 
pose, in such manner, for such periods of time, and upon such terms and conditions 

as the said commissioners i^all think proper. And they are hereby authorized 

and empowered, &c« to erect or purchase gasometers, &c. and to purchase or rent 
or take on lease for years any messuages and buildings, &c. within the town of 
Beverley which they may think proper."" They were further empowered by this 
act to break up the soil and pavement of the streets for laying pipes, with consent 
of the corporation; to let out lights to individuals; to repair the footways, to water 
the streets, and many other useful purposes. In the succeeding year, these works 
were appropriated to the purpose of inflating a balloon for an aeronautic expedi- 
tion; and on the 25th May, 1826, Mr. Brown made a splendid ascent from Mr. 
Thompson's yard.'^ 

Thus having brought down the annals of Beverley to the period when this 
history was conmienced; it only remains for the author to add, that the materials 
have been collated and embodied with care and fidelity ; and if he shall have been 
fortunate enough to have attained the merit of accuracy without being unusually 
tedious, he shall esteem his toil more than repaid. 

29 Act 6 Geo. IV. p. 4. 
^ The balloon took a south westerly direction, and Mr. Brown descended with some degree 
of violence on the moors between Crowie and Thome, and received some injury in the spine. 
Beings conv^ed to the latter town he was bled, which gave him immediate relief, and he was able 
to proceed in a post chaise to SheflSeld to falfil another engagement of a similar nature. 

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eopoitav^nf fttatf0tfic0f ^t^ 



Sestraspect — General description — Beck^ide — Site of Saint Nicholases church — 
Gros-Works — The Minster — HaU^arth — Blach-Friars — Grey-Friars — KeJd- 
gate — RoiUKs Hospital — Grammar School — Lair-gate — Theatre — Hospital of 
Saint Giles — Independent Meeting-house — Church Methodist chapel — Catfos — 
Newbiggging — East-riding Bank — Maison^-Di^i — Quakers* Meeting-honse — 
Henrgate — Saint Mary's church — Norwood — Pich-hiU — Fairs — Court of Pie- 
powder— Assembly-roams — News-room — Constitutional Lodge of Free^^nasons — 

Beverley Bank North-Bar CockslulepHr-lane SessUms-haU— ^Saturday' 

fnarket — Market Cross — Shambles-^Com Exchange-^Lady-gate — Post-offioe— 
Guild-haU — Trinities — Wednesday-market — Ranters* Meeting-house-^Minster- 
moor-gate — Work-houses — Fox's hospital — Charles Warton's hospital — Sir M. 
Wartan's hospital — Graves's Free School — Wesleyan Methodist chapel — 
Baptist Meeting-house — Tymperon's hospital — Comfnon Pastures — Concluding 

In the preceding chapters we have traced the town of Beverley from its pri- 
mitive foundation through all the grades of its eventful history; we have seen how 
it gradually emerged from darkness into light, and have marked its progressive 
^teps from ignorance to intelligence, and from slavery and oppression to the enjoy- 
ment of liberty, civilization, and opulence. We have beheld, as in a dark and 
uncertain vision, its first state, which was a grove of ancient oaks, the polluted 
Beat of bloody rites, and revolting superstitions, situated amidst morasses which 

2 L 

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were often overwhelmed by temporary inundations. Then followed some tokens of 
social intercourse by the erection of a few huts at a short and convenient distance 
from the Beaver-Lake, to form a British town j and in the second century of our 
era the wood was partially cleared to afford space for a more extended residence, 
and a Christian church elevated its modest head, (a striking emblem of humility) 
amidst the surrounding foliage. The Saxon spoilers desecrated this unostentatious 
fane J but their sons restored it with increasing beauty, under the pious sanction 
of a patron saint. It now assumed the form of. a dignified ecclesiastical establish- 
ment endowed with privileges and emoluments by royal clemency; and the groves 
which formerly rang vnth the impious yellings of idolatry, now resounded with the 
exalted melody of a pure and benignant worship. The town increased. The dead 
solitude of the primitive grove was changed into a glowing scene of activity and 
life ; and an augmented population gave cheerfulness and animation to .the prospect. 
Succeeding monarchs endowed the rising colony with municipal honours and im- 
munities, civil and ecclesiastical ; and in process of time the Beaver-Lake was 
converted into a thickly inhabited borough, enriched by commerce, enlightened by 
religion, and decorated with edifices of more than common magnifie^ice and 
sublimity. Kings,^ peers, and prelates have equally contributed to its prosperity 
and renown, by their presence, their countenance, and active patronage ; and one 
unfortunate monarch found a refuge within its precincts, \^hich was denied by 
other towns of greater security and strength, when a . band of daring regicides 
thirsted for his blood. Every stage of its fortunes has been delineated with fidelity 
and care, and the detail is authenticated by the laboured accuracy of minute re- 
search. Its fluctuations have not been carelessly passed over; and the merits or 
defects of its most distinguished inhabitants have been touched with a bold and 
impartial hand. The ancient glories of its ecclesiastical supremacy have been 
swept away> but the remains of its noble and independent institutions are far from 
being inconsiderable or devoid of interest. The local record of its present state 
affords many objects to excite the admiration of the topographer and the antiquary; 
and the judicious policy which guards and regulates its many benevolent establish- 
ments, gives it a proud pre-eminence in the annals of provincial fame. 

The town of Beverley, which, in the reign of queen Anne, gave the title of 
marquis to Charles Douglas, duke of Queensbury and Dover, and now gives that 
of earl to Algernon Percy Lord Louvaine, is situated in the midst of an extensive 
and well-wooded plain in the East-riding of Yorkshire, about nine miles N. N. W. 

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of Hull ; thirty miles E. by S. of York j and 183 miles N- of Londo^. Itg( len^h 
is considerable^ being about a mile and a half from the beck to the. toll-bar^ w][(iclk 
forms the terminating point on the north ; but then Fleming-gate, whicli occupies 
nearly half a mile of that distance, is only a single meagre street without a col- 
lateral branch ; and the street called Beck-side partakes of the same singularity, if 
we except the offset which leads to the coal-yards. The streets are, many of them, 
narrow, the characteristic of an ancient town, except the North-Bar-street, which 
is spacious and noble; and Norwood, where the fairs are held. Lair-gate and 
Walker-gate are not indeed particularly confined, but they are irregularly furnished 
with buildings, and some portion of both is vacant. Several respectable houses, 
however, are found in these streets which relieve the attention and famish symp- 
toms of an opulent population. Some of the bye-streets are extremdy narrow; 
Silvester-lane, Dog-and-Duck lane, Minster-Moor-gate, and even that respectable 
residence Newbigging are much confined. Yet Dr. Hull's house stands extremely 
well at the end of Newbigging, as does that of Mr. Bower at the extremity of Hea- 
gate ; the houses in both market places have open and airy situations, which are 
conducive to health; and the North-Bar house is far from being unpleasantly dis- 
posed. Several of the insulated mansions enjoy all the advantages of a country 
situation, united veith the benefit of the social institutions which characterize a 
populous and respectable town. Of these sir William Pennyman's, Mr. Ellison's, 
Mr. Walker's, and the vicarage are specimens. Mr. Beverley's house and premises 
are an ornament to Norwood, as is the house of Mr. Robert Machell to the North- 
Bar-Street without. Mr. Duesbery's residence is rather shaded by Saint Mary's 
church, but the noble appearance of that massive and superb edifice amply coni- 
pensates for any inconvenience which may be experienced by its immediate 
vicinity. The same may be said of the rectory, which is the residence of the Rev. 
Mr. Coltman. The prospect of the minster from the front windows of this house 
is rich, solemn, and inspiring. No part of the town is too thickly crowded with a 
dense mass of population ; and this circumstance, added to the remarkable cleanli- 
ness of the streets, may be a reason why the town is so exempt from the influence 
of epidemic disease ; and from the state of order and regularity by which it is dis- 
tinguished, it will be believed that destructive fires, which, in former times, when 
houses were constructed of slight patches of brickwork merely filling up the inter- 
stices of wooden frames, or still more simply of mud and thateh, were so terrible 
to the inhabitants, are of rare occurrence. Every precaution is used to prevent 

- '^- - ■ -2 L2 • -i' 

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this calamity/ and ample provision is made for its suppression m case of any 
unforeseen accident, in the establishment of a night watch to communicate the 
alarm; and four fire engines, with every requisite apparatus, to lend their aid 
towards extinguishing the flames. The houses are principally built of brick, and 
here and there may be seen a mutilated stone animal or broken statue, which 
serve as frail memorials to remind us of the decoratfons of ancient times.* Vestiges 
of antiquity are indeed of frequent occurrence in Beverley, independently of the 
superb specimens exhibited in the two churches. The spacious moats which sur* 
round Paradise and the Trinities j thfe wall and gateways of the Grey Friars ; the* 

1 In an act for lighting, watching, &c. passed 6 Geo. IV. it is enacted, that if any person 
wilfully or negligently suffer any chimney in the town of Beverley to be set on fire, he shall be 
subject to a fine, not exceeding five pounds. 

' It is remarkable how the lapse of time, and the changes, personal, physical, and local, which 
a few ages do not fail to effect in the topography of any ancient town, should have swept away 
every recollection, not only of the particular situations of principal places in ancient Beverley, 
but even of many of its primitive and most distinguishing appellations. Some of its streets and 
highways have changed their names, and others are entirely defaced ; the grass grows where 
markets were held, the scene of traffic and speculation is now a solitary pasture for cattle, and 
the <<busy hum of men,^^ with all the passions which are excited by human wishes or human 
turpitude, is now changed for the bleating of sheep and the lowing of oxen. Thus, in the reign 
of £dw. III. a market is described as being situated in a ** comun' via,'^ which ran from the end 
of Minster-moor-gate << usque EccPia S'ci Egidij.'^ Ex. Reg. Prs^p. Bev. 1. 2. p. 56. b. The 
precise situation of this lane is now unknown, but it is evidently in cultivation, and probably 
extended across the premises of Mr. Walker. The recollection of many other ancient places is 
entirely swept away by the stream of time. The names frequently occur of Bowbrigg-lane, Smithill, 
Wood-lane, East-gate, Saint John^s-acre, Brackenthwaite, Fryth-dyke, Ryngand-lane, Brathwell, 
Brydalmyding-lane, Schomarket^lane, Stikhiil, Rossel, Aldegate, (vid. Lansd. MSS. 896. VIII^ 
Inquis. Ch. I.; Compotus <rf Saint John's church, dated 1446. Reg. Pr»p^ Bev. I. 1. p. 24, 26, — 
1. 2. p. 57 a, 92; Compotus of the Corp. dated 1437, &cO to few of which can. a local situation be 
absolutely assigned. With the following ancient names I may, perchance, be somewhat more 
successful ; but even here, much must evidently be left to conjecture. Aideford was the name of 
a ward, for which eonstables were appointed so early as 55 Hen. III. '^ Constabular^ Northwood 
et Aideford, Simon de Kelke, et Petrus de Marchgraff." Ex. Reg. Prjpp. 1. 1. p. 34. A stream 
of water formerly ran from Westwood by the side of Fickhill-lane, and crossing the junction of 
Hen-gate and Norwood, penetrated through the town. At this junction was a ford termed Aideford^ 
and at the end of Walker-gate a bridge was thrown over it, which was called Cross-bridge, and 
here John de Ake built his chapel. In the compotus of Simon Sprotley, collector of rents &c. for 
the church of Saint John, 24 Hen. VI. we find Thos. Tyr^^tt charged for a croft in Hellegarths. 
Now Hellegarth-lane evidently proceeded from, or was attached to, the cemetry of some religious 
establishment, for Helle signifies sepulchrum, and is derived from helany to cover or conceal, and 
therefore properly expresses the grave, that common covering pr concealment of mankind. Vid. 
Farmer^s Worship of Human Spirits, p. 366. In a more extended sense it signifies the invisible 
world of departed spirits, whether good or bad, whence the H^la- of the Goths, and the £l-ysiiioi 
of classical antiqui^r. Fab. Pag. Idol. vol. i. p. 377. Accordingly, Hellegarth-lane is supposed 
to have proceeded from the Friars, in a line parallel with Fleming-gate, and ending at a place 
formerly called Cockpit-hill, which now forms the commencement of the street called Beck-side. 
The PrebetuTs Garth, Ex, Reg. Pr»p. 1. 3. p. 2i b. which was situated '* infra scif nup' donn' 

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North-Bar, (alas ! how matilated by modem imprwemmts) and the remains of the 
town ditch, are no inconsiderable specimens of the labours of our forefathers. 

The present extent of the town and lordship may be denoted by the following 
statement The parish of Saint Nicholas contains 635 acres 3 roods ; that of Sai^t 
Mary, 95 acres 3 roods ; and the parish of Saint Martin, 259 acres 1 rood. In 
addition to this admeasurement, the common pastures are very extensive. West- 
wood contains 504 acres j Hum, 110 acres; Figham, 297 acres; and Swinemoor, 
263 acres; making a geneal total of 2164 acres 3 roods; exclusive of the parish of 
Saint John of Beverley, which comprehends a district of several miles in compass, 
and includes the surrounding hamlets of Molescroft, Storkhill-cum-Sandholm, 

Sacrist^ EccP Colleg^at,*' was probably on the north side of the east end of the minster, part of 
which still belongs to the crown ; some think that the prebendal houses and the Hall-garth were 
situated all together. Whinsgate was a road leading from Keld-gate-bar to Cottingham, through 
Beverley-Parks. Stapillaplegarth is mentioned in the provost's books, 1. 2« p. 56 b, and was in 
Hen-gate ; Poitergate occurs in the same document, p. 57 a, and was in Ridings, on the road to 
Grovall. Galley-lane, or Gallows-lane, the site of the old gallows, was a lane leading to the 
west, from Molescroft toll-bar. In the compotus of Simon Sprottey, above cited, mention is made 
of a tenement "jnxta torrentem in vico de Mylnebeck.^'^ This was at Grovall, where the provost 
had an excellent water mill. Saint Gilnige, Ex. Reg. Priep. 1. ii. p. 57 a, and Seyntgelicroft, Compot. 
1437, are two names for the paddock called Saint Giles' Croft, now in the occupation of Dr. Hull ; 
and Spawcroftf Ex. Reg. Presp. 1. 2. p. 57 a, is the adjoining close. Netbrig, Compot. ut supra, 
was in Figham ; and certain parcels of ground denominated Brathwell, Calfiands, and Peaselands, 
Ex. Reg. PrsBp. 1. 2. p. 57 b, were in Beverley-Parks. Several capital messuages are named, the 
respective sites of which it would be difficult to point out with unerring certainty. ** Ellerker*8 
jETou^e situar in vel p'p'e le Wednesday M'kett,'' Ibid. I. 2. p. 91 ; another '^vocaf Chameller's 
House''' in Minster-moor-gate, Ibid. p. 92; a third ^^vocaf Owinsmarshally'' Ibid. p. 56a; and 
a fourth, called Stanley Place, Ibid. p. 5Q b. The latter was occupied by the Stanleys in the 
reign of Edw. I. and was probably erected by that family so early as the reign of John. Ibid. 1. 1. 
p. 28. (Vid. the article Pickhill, in thte present chapter.) At the end of Keld-gate was an old 
fortified bar, and beyond that stood a hospital for lepers. In the compotus, dated 1437, we find 
the following entry, ** Domus leprosori extra Keldgate Bar.^^ I find no other mention of it in 
any document which I have examined. A hospital or Guild-hall was situated without the North- 
Bar, dedicated to the blessed Virgin, having a guild under the direction of an alderman. In the 
same compotus it is thus mentioned. ** R' de xiij^- p^ de Alder'no et Sen^ Gilde b'e Mar' Virg' 
BevUaci, p'ten' ex orient p'te harr. hor' et dom' elemosynar' de nono. edificaf annoz ad e.^' It was 
in existcQce in Leland's time, for he says, Itin. vol. i. p. 49. << There is an hospital yet standing 
withont the North-Bargate, of the foundation of two merchantmen, Akeborow and Hogekin. 
As I remember there is an image of our Lady over this hospital gate.'' Such ar^ the changes 
which distinguish all ancient towns, although it is probable that Beverley has experienced less of 
these vicissitudes than many others of more modern construction. And thus it is also with the 
inhabitants. One generation rises up; and falls, only to be succeeded by another. Ancieiit 
fan^iUes, which formerly graced the town, are vanished and extinct; and others are introduced to 
supply their places, which in their turn must give way to successors, leaving nothing behind bat 
their virtues to recommend them to the notice and applause of posted^. 

Quicquid sub terri est in aprioum proferet otas, . 
Pefodiet condetque nitentia. Hor. Ep. vi. 1. i 

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Ticlctoii«'Cam>-Hall*Bri€lge, WoodmoDsey-cam-Beverley'-Parksy Theame, and 

The adjacent country affords all the facilities both for pleasure and emolument 
that can be desired by the gentleinan or the man of business. Recent improve- 
ments have furnished a series of excellent roads, those evident tokens of civilization 
tod refinement/ The land. is in a high state of cultivation, and generally speaking, 
most productive; the country affords game and fish in great abimdance, and the 
genial salubrity of the air conveys to the situation all the blessings of health and 
longevity. The scenery around has a charm for the stranger's eye; and in every 
situation, a fertile and well-wooded district affords to the passing spectator those 
ever-varying changes of sylvan scenery which impart unmixed gratification and 
delight to a contemplative mind. The town itself, at a distance, appears as if em- 
bosomed in a wood, and if the visitor place himself about the centre of the most 
elevated part of Westwood, his soul will be attuned to harmony by the magnificence 
of the prospect which is displayed in rich luxuriance before him. 

The principal streets are well paved, and present an appearance of neatness and 
cleanliness which cannot fail to attract the stranger's attention on his first entry 
into the town. Of late years the population has sustained a progressive increase. 
In 1801, the town and liberties of Beverley contained 6001 souls; in 1811, they 

' In the year 1741, measures were taken to improve the road from Beverley to Hall ; and it 
was agreed between the corporations of both towns, that an act of parliament should be applied 
for by the representatives of each borough, to convert this road into a tnrnpike. The act was 
procured ; and the powers thereof extended by another statute in 1 764 ; yet still within the memory 
of many persons now living, the roads from Beverley to Hull were so bad in the winter season, 
that it was impossible for wheel-carriages to traverse them, and all goods were conveyed from one 
town to the other by means of pack-horses. A rope was stretched across the road for a toll-bar, 
at which a penny was demanded for passage. The road was narrow, and the adjoining pastures 
on each side, being frequently inundated, it exhibited the doubtful appearance of an elevated 
bank in the sea ; and in many places, where the path was less prominent, it became overflowed 
with water, sometimes for a considerable length ; and white rods were placed at convenient dis- 
tances, as fragile beacons to direct the passenger^s devious footsteps while he travelled over the 
dangerous and uncertain ground, through the expanse of waters, lest he should mistake the 
pathway, and be lost amidst the surrounding floods. In the 17th century, the road to Hull was 
more commodious by way of Cottingham. Mem. of Gen. Fairfax. Edit. Knaresbro'. 1810. p. 101 . 

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had increased to 6731; and in 1821, the return was 7464 souls/ Formerly the 
town contained one collegiate church, dedicated to Saint John, and two parish 
churches dedicated to Saint Martin and Saint Nicholas, with numerous chantries 
and chapels both public and private ; all of which are gone to decay except the 
minister, which is used for the purposes of divine worship by the parishes of Saint 
John and Saint Martin; and Saint Mary's chapel, which has been converted into 
a parish church, endowed with a portion of the profits originally bestowed on Saint 
Martin, and used by the parishioners of Saint Mary and Saint Nicholas. The 
structures are highly ornamental, they add a grace and dignity to the town, and 
forcibly remind the visitor of the splendid observances of those times when the 
ecclesiastical establishments of this country were in the plenitude of their power. 

These concise observations will prepare the stranger for a regular perambulation 
of the town ; and we will now conduct him through every street, introduce him to 
every institution, describe every public edifice, and particularize every locality with 
a degree of minuteness which will not fail to make him intimately acquainted with 
the manners and customs, the privileges and immunities, the peculiar observances, 
and even the names and popular superstitions of the inhabitants. 

On entering the town from Hull we first encounter the coal-yards, warehouses, 
and wharfs, by the Beck-side/ Passing these, we take a view of the site of Saint 

^ The return of 1821 was as follows: — 

Fteisb or PlMt. 



By how 







In Tnde, 















Saint Maiy 

Saint Martin 

Saint Nicholas • • , 

cum- Woodman* | 

sey • • • • • 

Ticton-cnm-Hnll. ] 




Sandholm .... ^ 
Molescroft ..,.. 












































1580 1 1710 I 2 I 83 






<> The beck is 
Edward I. reign; 

probably referred to in the pleas of qno warranto, taken in the 
and the archbishop claims wreck there as well as in tite rirer Hall. 



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Nicholases church, which lies due north of the road, at the distance of about forty 
yards, and is now used as an osiery* Not a vestige remains of this once celebrated 
pile, erected by the munificence, and displaying the architectural taste of our 
patron Saint John of Beverley, who probably anticipated that the massive structure 
would set at defiance the rude assaults of time. An awful lesson to mankinds 
The proudest structures must bend; the most solid edifices must crumble to decay* 
What then is man in the hand of Him who guides and directs the vast machine of 
nature? To-day he is all nerve and vigour; his sun shines bright, his friends are 
numerous and kind, his sinews are braced by health, and he looks forward to a 
long succession of happy years amidst the smiles and caresses of those whom his 
heart holds most dear. A single day perhaps is sufficient to dissipate the enchant- 
ing prospect, and destroy all his exhilarating hopes and cheering expectations. 
An unforeseen accident, or an incurable disease lays him on the bed of sufiering, 
and, like the massive structure of Saint Nicholas, his material body sinks to its 
primitive elements, while the immortal spirit takes its reluctant flight into the 
unexplored regions of eternal space.* 

eciam ab antiqno wreccam in hac forma videPt apud Beverlacu ttbi p^vu brachiu maris, &c. which 
may probably bear a reference to the cat mentioned by Leland, vol. iii. p. 34. Utantnr Bevero- 
lacensis brachio, ex Holla flamine derivato, quo merces commode importent et exportent ; because 
the archbishop claims in another pari of the same record, h>e Coronatores p^pios in eadem aqaa 
(Hall) & p'eos pl'tare omMa pl'ta qae ad Coronam pHinet pPtanda de rebas & fortanis infr p^dcam 
aq»m accidentibz & em^gentibz Vm, How far the phrase brachium maris may refer to an artificial 
canal is indeed doubtful : but oar, ancestors were sometimes rather loose in their appropriation of 
words. Thus Baro was used sometimes for a noble baron, and at others for a private person ; 
the words charta^ scriptara, libellas, litera, epistola, syngprapha, chirographam^ Ac. were eqaally 
used for a charter ; the river Humber was termed^ the sea ; Lei. Itin. p. 54, and Beverley, in a 
few instances, is called a city. Bale de Script. Brit p. 107. Be this as it may, the Beck 
IS mentioned about the year 1360, "in Rot. A<; E. III. xxxiiij*? seisit fu'it in man' d'm iij 
acr' prati apud le Beke, &c." Ex. Reg. Pr»p. Bev. L 1. p. 28. And again in the same docn- 
ment ten years afterwards; Item in Rot. A° Rx. E. 3. xliiij seis^. 1 messuag' jaxta Zc JBcte in 
Bev'lay recu'pat' p' dnu Ric'm Ravenser p'positur' verss' Willi' fiP Robt\ de Rolleston p' br'e A 
cessav'it, &c. Ibid. p. 29. and also in a patent granted by king Edward IV. to George Nevile, 
archbishop of York. Rex. concessit Georgio Arch. Ebor. unum messuag' and unum gardinum 
in Beverl' in vico vocat' Bekeside nuper Thomas Everingham Mil' per servic' debit'. Rot. Pat 
1 Edw. IV. This was the site of an ancient water mill, called Ragbrook mill; occupied 
38 Ed. III. by John Brompton, and yielding an unnual rent of 12d. to the provost Ex. Reg. 
Praepos. Bev. 1. 2. p. 55. b. 

* This church was also termed Holm churchy Lei. Coll. vol. iii. p. 103 ; but surely not from 
one Ralph Holm, a merchant, as we are gravely told by Mr. Bursall. Lansd. MSS. B. Mus. 896. 
VIII. fo. 273. Holm was a Saxon word for a verdant place surrounded by water; and was 
doubtless the name of this eminence, (for such it was in the early ages to which we refer,) before 
the church was erected. It would be curious to ascertain its design or use in British times, as it 
certainly partook of a reference to the superstitions of that people, connected with this, in 
common with many other eminences in the neighbourhood of Beverley. 

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Near this spot stand those extensive and useful buildings 


one of the striking instances of modem improvement in scientific knowledge which 
would paralyze our forefathers with astonishment, perhaps with terror, could they 
rise from their graves and contemplate the successful ingenuity of their children. 
These works were erected by Mr. Malam in 1824, under an agreement with the 
commissioners of an act passed in the year 1808, for watching, lighting, and im- 
proving the town of Beverley, which was confirmed by the commissioners of an 
act passed for a similar purpose in the following year.^ The expense of the whole 
establishment amounted to 7 or j58,000. The town, the shops, and many private 
houses are illuminated nightly during the winter season with this inflammable 
material, which is discharged from a gasometer containing 18,000 cubit feet 
Having passed through Fleming-gate,' which is nearly half a mile in length, 


bursts upon us in all the efiiilgence of decorative masonry. Here we spontaneously 
pause to take a deliberate view of the lovely scene ; and if it possess the additional 
charm of novelty, the mind of the observer is inspired with sentiments and feelings, 
which, however they may affect, cannot be explained. They are so mixed up with 
ideas of the beautiful and sublime, both with respect to the building itself, as an 
effort of human skill and science, and the glorious purpose to which such a superb 
display of taste and elegance has been devot^, that the entranced spectator will 
gaze and wonder and admire, long before the vision will become sufficiently 
familiar to allow him leisure to reduce his thoughts to language. 

Tectum augustum, ingens, centum sublime columnis, 

Urbe fuit summL' 
The patronage of the minster church is vested in the mayor, aldermen, and 
capital burgesses. The clergy at present officiating within its walls are, the Rev. 
Joseph Coltman, A. M. who was appointed assistant curate on the 18th August, 

^ ViiL supra, p. 263. 
' This street is mentioned in a charter of conveyance to Rivanlz abbey in the reign of king 
John, Bart Mon. £bor. p. 359 ; and was so named from the Flemish merchants or Esterlings 
who fixed their residence here in these early times ; and rendered the town fiEunoiis for the excel* 
lence of its coloured cloths. 

» JEsk. I. VII. V. 170. 

2 H 

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1806; and principal curate of the perpetual curacy, December 6, 1813; the Rev. 
James Eyre, L. L. B. who was nominated assistant curate on the 7th March, 1814, 
and the Rev. William Hildyard, A. M. who received his appointment as assistant 
curate 7th July, 1817.'^ 

The value in the king's books is £31. 6s. 8d." The duties are numerous and 
comprehensive. Divine service is performed twice on every day in the week, and on 
Sunday two sermons are added, and a sermon on certain saints* days. In the 
north tower of the west end are eight bells to summon the congregation to divine 
service, and one in the south tower for funerals. 

^^ The following is the most accurate list of curates and assistants I have heen able to procure. 





William Richardson 

Thomas Whincop 

Mr. Crashaw ............ 




Thomas Peji^swiok 

Joseph Wilson 

Humphrey Sainthill 



Mr. Bindes .«• 

Thomas Bzabes 

Francis Sherwood 

John Forge » 

Edward Saunders 

Robert Lambert. .•••...•• 


Richard Rhodes 


James Burney • • . 

Mr. Oxonbride .......... 


Humphrey Sanishill 

Mr. Garthwaite 

Joseph Lambert 

Stephen Clarke 

William Morrell 

Thomas Stainton 

John Harrison ••••• 


Francis Sherwood 

William Cookson 

James Graves .... ••....• 


William Davies 


EUas Forge 


Thomas Clarke 

George Ferreman 

William Norton 


Robert Steele 


Mr. Mease 

George Berkeley, Deputy 
Joshua Brookes, Deputy • . 
James Bollon, Deputy .... 
Thos. Rogers Owen, Deputy 
Bethell Robinson, Deputy 

John Jackson 

Joseoh Coltman ...•••••.. 


Thomas Lewthwaite 

James Graves. 


John J aokson «*••.«•#«••• 


Josenh Coltmau ..••.....• 




R. Barker 


Mann. Kitchinf 

Mr. Sympson 

Thomas Clarke 

Mr. Pomroy 

Christopher Nesse 


Robert Ramsey 

William Woodhall 


William HUdyard 


" Cler. Guide, p. 17. A rental of the revenues of the minster for the year 1706^ may b« 
found amongst the Landsdowne MSS. B. Mus. 896. V III. fo. 13. 

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The population of Saint Martin's parish taken from the census of I82I9 is 3037 
souls; being an increase of 298 since 1811 j and the population of the hamlets 
which form the parish of ^aint John, is 736 persons. The number of marriages^ 
births, and burials which have been entered in the minster registers, for the last 
twelve years, is stated in the following table. 





















































Adjoining the Minster-yard, towards the south west, stands the ancient manor- 
house for Beverley Water-towns, called the 


which is now converted into an inn, and distinguished by the sign of Admiral 
Duncan. An old tradition makes this the residence of Saint John of Beverley. 
A court of record was formerly held here every Monday, called the Provost's 
court, or the court of the Beddem, where causes might be tried for any sum 
arising within its liberties, which were very extensive, including upwards of a 
hundred towns, villages, and hamlets in the East-riding. It possessed also a 
criminal jurisdiction, but that had not recently been exercised. Here was the 
original gaol, which was usually situated within the manorial precincts." The 
building is the property of Richard Dixon, esquire, who is lord of the manor of 
Beverley Water-towns, including the extensive domain of Saint John; and here 
the manorial courts are still held. 

'^ It is said, but I cannot tell on what authority, that this prison is within the jnrisdiotion of 
Saint Peter at York. I am also informed that there is a low room, in the George and Dragon 
inn, divided by a beam in the ceiling, one half of which is within the same jurisdiction ; and that 
debtors have been known, within the memory of man, to take refuge here and bid defiance to 
their creditors. 


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Eastward of the minster is a field known by the name of •* The Friars," which 
was probably the site of the Black Friars' monastery." Adjoining this, is another 
piece of gromid called Paradise, near which a great number of antiquities have 
been dug up, where was probably the hospital of Saint Nicholas.** And in Chan-^ 
try-lane, near this place, is an ancient building, with grounds inclosed by a brick 
wall, and ornamented gateways, (one of which is represented on page 64,) and a 
moat, one branch of which has been conveyed underneath the house, supposed to 
have been the monastery of Grey or Franciscan Friars;** a conjecture which is 
gprounded on substantial evidence, for the house of this order was suffered to remain 
after all the rest had been demolished/^ 

Diverging hence towards the south-west, we enter Keld-gate.*'^ On the right 
hand or north side of this street is situated 


for poor widows. This foundation was endowed by the will of Ann Routh, of 

'' The house of Black Friars, in Beverley, occurs, says Tanner, as early as A. D. 1311. It 
is, however, mentioned somewhat earlier in the Provost^s Register. It^m in Rot' A^ D'ni 
M CCC iiij pl'ita p^ bre' de Reef ten' &c. inter Willu fiP Anselm de Harpham vs's Prior fratru 
p^dicator BevUac' de uno mess 'qM clam' tenere de p'poMtara p' reddit' an' denar.' £x. Reg. 
Pr»p. Bev. 1. 1. p. 33. It is said to have been founded by a person of the name of Goldsmith. 
Lei. Itin. vol. i. p. 40. The site was granted 36 Hen. YIII. to John Pope and Anthony Foster. 
Tan. Notit. York. XII. 7. Rx xxvij Marcij cone' Johem Pope et Antho Foster scit' nap' priorat' fir'm 
predicator in vill' Beverlaic' Ashegarthe and Pondegarthe et 4 p't an' hovat 'ter' in Golden 
magna tenend' in lib'o burgag'. A® H. 8. 36? p'te prima. Ex. Reg. Praep. Bev. 1. 3. p. 15. b. 

1^ <^ An hospital dedicated to Saint Nicholas, was by the Black Friars, bat now decayed,*^ 
says Leland. Itin. vol. i. p. 40. It was as old as 1286, when the archbishop of York granted an 
indalgence for its support. Reg. Job. Romaine, Archiep. It continued till the time of 
Hen. VIII. when its yearly revenue was valued at £5. 14s. 6d. Tan. Notit. York. XII. 4. It 
stands in the king's books at £5. Os. lOd. Bacon. Lib. Reg. p. 1 144. 

'* William Liketon and Henry Weighton, in A. D. 1297, gave some ground near the cbapel 
of Saint £llen to the Franciscan Friars whereon to build them an house, which falling to decay 
they removed to another house given to them by sir John Hotham. It was granted to Thomas 
Culpepper, 32 Hen. VIII. Tan Notit York. XII. 8. 

" Rex cone' Thome' Culpepper int' al' Scit' fir'm minor' voc' le Grey Friars infra villa 
Beverlac', tenend' de dno Rege in capite p' servic^ mil. A^ xxxij ° H. 8. 2»*l» pte Ex. Reg. Pr»p. 
Bev. 1. 3. p. 29. b. 

Rex concessit Llcenc' Rad'o Sadler mil' aliend domu et scitu dudti frater minor, voc' le Graye 
Fryers infra villam de Beverlac' : Anno xxxiv H. 8. p'te quarta. Ibid. 1. 4. p. 96. a. 

Hex cono^ Licen' Edw^ Naylor aliend' omu de scit' vocat' le Grey Friers in Bev'ley et om' de 
dom' p'ti'n diet' scit' Rob*o Browne et her' &c. A? xxxvj H. 8. pte 2° Ibid. 1. 4. p. 8. 

Rg°» cone' Lie' lo. East al Rad'o Lausbye scit' mon' de Grey Friers in Bev'ley 2P Maij 
38 Eliz. Ibid. 1. 4. p. 33. 

"^ Keld-gate is frequently mentioned in the Registers of the Provostry, with precisely the same 
orthography which it still retains. 14 Edw. III. on the 12th of February, appeared at the 

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Beterley, dated 6th October, 1721, in which she bequeathed a certain part of her 
property to its support for ever. The mayor, aldermen, and the minister of Saint 
John's church were appointed joint trustees to manage the funds, to nominate such 
widows as frequent the church to be partakers of the charity, and to execute the 
general provisions of the will. The inmates of this hospital are clothed with purple 
coloured woollen gowns, each being decorated with a silver badge, on which are 
engraven the name of the testatrix, and the day and year of her death. The 
present rental of the estates held by the corporation as trustees under this will, 
amounts to nearly six hundred guineas per annum ; and the number of widows 
in the institution is thirty-two. They are allowed a residence in the hospital, and 
have a sufficient quantity of coals provided by the trustees, with a weekly stipend 
of five shillings each.'* On the same side is situated the 


which is under the superintendence of the corporation. The first mention of an 
establishment of this kind in Beverley is in the fifteenth century, where it is said 
that bishops Alcock and Fisher received the first rudiments of their education; and 
it was probably in the collegiate church. The present school is mentioned in the 
reign of queen Elizabeth, and is said to have been founded, but not endowed, by 
her brother and predecessor king Edward YI. It has been enriched by the 
bequests of many benevolent individuals, and several privileges have been con- 
veyed to it at different periods, which give it consequence in the publick estimation. 
In 1626, Mrs. Margaret Darcy left by will a small sum of money to be lent to 

provosf 8 court an anmarried woman, named Matilda, and accused Alan Payy of making use of 
^» verbis contumeliosis in vico de Keldgate in Bev'lay, vocando ip^am meretrioem : and deinde 
ip'am p'cnssit cu qaodam baculo, hoc fecit injnste, &c." Ibid. L 1 . p, 5a 

'* The following regulations are in nse at this hospital :— It is ordered that each widow shall 
reside in the room assigned to her within the hospital ;— that she must attend divine service in the 
chnrch, without some reasonable cause to the contrary, twice a day, on all Sundays and holidays, 
in the gown provided by the trustees, with the silver badge attached thereto ;— that no widow 
shall have any inmate, except a female relation or friend; and then only in case of severe indis- 
position or great infirmity, to be certified by the apothecary of the hospital ; — ^fhat no spirituous 
liquors shall, on any account, be introduced into the hospital, unless upon the recommendatioii 
of the apothecary; — that one of the two nurses shall reside on the ground floor, and the other on 
the floor above ; that the matron shall, once a month, make a report to the mayor of the conduct 
of the widows, as to their observance of the rules; — that any widow refusing to conform to the 
rules, shall be dismissed ;— that if the matron shall be remiss or negligent of her duty, the extra 
allowance of matron shall be withdrawn; and that the apothecary shall, once a month, make a 
written report to the mayor of the state of the hospital, and the health of the widows. 

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poor labourers, and the interest applied to the support of a student at the university, 
sent, of course, from this school. In 1578, we find Robert Brokelbanck the 
master of this school; and in 1638, Richard Barritt was elected the usher in the 
room of one Francis Sherwood. In 1645, Mr. Robert Steele was appointed the 
head master at an annual salary of £20.*' And in the same year, Mr. Cook or 
Goth or Cox was appointed to the ushership with a salary of £13. 6s. 8d. a year.*^ 
The master's situation does not appear to have been very desirable at this period; 
whether from the narrowness of the stipend, or from the disturbed state of the 
country, or both, it may be hard to determine. Mr. Steele held it but four years, 
and the difficulty of procuring a successor may be inferred from the circumstance 
of an invitation having been sent to a Mr. Hesse or Nesse to request his acceptance 
of the head mastership of the free school;^* which he either rejected or very soon 
resigned, for in less than two years afterwards Mr. Thomas Foley agreed with the 
corporation to conduct the school for a remuneration of forty marks per annum, 
and to pay his own usher.^ 

In the year 1652, Dr. Metcalfe bequeathed to the head master the annual sum 
of ten pounds; and also founded his exhibition for three students at the university, 
to be elected out of the scholars bom and educated at Beverley ; to every one of the 
three poor scholars the sum of £6. 13s. 4d. annually, on the following conditions. 
^ The said three poor scholars to be appointed and approved from time to time, by 
the mayor, aldermen, and burgesses of Beverley, and by the lecturer and school- 
master; and the said maintenance to be continued until the time that the said 
poor scholars shall have taken the degree of master of arts, if they so long continue 
students in the university, and upon condition that they take the said degree at 
the due time, within eight years after their admission into the university."" This 
bequest was followed up by another from Mrs. Margaret Farrar in the year 1669, 
who left forty shillings a year " for the schooling of a boy, the child of some honest 
pe son and inhabitant of the said town to be chosen by the mayor and aldermen. 
And the residue of the rents and profits to be kept for the benefit of such boy, if 
he shall be capable and fit for the university, who shall have the said whole residue 
of the rents and profits towards his maintenance there for seven years, if he shall 
not, in the mean time, get better preferment. And if such boy, by the master of 

" Corp. Rec. Oct. 1645. «> Ibid. Feb. 1645-6. «» Ibid. 26 July, 1649. « Ibid. Feb. 1651-2. 

*' Extract from Dr. Metcalfe's will. 

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the school^ shall not he thought capable and fit to make a scholar fit to be sent to 
the university, another shall be chosen in his place, and have the same allowance."^ 
In 1670, Dr. Lacy left a sum of money to the mayor, aldermen, and burgesses, 
to pay yearly to two scholars that are or shall be bom in the town of Beverley, 
and educated in the fi'ee school there, and fi*om thence sent to the university of 
Cambridge, and entered students in Saint John*s college there, the sum of £8. 
each, mitil they go out masters of arts, within eight years after their admission; 
and so successively to two such scholars, as shall be sent from the said free school 
for ever."** And in 1681, Mr. William Coates, by his will, founded another ex- 
hibition of £6. to be annually paid to a poor scholar sent fi:x)m the free school at 
Beverley to the university of Cambridge, to continue until he has taken the degree 
of master of arts. 

In 1660, we find the Rev. Francis Sherwood, at the head of the grammar school; 
and in the same year he was appointed assistant curate of the minster.** He was 
succeeded in 1669 by Mr. John Forge, who was elected head master in that year; 
and it was agreed that the sons of freemen, paying to the poor, should not be 
charged less than two shillings a quarter each for their education. In 1674, 
Joseph Lambert, A. M. was elected the head master with a salary of £20. a year, 
in addition to Dr. Metcalfe's exhibition of £10.*^ In 1716, the Rev. Samuel 
Johnson was appointed to the head mastership;^' which he held only four years, 
and was succeeded by the Rev. Henry Jefferson;^ and the Rev. William Leake 
was appointed usher,'^ being the last person nominated by the corporation to that 
office. The remaining masters are not numerous. 

Rev. John Clarke, appointed Feb. 24, 1735. 

Rev. William Ward Ap. 22, 1751. 

Rev. George Croft Dec. 5, 1768. 

Rev. John Jackson Sep. 4, 1786. 

Rev. W. H. Neale Feb. 8, 1808. 

Rev. F. Gwynne Dec. 18, 1815. 

Rev. J. Orman May 13, 1816. 

Rev. G. P. Richards July 17, 1820. 

^* Extract from Mrg. Farrar's will. ^ Extract from Dr. Lacy's will. 
M Ex. Regist S. Johan. ^ Corp. Rec. 7 May, 1674. » Ibid. 7 Jan. 1716. 
» Corp. Rao. 13 Jan. 1720. so lud. 6 Feb. 1720. 

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The old school is accurately represented in the annexed engraving. 

The school room is an appropriate bnilding with a house for the master attached. 
It stood formerly in the minster yard, but this situation being found inconvenient, 
it was taken down and removed during the mayoralty of Mr. Ramsay, in 1815, 
to its present situation. The head master receives a salary of £70. a year from the 
corporation; £20. from the representatives of the borough, and £10. from Dr. 
Metcalfe's exhibition, with the house and garden at a nominal rent; and each free 
scholar pays. forty shillingfs per annum for classical instruction, and an additional 
two guineas a year for writing and arithmetic. The children who are not free 
pay such sums for their education as the master may think proper to charge. 

Attached to the school is a tolerably good library of useful classical books, which 
has long been accumulating by successive donations; and in 1824, the trustees 
entered into some resolutions for their preservation, which appear to have been 
necessary, and are certainly judicious.'' 

One of the turnpike roads, connected with Keld-gate, leads to Cave, another to 
Cottingham, which takes a direction towards the south; and to the north lies 
Lair-gate, a long street, which contains, first, the 


The first building which was appropriated to the exclusive purpose of theatrical 
performances that can be remembered in Beverley, was situated in Walker-gate, 
near the Methodist chapel. Being found too small and incommodious, it was 

»» Corp. Rec. 2 Feb. 1824. 

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dbaftdonedt a&d tbe present neat ImQding erected a^ tlie b^^innkig of the prevent 

A narrow lane leads westerly past the theatre through Saint Giles's croft,^ to 
the mill in Westwood; and near this place'^ stood the hospital of Saint Giles.** 
Near the theatre^ in Lair-gate, we perceive before ns the 


which was originaUy erected in the year 1704, on a site purchased by the sect of 
Protestant dissenters called Presbyterians ; and jthe building was formally dedicated 
and appropriated to the use of that sect for ever, and conveyed to trustees for this 
especial purpose. In 1711, Robert Stephenson bequeathed a tenement, a windmill^ 

^ The first theatrical exhibitions in this coantry consisted of pieces dramatised from the sacred 
Tolame, or from the saflferings of the primitive martyrs; and they were termed Miracles, They 
were nsaally performed in (he chnrclies, and the actors were the priests. The most ancient piece 
of this natoie with which we are acquainted, was the prodaction of Oeofferyi abbot of Saint 
Albans, aboat the year 11 10, and was called St Catherine. The actors were habited in the 
ftacred vestments of the abb^. Some of these early performances continned for several days, 
particularly if the sobiect was the Creation, or any other equally comprehensive; and they were 
nsoally hononred with the patronage and personal attendance of the royal family. This eastern 
was not pecaliar to the English nation, bat was practised throaghont Europe. Boyle. Diet voc. 
Dassoad. A piece, called the Mystery of the Old Testament was performed at Paris in the 
fifteenth century; and the Mystery of the Passion was represented at Angers, and afterwards 
printed by Philip de Noir in 1532. Notes to Rabelais, vol. ii. p. 146. « Notwithstanding the 
seriousness of the subjects that constituted these mysteries, it seems clear that they were not ex- 
hibited without a portion of pantomimical fun to make them palatable to the vulgar taste. 
Beelzebub seems to have been the principal comic actor, assisted by his merry troop of under 
devils ; who, with variety of noises, strange gestures, and contortions of the body, excited the 
laughter of the populace/' Strutt Sports, p. 118. 

^ In the time of Thomas Rulande, prior of Wartre, the croft of Saint Giles was alienated to 
the corporation of Beverley for the sum of sixty pounds sterling. Willis. Hist Abb. vol. ii. p. 2SS. 

^ The building was evidently situated in a field opposite the west end of Graybnm-lane ; and 
its foundations, with other vestiges of antiquity, have recently been discovered by Dr. Hull. 

^ This liospital was founded by one Wulfe before the Conquest; it belonged to the arch- 
bishops of York, until Walter Giffard alienated it to the prior of Wartre, Ld. Itin. vol. i. p. 40, 
in exchange for a wood called le Haye de Langwath. Rot Pari. vol. i. p. 432. This prelate 
subjected the master and brethren of Saint Giles to the prior in 1277 ; and he maintained here at 
the time of the dissolution five poor people. Its yearly income, 26 Hen. VIII. was valued at 
£8. The site, with the free chapel tliereunto adjoining, was granted, says Tanner, 32 Hen. VIII. 
to Thomas, earl of Rutland. Tan. Nottt. York. XII. 3. There appears, however, to be a small 
error in the above extract from bishop Tanner ; the following ent^ in the Provosfs Register 
makes the transfer to have taken place, 28 Hen. VIII. Rex sc'do September cone' Thome* 
Comit* Rutl' totam sdt' fund* nup* domns sive hospit' S*ci £gidij in Beverlaco ac lib*am CappeP 
S*ci Egidij ib*m ac EccPiam Campal' ejusdem priorat' ac EccPiam d*ci nnp* hospital' S'ci Egidij 
.Ae o'ia mess' domes grang' ortos pomar, ter et solum tam infra quam extra, ceptum et circoict' 
eorumdem Tenend' in capite, Ac. A? xxviij H. 8. p'te s'cMo. Ex. Reg. Pr»pos. Bev. L 


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«q3 & clds^ H mikd^Dt lkfl4 td'tfi^ <»agi»gaid<tty to b« iipp!i«<l fDWtfHil di* mftiiitdL 
nance of the preacher. In 1743, a tenement, with garden ground and «ftfle^ 
tonyeftienceg, adj<Mhittg ^<i in«efeiiig-h6atie> trai purdianed for Mtfndkltaied; and 
ten jetaH aftem^s, thtee aicifeft ^f Ismd at Bitmfleet were added td the! eBtabliah^ 
ment for the minister's blihclfit- Iik process of time, however, the nmnber of 
Presbyterians having decreased so very considerably in Beverley, that a sufficient 
congregation could not be sustained, the property was assigned to the present 
possessors; and Mftrk BeO, hy kis wift bearing date this 23rd November, 17B9, 
beqi^athed £276. l9. 3d. in db^ S per cent, consds, for the use of the mimsta* 
fixr the thne Bei^. Th« iiAiHifal $ncote:e derived at present Itom this bequest is 
£8. 5s. 8d. Iii the year 1800, the meeCing-house wfts rebuilt on a more modem 
principle, and the number of members is about 120. A short distance from this, 
at the comer of an obscure lane, called Laundress-lane, stands the 


which was erected in the year 1826. The present preacher is Mr. Hillaby. 

On the opposite side of 1^ street, and somewhat nearer to Ike Market-place, it 
Grabum-lane, formerly called Catfos** lane; and in Lair-gate, at the comer of 
Newbigging,*^ stands the Easrt-riding bank, the firm of which is Robert Bower, 

3. p. 12. a. — The accounts we possess of snbseqaent transfers, Ac. are rather imperfect and 
nnsatisfactory, bat I insert them as they may be useful to some enquirers. Rg°* p^don Rad^ 
Lansbye qui A<> 24 El : atq] de R: Grey et Kater' dx: Man' de S\ Gyles in Bev'ley. 25 Jn. 26 
Eliz. Ibid. 1. 4. p. 33.— Pardon Rad'o Lansbye qaia conrenit cu Ingleby Daniell ad nsns de 
Capif Mess' vocat' S"* Gyles in Bev'ley 20 No : p' fine iij " . 17 James. Ibid. I. 4. p. 89. Rex 
concessit Lioenc' Rad'o Lansbye mil' alienand' Capital' Mess' vocat' S^! Giles in p'ochia S°! 
Joh'is Beverlaci novu Joh'i Wandesford l^^* April p' fine vi*. viij'* 20 James. Ibid. 1. 4. p. 91. b, 

M The learned Mr. Faber sii^Si in his elaborate work on the Origin of Pagan Idolatry, vol. i. 
p. 400, that it has been often justly remarked that the old Celtic names of rivers, mountains, dbo. 
very generally remain throaghoat England, though the present inhabitants are Saxons. Thas the 
name of Catfos was probably imposed, as many of the peculiar appellations in Beverley appear 
to have been, from the rites and ceremonies practised by the primitive occupiers of the soil. Tho 
memory of these observances is lost and swept away by the overwhelming stream of time; but the 
names survive to direct posterity in their search after the situations which have been distinguished 
by British residence. These rites were periodically performed in honour of Ked, Ket or Ceridwen, 
the ancient magna mater of this island, or her emblem the ark of Noah. Now Catfos would be 
derived either from Ket-f6s, the ditch of Ceridwen ; Ket-fou, the cave, or Ket-voe, the lake of 
the same female divinity ; in each case the reference is equally direct and satisfactory. And it 
may be further observed, that the Celtic f6», the Cornish v6s, the Roman foesa, and the French 
fosse, are synonymous. 

^^ The street called Newbigging was in ancient times occupied by the principal inhabitants 
of Beverley. It is repeatedly named in the Registers of the Provostry, so early as the reign of 

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Trfaonuis Pn#«^^ Jobn Uf^i ,Jtftfci?rt Pow^i>.jWr ,J3«f>J7 WiUifWn H^tto^, afid 
^t^pifs £[9^ .T% 4raw on Curries, Raike?, .jjfjd r jDp. .pprnhill, London. H§y^ 


which accommodate tw6Qty>two foor families andiindividuaisy who are permitted 
by the cprpocation to oconpy these tenements. r^nt-free. They have no regul^^r 
allowance or^^lipendf but are casually assisted o^t of the numerous funds, of benc^ 
Yolence whi^h have been bequeathed and appropriated by ch^itable in,dividual8 
for tho ben^.t of honest indigence in the town of Beverley. 

Heniy III.; and we -possess the following information respecting transfers of property, &c. ixiii, 
which may possess salBcient interest to merit insertion here. It is extracted from the Lansdowne 
Collection m the British Maseom, 896 Part YIII. fo. 189; apd is headed "An ahc(tra«t of the 
charters in the Cartalary of Beverley, relating to the street c^led New Biggin. 

Thomas Tyrwhite son of Richard de Tyrwhite merchant of Beverley grants to John de Kyllin 
9iidAjpriies ilia wife, his manentihns in Beverley in .the street called Newbiggin at the annual 
rent 01 xij<^ payable at the feast of Pentecost and Saint Martin in winter: dated at Beverley 1348. 
Witness Walter Frost, Adam de Tyrwhite Thom : Frost Richard de Lesed Thorn : Leante Thos. 
Clerk and others. / - 

In- the year 1380^ the above mentioned Agnes dyed> leaving her soul to Almighty God, Saint 
Mary and all Saints, and her body in the cloister of the convent of the Fryers Minor in Beverley; 
and left the following legacies. 

X. s. d. 

To the fabric of Saint Peter's York 1 

To the fabric ofSaint John's Beverley 10 

To the fabric of the chapell of Saint Maries in Beverley 1 

To the same chapel for the expences of the funeral 6 

To the Vicar of Saint Maries 1 

To the parish Chaplain of the boiue chapell •••••• 1 

To John her son a lead furnace with all her famitare; and to William de Scofer her honse in 
Newbiggin near to the Barr Dyke, on the oater side thereof to the west. 

Richard de Bryne and Agnes former wife of William Scofer, execator of the last will and 
testament of the said William, do give, and by this charter confirme to John Walde of Hedon, 
John de Benningholme Chaplaine, and Thomas de Lowthorpe of Beverley, one messaage lying 
on the north side the w^ called Newbiggin in the occupation of Catherine Hnmbercott, l3ring on 
the east of the lands of Thomas de Etton and the north of the gate and dytche called Barre Dyke, 
and on the oat part to the west, to have and to hold the same of the fee of the chapter. Witness 
Rich. Fox, John de Walkyngton mercer Rob. de Colton Will, de Tilton Will. Maliarde and 
others. Dated at Beverley, in the second year of the reign of K. R. 2nd. 

John Walde of Hedon, John de Bennyngholme chaplain Thos. de Lowthorpe of Beverley 
mercer and Margaret his heire, do assign one Messuage and its appurtenances on the north side 
of the way called Newbigging, lying on the north side of the lands of Catharine Hombercott to 
the west of the lands of Thomas de Etton, and on the east part of the foss called Barr Dyke, to 
have- and to hold the same of the Chapter fee. Witness Will<? Byrde and others, and dated at 
Beverley 2nd Sept'- A. D. 1399. 

Carta Robti Skipwith facti John BrydUngton. 


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Leaving Saturday market-place on the right hand, we enter Wood-lane, which 
forms nearly a right angle with the end of Lair-gate. This street famishes little 
tkher to admire or condemn. At the end of it however, in a secluded situation,* 
stands the plain and neat 


which is a modem brick building, used by the society of Friends for the purpose 
of publick worship. It is now almost deserted, for the congregation, which was 
formerly kept together by the joint exertions of Joseph Dickinson and Christopher 
Geldart, two singularly upright and sincere men of this persuasion, dwindled away 
imperceptibly after their decease; and at present very few of this sect remain in 
Beverley or the neighbourhood. 

Returning through Wood-lane in a direct line, we enter Hen-gate,** at the 
comer of which stands^ in dignified majesty, the edifice of Saint Mary's churchy 
whidi presents to our notice so many objects of interest and attention, that a subset 
quent chapter will be entirdy devoted to its illustration.'' At the enA of Hen-gat^ 

Robt. Skipwith of Beverley grants to Dn John Biydlington vicar of Beverley and John Melton. 
Barker, one Messuage and its appurtenances, lymg on the north side of the way called New- 
begffin, (bounded as before.) Dated at Beverley 12th day of March in the 4th year of the reign 
of K. Hen. 4th. 

Carta Robti Skipwith fac. Rico Crake &c. 
Robert Skipwith of Beverley mercer Grants <&c. to Richard Crakei Thomas Wyatt and William 
Ryall Clerks one messaage and its appurtenances being on the north side of the street called 
Newbeggingy on the north side of the lands of Kate Hambercott, to the south of the West Barr, 
and east of the land of Adam Tyrwhite, to hold the same of the Fee of the chapter. Dated at 
Beverley 12th day of August 1450. 

Obligacio Robti Skipwith, et Thome Skipwith fact^ relaxatio Emme Gainthorpe fact Rico Crake 
ft alias. 

Emma de Gainthorpe cozen and heir to John de Kyllin grants to Richard Crake, Thomas 
Wyatt and William Ryall chaplain, all her right to one messuage in Newbiggin formerly the 
property of John de Kyllin. Witness, William de Rolletston, Nicholas de Ryse, Stephen Copan- 
dale, Thos. son of John de Holm and others. Dated at Beverley 5th day of September, 1450. 

Thomas Kelke fecit fidel't p' uno Mess' in que manet in Newbyggiug q* quond' Rad'us de 
Clyflfe et postea Rad'us de Haytfield p' reddit viijf p' ann'. Ex. Reg. Preep. Bev. I. I. p. 36. 

«« We find this street called Thengaiie in the 16th century; Vid. Lansd. MSS. B. Mna. 
896. VIII. fo. 169 ; although at a much earlier period it was distinguished by its present correct 
appellation. Rentale Beverlaci. 1 Hen. IV. De hered Adas Copendale p' uno Ten' in HengaU 
quond' Willi'm Goldsmith postea RicH Carvyle. iii]» iiij*! Ex. Reg. Pnepos. Bev. L 1. p. 26. et 
Vid. 1. 2. p. 56. b. 

^ At the east end of this church was a lane formerly called Dead Lane, from the circumstanoe 
of its being the usual way of oanyinff a corpse to be interred, and is thus named in the inqoisitiQa 
respecting Saint Mary's property, taken in the reig^ of king Charles I. 

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til NorwMdt is (]ie flttt of William Beverley, esquire, lord ef the imAiir of Beviiley 
dntpter, which inclndes the hamlet of Molescroft and the adjoiniiig parts .withiii^ 
the liberties* From hence a road towards the north west leads to Airam; and a% 
Ae distance of about a quarter of a mile, passes PiCKHiXiii, the site of a moate4* 
building, which some have conjectured to be Stanley Place, the residence of the 
Copandales,^^ a distinguished femily, which flourished at Beverley in the fourteenth 
emtnry. It is indeed highly probable that this mansion was situated either hera 
or at Norwood, and I am inclined to give the preference to the latter, because it im 
pronounced to he in the tmim of Beverley; and the following entry in die Provoi^f 
B^fister appears under the head oi Hen-gate. De Joh'e Downham intrcHatu all 
alta via usque Staineley Place, nup' Ade de Copindayle.^' And again in the same 
book,^ Nicholas Waller is said to have died seized of tribu' clausur' et un' maga* 
Camp* vocat Skaindes[fields jacen' ex p'te boreal' cujusd* alte vie vocaf Norwood 
Highnxxy. And still more pointedly under the head of ^'Norwood in Beverley," 
subsequently to the extinction of the Copandales, John Downham is brought into 
charge for Stanly Place and Stanley lands, with a garden, near the milL^ 

^ It may not be nninteresting to insert here a brief account of this family, which gave a lastre 
to the town of Beverley in these early tiroes. The first mention of them which I have been able to 
find, is in the person of Adam Copandale, who did salt and service at the Provosfs Court, 3 Edw. 
III. Ex. Reg. Prtep. 1. 1. p. 8. 1. 2. p. 32, though there is reason to believe that the family was 
resident in Beverley lone before that period. On the 1 2 May, 1333, this individual was appointed 
a conmiissioner, by the king's writ, to raise 50 horse and 50 foot soldiers ; fully armed and ap- 
pointed, within the liberties of Beverley, to join the army against the Scots. Rot. Scot. 
7 Edw. III. This commission being found difficult to execute, he resigned his office on the 2nd 
June following. On the 16th of the same month, John Copandale, merchant, of Beverley, oh- 
tained the king's exemption from the array, and a licence to go abroad for mercantile purposes. 
Ibid. T Edw. ill. Adam Copandale was re-appointed on the 17th November, 1334, to the duty 
of arra3ing men for the Scottish wars ; and again to the same efTect on the J 5th December and 
23rd February following, elisours de cynquant hom^es a pie en la fraunchise de BevMe. Ibid. 
9 Edw. III. On the 18th December, 1336, John de Thornton de Copandale, the father of the 
above Adam, Reg. Preep. 1. 1. p. 22, was appointed a commissioner, by royal authority, to super- 
intend the construction of a barge at Beverley, and other ships of a larger size at other seaports 
for the Scottish wars; Rot Scot. 10 Ed. III. and on the 2nd May, 1338, the same person was 
entrusted with the duty of raising and training a body of archers in Beverley, and the East-riding, 
which he had a commission to lead against the Scots. Ibid. 12 Edw. III. These brief notices, 
which have been extended as far as my limits will allow, are sufficient to shew the consequence 
of the bmily, and the extent of confidence which was reposed in its members by their sovereign. 
A branch of the fiimily resided at Beverley in the reign of Henry VI. Ex. Reg. Pnep. 1. 1. p. 60. 

« Ibid. 1. 2. p. 5%. b. « Ibid. p. 9 1 . 

^' Ibid. p. 57. a. This windmill was in Norwood, and was at this time in the occupation of 
Aiehard Burton. Ibid. p. 57. a. 

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At Norwood is a spaciow opting or square, wlwne the aimiial' fairs are he|4.1*; 
An improvement was , projected in 1825, and the fairs, >by a public ordinance of, 
liie torporation, were removed to the road side leading to HullrBritlge; which wasL 
<iaosid^ed a mwe cemmodious situation, and better calculated to acc(^nmodate the 
agH6ultuffist and the general dealer^ The experiment however &ile<jl; and oa 
symptiNais of distetisfaction being visibly dii^layed by aU the parties from whom 
the fairs received their chief support, they were restored in the Allowing year ta 
tile usual place. These fairs are in high reputation throughout the kingdom foe 
•frtde. They are held fomr times in t^ year} viz. on the Thursday before the 2^th 
February; £My Thursday^ the 5th 4)f July; and cm the 5th of November. The 
principal markets for cattle are held on the 5th April, Wednesd;ay before the I2ih 
May; Wednesday before the 14th September; and Wednesday after ihe 25th 
December. At these fairs the coif>oration possess the privilege, by the charter 
6f Charles II. of holdkig a court of pie*powder, to determine local disputes.^ 
Besides these, there are several^ publick markets for cattle held fprtnightly, which 
are much frequented. FnMu NcH^ood the roatd leads to Bridlington.^^ Near 1^ 
Mr. Beverley's house are the 


which were erected by subscription and opened in the year 1763. In these rooms 
dancing assemblies are held six times during the winter season, and card meetings 
every Tuesday. The usual subscriptions are, for gentlemen, a guinea and a half; 
and for ladies, a guinea. 

Having amused ourselves with viewing the elegancies and conveniences of these 

^< The fairs were originally under the jarisdiction of the archbishop of York> and are thus 
enumerated amongst his claims in the pleas of qao warranto, in the reign of Edw. I. £t Archiep^ 
olam^ eciam ab antiqno feriam apad Beverlac' quaV p^ annu semel videPty in vigiP et die S'oU 
Joh^es B'ptU et p^ tres dies s'qaentes, et alias in vigilia et in dies S'c'i Joh^es de Beverlaco in 
yeme, et tertio in die S'ci Joh^es de Beverloco in mayo, et quarto in vigiP et die JiscencVes D^ni 
et p^ septem dies seqnentes. Placit de quo War. Edw. I. 

<* Corp. Rec. 5 Sep. 15 Ch. II. No. 22. To every fair is of right pertaining a court of pye- 
powder. Rot. Pari. 17 Edw. IV. This is a court held daring the continuance of a taiVf and no 
longer, to determine such disputes, and punish such misdemeanours as may have arisen on the 
spot ; that merchants and others, coming from a distance, might have the advantage of summaxy 
justice, in case they should be defrauded by the country people who attended the fair. Snch 
rustics being denominated in these times pied-poudreux, or dusty feet, to distinguish them from 
their superiors. 

4< This road is termed in the Provost's Register, 1. 2. p. 91, <'alte via vocal' Norwood 

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roma, we paas mio Nbith-Bar-street witihSu^^ and visit tbe 


which is situated nearly opposite to Saint Mary's chnrcL This establishment is 
supported by the subscriptions oiP about twenty-fire members, who are elected hj 
baSloft^ and pay each into the treasurer's hands the sum of twenty-^e shillingft 
aniradfy. This entitles them to the privilege of the room, in which are the ^m^ 
Globe and Trareller, and Courier, daily papers; and llie Obsenrer, John Bulli 
Hull Adrertjiser, and Leeds Mercury, weekly. Near to this is the Tiger-inn, a 
good establishment, and ably conducted by Mr. Charles Greenwood* In a spacious 
room in this house, the brethren of the 


of Free and Accepted Masons, No. 554, hold their periodical meetings. This lodge 
was established on the 8th of March, 1793; cuid the brethren hold their meetings 
on the first Friday in every month. In the present ext^ision of the masonic system, 
we find this lodge in a most flourishing state; and several persons of great re- 
spectability are enrolled amuugst its meiiiberst. To t;iilai*ge uu the subject of fi*ee- 
masonry here, would be equally misplaced and unnecessary. Suffice it to say, that 
freemascmry is a beautiful system of morality, veiled in allegory, and illustrated by 
symbols ; its disquisitions embrace, at the least, all the essential points of natural 
religion; and like the angelic messengers who announced to mankind the most 
important event the world ever beheld, it proclaims, ^ Glory to God ; Peace on 
earth; Good-will to men."*' 

On the opposite side of the way is the Beverley bank; the firm of Machell, 
Pease, & LiddeU, who draw on sir R. C. Glynn, Mills, Halifax, Glynn, & Co. 67, 
Lombard-street. Adjoining Saint Mary's church are situated the extensive and 

^^ In the month of Angngt, 1827, as some workmen were dig^ng in the fonndatiqns of an old 
hoose which had heen taken down, belonging to H. Ellison, esquire, in this street, they found 
several human skeletons at the depth of about seven feet from the present surface, imbedded in 
gravel. It is supposed that the ground has been advanced three feet, therefore the bodies to 
which they belonged would have been interred originally at the depth of four feet beneath the 
floor of the house under which they lay. They were not found all together, but at a distance of 
three or four feet asunder ; and some of the bones were uncommonly large. 

^' The curious reader who wishes for information on this interesting subject, may^ consult the 
Antiquities of Freemasonry; the Star in the East; and Signs and Symbols; all published by the 
author of this work. 

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Talnable premises of Heniy EIlisoB, esquire.^ And at the tarmiaatba of ibM 
street is the 


an edifice which is undoubtedly of some antiquity^ although few traces of early 
ardiitectore are visible^ except tm incision under the archway^ in which it appear* 
probable that a pwtctdlis has been suspended Such marks may hinre formerly 
eiastedf but a coating of plaister and whitewash with which the whole erection has 
heeai covered^ at no very distant period of time, has wholly defaced and obliterated 
every vestige by which its age mi^t probably have been determined. The follow- 
ing arms, however, still remain upon the bar. 

Or, a chevron, az. charged with a martlet between two pheons of 

the first « IFurfon* 

Impaled with 

SaUef 3 swdrds in pile^ points in base, pummel, or^ — Pawletp with 
a squirrdi as the crest of Warton.^ 

^Mn the yew 1800, Mr. Ellison, in order to enlarge his premises, and procure a site for 
erecting a splendid mansion, and la3inff oat extensive gardens and pleasure grounds, entered into an 
agreement with the charchwardens of Saint Maiy^s parish for a lease of four tenements in North- 
Bar-street within, belonging to the charoh, at an annual rent, which stood in front of his land, 
and prevented a commodious access from tiiat street to his intended premises. These tenements 
he was permitted to take down, and convert the space thas left vacant to his own use for the term 
of twenty-one years, with this express condition to prevent the church charities from sostaining 
any injury, that at the expiration of the lease, Mr. Ellison should erect tenements on the same 
site, which would produce an annual rent of £52. A private understanding, however, iqppears to 
have subsisted between the parties, although not specified in the lease, that Mr. Ellison would be 
allowed the privilege of renewal, on the same conditions, and so continue during his own 

tieasure. But public oflBcers, who are exchanged periodically, do not possess the power of 
inding their successors to approve or confirm their unexecuted plans; and accordingly Mr. 
Ellison found the churchwardens of 1822 unwilling to sanction what their predecessors in office 
had indirectly pledged themselves to perform ; and he was consequently subjected to the prospect 
of much inconvenience from the conditions of his contract ; but at length an arrangement was 
eflfected in 1827, under the provisions of an act for exchanging charit|r lands, in whidi the above 
property has been confirmed to Mr. Ellison and his heirs and assigns for ever, in consideration of 
about thirty acres of land in Cherry-Burton field, which have been assigned to the church of 
Saint Mary, as a full and equally valuable equivalent 

^ It should appear that in early times, these bars were not used exclasively for the purposes 
of strength and security, but served also for other convenient uses connected with the income of 
the corporation. At the end of almost every principal street leading into the common pastorc^ 
was placed a bar, at which tolls of pannage for the depasturing of cattle were periodically paid 
by the burgesses. This is clearly stated in the following extract from the Compotus Roll of 1437. 

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Passing through the bar we come to the North-bar dyke, in a lane formerly Called 
Cockstulepit-lane, which was of old a pool of terror and evil omen to the termagalit 
and shrew, for here stood the far-famed dacking-stool, erected originally by the 
archbishop of York/' for the disgrace and punishment of dishonest tradesmen, but 
time out of mind applied to the more humiliating purpose of imposing a check on 
that unruly member, the tongue of a peevish, wife/* At the extremity of the town, 
on the M alton road, stand a mass of buildings which have been recently erected 
for a house of correction and 


which are highly ornamental to that particular entrance into the town.** Here 
the quarter sessions of the peace for the East-riding are held, and justice is im- 
partially administered by a highly respectable bench of magistrates, consisting of 
R. Bethell, esquire, chairman ; lord M acdonald, sir H, M . M. Vavasour, bart. W. 
Beverley, R. M. Beverley, J, Brown, J. Broadley, H. Broadley, R. Denison, 

R painagij 
Etde viijM xj» iiij'* p' de Ric' Richemond et WilP Marton CoUecf painagij ad barr' bor' (North- 

Bar) hoc a«> infra comp' ut pz' p' p'cell inde p'bat 
Et de 3g» x** p' de VVilP Cave CoUect' painagij in Norwood, hoc anno &c. 
Et de xjj iv** p'de Joha' Carethorp Collect' painag^ ad p' Newbiggyng bar hoc anno Ac. 
Et de ix viijd p'de Rob' Kjtchin Collect' painag 'ad Keldegate bar hoc anno &c. 

^' Archiep' &c. clam 'eciam ab antiquo farcas et fifibettu. pilloriu et tumbrellu &c. Placit de 
quo. War. Edw. I. b 7 y 

«« Vid. ut supra, p. 110. 
^^ At the quarter sessions for the East-riding, holden at Beverley, the 19th day of April, 1814, 
the following resolution was unanimously agreed to. « Resolved, that it is the opinion of the 
court, that Mr. Charles Watson the architect, has shewn great skill and attention in planning and 
superintending the building of the sessions-house and gaol for this riding ; and that the treasurer 
be and he is hereby directed to present Mr. Watson, with the sum of one hundred guineas, as a 
mark of their approbation of his conduct" 


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R. Denison, jan. E. Denison, J. S. Egginton, M. Fotilis^ Y. Greame^ C. GrimsUm, 
R. Hill, H- Hudson, A. Maister, S. W. NicoU, G. Palmes, J. R, Pease, H- 
Preston, P. Saltmarshe, G. Strickland, G. Schonswar, J). Sykes, P* B. Thompson, 
J. Wharton, esquires; W. H. E. Bentinck, T. F. Foord Bowes, J. Coltman, C. 
Constable, R. Croft, W. Canning, D- Ferguson, J. GQby, W. R. Gilby, F. Ken- 
dall, W. Parker, T. C. R. Read, G. Sampson, C. Sykes, and R. Sykes, elerks* 

The house of correction is judiciously regulated. The prisoners enjoy the ad- 
vantage of religious instruction, which in their unhappy situation,, must be found 
of ess^itial importance. The wards are furnished with religious books. Prayers 
are read every day by the governor, and the prisoners are visited three times a 
week by the chaplain, who performs divine service and preaches to them every 
Sunday. Added to this, the holy sacrament is administered quarterly, on the 
Sunday previous to the sessions, to such individuals as feel disposed to avail them- 
selves of its blessings j thus affording the penitent offender an opportunity of making 
his peace with God, while his crimes are visited with punishment for the violated 
laws of man j those mild laws which he has renounced and defied by wilful depre- 
dation, or a wanton encroachment on the property or privileges of his neighbour. 

In the year 1810, the total number of prisoners committed within the year was 
161 J of whidi 14 were felons j the greatest number confined at any one time in that 
year was 39, of whom 6 were felons. Since that period, a regular and alarming 
increase has taken place. In 1827, the number of prisoners within the year was 
405, of whom 49 were felons j and the greatest number confined at one time, 82. 
The greatest number ever confined at one time, including children, 121. 

Opposite to the sessions-hall is a beautiful walk of chesnut trees, which form a 
shady promenade, used by the inhabitants on Sundays and other days of leisure. 
Returning thence, we enter the Saturday market-place,*^ which is a spacious open- 
ing in the street, containing an area of four acres. Near the north end stands 


a massive erection, supported by eight columns, each consisting of one entire stone; 
and constructed at the expense of sir Michael Warton and sir Charles Hotham, 
in the year 1714. It was repaired in 17695t at the expense of the corporation. 

^ Arohiep^ &c. claim' eoiam abantiquo m'oatu apud Beverlacu singUis sepl* is p' dies M'curio 
& Sabb'to (Wednesday and Saturday.) Piacit de quo War. B. I. 

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William Leake, esq. being tibe mayor. A more ancient cross^ formerly occupied 
this situation, which was built in a massive style of architecture, and so spacious 
that carriages passed through it. Being in a state of decay, and altogether incom- 
modious and unsafe, it was taken down by the two public spirited individuals 
already mentioned, and the present cross substituted in its place, ornamented with 
the following coats of arms. 

1. England and France, qaarterly. 

2. Arg. 4 bars az. and a canton, gules. In the centre the bloody hand. • JBotham. 

3. Or, a chevron az. charged with a martlet inter two pheons of the first. . IFarton, 

4. Barry wavee. A & B. on a chief B. a beaver statant regardant, or.... Town of BeverUy. 

The butchers' Shambles''^ stand in the north east angle of the Market-place.^ 
They were rebuilt in the year 1752, at the expense of the corporation, Jonathan 

^^ This cross occapied a conspicaoas situation in the Market-place, where it was placed to 
remind the vendor that his religion recommended and enforced uprightness and Cur deaung; and 
was thus intended as a visible restraint, to dissipate any secret intention which might arise in his 
bosom of taking an improper advantage of the weakness or inexperience of his customer. 

^ A narrow street runs from these Shambles into Walker-gate, called Silvester-lane, inhabited 
piincipallv by persons in an inferior condition of life ; it was sometimes denominated Silverless* 
lane ; and by that name it is mentioned in the inquisition respecting Saint Mary's property, taken 
in the reign of king Charles I. 

^ Many years ago, before the Market-place was heightened and paved in its present form, it 
was subject to inundations, which occasioned much inconvenience and loss to those who supplied 


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Midgley, esquire, being the mayor. The buildings are roomy and commodious, but 
proving too large for the business which was transacted within them, the south 
end was converted, in the year 1825, to the purposes of a com exchange. This 
measure has been found of great advantage to the town ; and is an accommodation 
to the com merchants and agriculturists, who are thus provided with suitable con- 
veniences which enable them to transact their business in any extremity of the 
weather. The fish shambles is a commodious building, devoted exclusively to the 
sale of the finny tribe, and is situated at the north end of the shambles.^" 

The market commences at mid-day by the signal of a small bell, which is rung 
by the deputy market keeper. Its principal staple is com ; but other articles 
which constitute the weekly consuinption of the town are exposed for sale in great 
abundance. On the east side of the Market-place are the Butter-dings,^ where 
the produce of the dairy is placed. A profusion of frait, vegetables, farm-yard and 
other produce, &c. is arranged methodically on such a plan as affords free access 
to the purchasers; and the carriers* carts are placed together on one side of the 
Market-place.^ The market is tolerably well supplied with fish, principally firom 
the sea. Cod, haddock, ling, scate, turbot, crabs, lobsters, herrings, eels, smelts 
and shrimps, are the principal varieties; and fresh water fish are but seldom 
to be had. The quantity of corn transferred at Beverley market is usually pro- 
digious, standing as^the town does, in the midst of an extensive com country, 
and possessing facilities for communication with every part of the kingdom; but 
during the stagnation of trade in this article consequent on the present state of 

the market with articles of general oonsomption. At this period wool was prodaced for sale in 
packs, which sometimes were floated, and occasionally carried away by the rapidity of the current. 
At the bottom end of the Market-place was a deep ditch, which extended almost across it from 
east to west. On the south stood the pillory, and near it a pnblic-hoase, in front of which was 
a handsome row of trees. 

^^ A- small passi^ near the fish Shambles was formerly denominated Bardet-middlng-Iane, 
and under that appellation it is frequently referred to in the inquisition already referred to about 
Saint Mary^s property. 

^ This situation was anciently called Bvscopdynges, and was ori^nally granted to the burgesses 
by William Wykham, archbishop of York. Corp. Rec. 1279. 8 B. It is mentioned in a com- 
potns of the twelve governors, dated 1437, a copy of which is in my possession, as chargeable 
with an annual rent 

^ The numerous carriers who attend this market are a great convenience to the town, and 
offer facilities for an extended communication with every part of this and the adjoining counties. 
The number of common carriers who attend weekly is about fifty, besides four regular carriers 
to Hull and York. They arrive at Beverley every Saturday in time for the market, and depart 
at 3 o^dock in the afternoon in winter, and 4 o^clock in summer. 

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feeling which agitates the political world on that great question, the sales have 
been considerably reduced. On the 20th day of March, 1827, the quantities sold 
and average prices were as follows, according to the statute measure. 

£. s. d. 

Wheat im quarters, average price 2 17 8 

Oats.,.. 126 quarters 1 10 7 

Barley 52 quarters 2 2 3 

Beans 66 quarters 2 IS 6 

The tolls demanded by the corporation are as follows : — 
For every waggon or cart entering the market, four-pence j — for every led horse, 
a penny; — ^for every beast, a halfpenny ; — ^for ev«y score of sheep, twopence;-^ 
for every pig, a farthing ; — ^for every stall or stand, a halfpenny; — and for every 
bushel of com brought into the market for sale, one pint. At markets and fairs 
the following tolls are paid by the purchaser; for every horse, three-pence; — ^for 
every beast, a penny ; — ^for every pig, at fairs, a penny ; and at market, a half- 
penny; — ^for every score of sheep, four-pence; and for every stall or stand, a penny. 
At the east end of the Market-place" is the ancient street called Lady-gate,^* 
which extends fix)m the southern extremity of the butchers* shambles to Hen- 
gate,^ crossing the south west. end of Silvester-lane at right angles. Having 
passed through the Market-place, and observed every thing worthy of notice, we 
enter the Toll-Gavel or toll ground, where formerly was a stump cross, against 
which tolls were taken, and butter, eggs, and poultry were exposed for sale. In 
this street is situated the 


which is conducted by Mr. John Gardham, the post-master. The letters from 
London arrive at half after five in the evening, and the mail takes the return 
letters at half after five in the morning. The mails fit>m York arrive at eleven in 

*" In the month of April, 1826, some excavations being made under the floor of Mr. W. 
Stephenson's shop in the Market-place, six Rose nobles, and a gold coin of Edw. III. were dis- 
covered in good preservation. They are still in his possession. 

^ Lady-gate is mentioned in 1592, in the Register of the Provostry, 1. 3. p. 16 b. '* Reg» Ac. 
cone' Ed'ro Downinge et Rogero Rant clans' past' jac' in Bev'l', tenem* in Lady-gate, &c." 

^ In Hen-gate, near the end of Lady-gate, was Stapleapple-garth, mentioned in the same 
register as belonging to the family of Copandales. Rental' p'positnr^ &c» Hengate. De Thorn' 
Copindayle pro un ten'to jux» StapiUapplegartk Ac. lb. 1. 2. p. 56 b. 

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the moming and eleven in the evening, and are despatched in return at half after 
one and half after four in the afternoon. From Hull there are also two daily 
mails; one arrives at half after one in the afternoon, and leaves at eleven in the 
morning; the other arrives at half after five in the evening, and departs at half 
after five in the morning.^ In this street is a room used as a place of worship by 
the Sandemanians, and the Irish Church Methodists. The number of members 
in both is small. They each however, contrive to maintain one preacher, Mr. 
William Skinn; and Mr. M'Conckie. 

Near this spot was an ancient lane called Friar-garth.*^ We now enter a spacious 
court called Register-Square, where is situated the 


in which the meetings of the corporation are held.^ A court of record is also held 
in these chambers every Monday by charter, for the trial of civil causes; as are 
also the general quarter sessions of the peace for the town and liberties, at the 

** Regfalar accommodations are famished to the inhabitants of this town for an expeditions 
correspondence with any part of England ; for, added to the London, York, and Hull mails, 
there are no less than nine coaches continnally running from Beverley to Hnll and Scarborough, 
whence the conminnication with any part of the United Kingdom is direct and anintermpted. 





First maU to York, Weighton, Pock- 7 
lington, and Boronghbridge. . . . ) 

Second mail to ditto ditto ...... 

Fust mail to Hull 

i after 1, P. M. 

i after 4, P. M. 

11, A.M. 

i after 5, A. M. 

i after 5, P. M. 

11, A.M. 

11, P.M. 

i after 1, P.M. 

i after 5, P. M. 

4, A. M. 

Second mail to Hnll and London.. 

Mail to Bridlington, Scarborough,) 
Whitby, Malton, Driffield, andV 
Sledmere ...o 

» Amongst the Warburton MSS. in the British Museum, Lansd. Coll. 896. VIII. fo. 76, is a 
copy of a licence, empowering Richard Fairdough to alter a way in FriavGarth. 

^ The ancient Guild-hall was a spacious building, open from end to end like a bam, and built 
with bioad and thin bricks, without any ornament, except the archbishop's distinguishing symbol, 
the Cross-Keysj over the door. Here all the corporate meetings were held. 

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usual quarterly periods; and a court-Ieet and baron, and sheriff's toume.^ A 
court of requests is held here monthly, for the recovery of debts not exceeding five 
pounds. In this court-yard is also situated the office for registering wills and 
deeds within this division of the county, which was established in the year 1708;^ 
and Beverley is the only borough in the kingdom which enjoys this privilege. 
H. W. Maister, esquire, registrar; Mr. A. Atkinson, deputy. 

Travelling still towards the east we pass through Butcher-row, which will lead 
to the 


where formerly stood a preceptory, or more properly, a commandery of knights of 
the order of Saint John of Jerusalem, dedicated to the Holy Trinity.^ The pro- 
perty belonging to this institution in Beverley, consisting of the inner and outer 
Trinities, the former of which is inclosed by an ancient moat, was granted at the 
dissolution to William Barkeley ; and after passing through a few hands it became 
vested in the corporation of Beverley so early as the reign of Queen Elizabeth.^ 

^' Warbnrton. MSS.yid. infra, cap. iv. for an acconnt of these courts. ^ Stat 6 Anne.c. 35. 

^ Sybilla de Valoniis, A. D. 1201, gave to the knights-hospitallers of Saint John of Jenisalem, 
the manor of the Holy Trinity^ on the east side of this town, with many tenements, and the manor 
of North-Bnrton, Ac. whereupon a preceptory of that order was established at Beverley ; which 
had lands belonging to it, 26 Hen. VlII. valued at £164. lOs. Od. according to Dugdale; £167. 
lOs. Od. according to Speed; £211. lOs. 7d. according to Le Neve's MS. Valor. The site was 
granted to William Berkeley, 36 Hen. VIII. Tan. Notit. York. XII. 2. 

^^ The documents in my possession which illustrate the transfer of this property, are in number 
twelve, and to the following purport 

1. A patent from king Henry VIII. assigning to William Barkeley the house, site, and property 

of the preceptory of the Holy Trinihr in Beverley, lately belonging to the knights of the 
order of Saint John of Jerusalem in England; to hold the same in capite, by the service of 
one twentieth part of a knight's fee. 36 Hen. VIII. Ex. Reg. Propos. Bev. 1. 3. p. 21 a. 

2. A licence from the crown, empowering William Barkeley to alienate the site and house of the 

Holy Trinity, and a close called Ashgarth, to Robert Heneage and his heirs. 36 Hen. VIII. 
pf 2<> Ibid. 1.4. p. 9. ^ 

The deed from Heneage to Constable, as a connecting link, is wanting. 

3. A licence authorizing dame Jane Constable to alienate the house and site of the preceptory at 

Beverley, to her son Ralph Constable and his heirs. 5 Edw. VI. pl« secunda. Ibid. 1. 4. 
p. 93. a. 

4. A licence of alienation from the crown, to Ralph Constable, of Burton-Constable, esquire, to 

assign the house and site to William Pndsey. 2 Eliz. pte quint Ibid. 1. 4. p. 94. a. 
d. Another licence to the same person, empowering him to dispose of his jpGmarium called the 

Great Orchard, belonging to the late preceptory of Saint John, to Robert Clerke and John 

Simpson. 3 Eliz. p'te decimo tert. Ibid. 1. 4. p. 94. b. 
6. Another royal licence, authorizing the same person to sell to William Payler the site of the 

manor or prweptory. 1 8 Eliz. Corp. Rec. 20 F. 

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A lazaretto^ or pest-hous^ was erected here during the plague of 1610^ as a place 
of refuge for the sick; and the bodies of the dead were interred under tumuli of an 
enormous size, on the west side of the moat, called the outer Trinities. During the 
operation of digging and trenching the ground a few years ago, for the purpose of 
forming a nursery, many antiquities were discovered, from amongst which a few 
have been selected, that were considered of sufficient importance to merit an en« 
graved illustration. These consist of some antique spurs," which were worn by 
the knights of this establishment; a leaden sigillum^' which had been appended to 
a papal bull j and an image of the virgin." Several interments in single graves 
were discovered at the same time, and a stone sarcophagus, without any peculiarity 
of construction; all at a very considerable depth from the surface. The timer y and 
a considerable portion of the outer Trinities, at present comprise a part of the 
extensive gardens and nurseries of Messrs. George and William Tindall, which, 
with the adjoining grounds, form an amusing promenade to the respectable inha- 
bitants of the town, who are privileged to walk there by special permission. The 
magnitude of these nurseries, as far as concerns spade cultivation, is perhaps not 
exceeded by any in the kingdom ; and for neatness, management, and produce, 
cannot easily be surpassed. The varied and uninterrupted views of that solemn 
yet splendid edifice, the minster, form a very distinguishing feature in every part 

7. A licence to Robert Gierke and John Simpson, empowering them to sell the Great Orchard, 

and a piece of arable and pasture land called Ashgarth, lately belonging to the preceptoiy 
of the Holy Trinity. 21 Eliz. Corp. Rec. 20 K. 

8. A licence to William Payler, the recorder of Beverley, to alienate to Peter Harpham, mayor, 

and the twelve governors by name, the site of the manor or preceptory, with a messuage 
within the moat ; and also the Great Orchard and Ashgarth close. 26 Eliz. 1 Sept Ex. 
Reg. Pnepos. Bev. 1. 4. p. 33 b. Corp. Rec. 20 M. 

9. A deed of bargain and sale of the above property, from William Payler to Peter Harpham, 

mayor, and the governors and burgesses of Beverley. 27 Eliz. 5th May. Corp. Rec. 20 N. 

10. A chirograph of a fine levied between William Payler and the mayor and governors of the 
town of Beverley, of a messuage, garden and orchard, and five acres of meadow and ^v^ of 
pasture, as above conveyed. 29 Eliz. Corp. Rec. 20 P. 

1 1. A licence from queen Elizabeth, authorizing Ralph Freeman and others, to assign over all 
the above property to Robert Grey, the then mayor, and others, the governors and burgesses 
of Beverley. 44 Eliz. 1 Mar. Ex. Reg. Pr»pos. Bev. 1. 4. p. 33. Corp. Rec. 20 R. 

12. A licence to Hugh Carr and others, enabling them to alienate to Robert and John Robinson, 

a close of meadow or pasture, called Great Trinity Close, containing ten acres. 44 Elis. 
Ibid. 1. 4. p. 33. 
'^> Vid. Fig. 1, 2, 3. From the peculiarities exhibited in the shape and construction of 
these spurs, and the difference in their form and size, they may be safely ascribed either to 
various eras, or to the different ranks of the knights who inhabited this mansion. 
« Vid. page 4. Fig. 5. " Vid. page 4. Fig. 4. 

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of ihese graunds; and contribute, in no slight degree, to die attraction and enjoy- 
ment of the visitors/* 

This part of the lordship was called, before the Conquest, the manor of Rydinges, 
and was assigned by Saint John to the church.'^ It retained the same name in 
the fourteenth century,^* and at present is denominated "The Riding Fields.'"^ 

Still further to the east is Grove-hill, anciently called GrovalP or Groveale,'* 
which is reputed to have been the landing place of the Romans, when they forced 
their vessels up the river Hull to penetrate into this part of the province of Deira.'^ 
A chantry was formerly in existence here, and the chaplain had a house and six 
acres of meadow land in Stork field/' Subsequently a water-mill was erected here 
at a place called Mylne Beck, which belonged to the provost of Beverley;** and 
at present the colour manufactory of Mr, Tigar stands at Grove-hill, which is 
worked by a powerful steam engine. 

^* On a part of these extensive and beantifal gardens stood the mansion of sir Charles Hotham, 
bart erected about the middle of the last century. The following anecdote is related of the 
baronet, daring his residence here. An itinerant preacher was holding forth in front of the house, 
and sir Charles being obserred to throw up the sash and listen attentively to his discourse, was 
severely rebuked by an impudent fellow amongst the mob, who asked him how he could bear to 
listen to a man who turned his back, as the preacher did, of such a magnificent church as that ? 
pointing to the minster. Sir Charles made no answer, but closed the window and retired. The 
house was subsequently sold to Thomas Wrightson, raff-merchant, who took it down and sold 
the materials. 

^^ Lei. CoU. voL iii. p. 100. '< Ex. Reg. Pr»pos. Bev« temp. Hen. IV. 1. 1. p. 26. 

^^ Near this place is the site of two ancient mills, mentioned 38 Edw. III. one belonging to 
the knights of Saint John, and the other to Walter Frost Ibid. 1. 2. p. 57. a. Several ancient 
streets and places in this neighbourhood are wholly lost and buried amidst the rubbish of time. 
Pottergate, Palmer Croft, Ferry Croft, and others are named in the following record, the sites of 
which no person is at this time able to point out with absolute and unerring certainty. De her' 
Willi' Froste pro uno Crofto voc' Palmer Crofte cu un molend' qnond' Avicie Froste antea 
Walter Palmer jux* Ridings de RobHo Tirwhitt pro quatuor selion' terr' modo prat' jacen' sup' 
orient de Potfgaiie nsq ; Fouat man' deTjrovill que aliquando fuit Ric'i de Wrangill postea 

ntec pro t^ ^^na voc' Ferry CrofieL ^ 

via qn'itur de diet' hospit' Sanci* -^tuiioi.* «.^««. cim^^^n a* ^^i* «i«0tiai' et un croft' diet' p'posit' 
p'tin' man'io Ss de Ridings de her' mag'r Spike pro no' dom ex opporto dom' Ss de fratribs predi- 
cstoribz pro uno ten'to ten'de dno. Ex. Reg. Praepos. Bev. 1. 2. p. S7. a. 

^Bx.Reg. Pr9p.Bev. 1. l.p.26. ^ Ibid. p. 28. 

•^^ As a confirmation of this tradition, some Roman coins and other antiquities have, at different 
timesi been dug up at this place. 

" Reg. Pi»p. 1. 2. p. S7. a. •» Ibid. L 1. p. 49. 


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Aeturning to the Wednesday Mitrkety^ we find a small cross, which was erected 
at the expense of Henry Jarratt, esquire, great uncle to the present mayor of Hull. 
And her^ also is the 


which was built in the year 1825, at an expense of £700. The names of the 
present preachers are Mr. J. Nelson, Mr Comforth, and Mr. Smith, and the society 
contains about 56 members. Proceeding through High-gate,** we again find our- 
selves in the firont of the minster church j and turning towards the west we pass 
through Minster-Moorgate,^ which is the very seat of charity, the fairest attribute of 
heaven, and contains no less than five beneficent foundations. First we encounter the 


which is situated on the south side of the street In former times, the poor, the 
maimed, the halt, and the blind, had no settled means of subsistence ; and were 

^' A branch of the family of EUerker resided in V^ednesday Market ; nno messnag' vocat 
EUerker's house sitaaf in vel p'pe le Wednesday m'kett Ibid. 1. Z. p. 91. 

^ This was formerly called Londoners^ street, because here the London merchants exposed 
their goods for sale at the annual fairs. 

^ Moorgate, probably from the alluvion of moor earth on which the street was erected. Vid* 
Nicholson^s Journal, vol. iii. p. 285. Only a very few years ago, a hedge fence was found firmly 
fixed in the moor earth at the depth of six feet from the present surface, and may have been hid in 
this place even from Saxon times, for these early possessors of the soil separated their estates by 
hedge fences and ditches ; Wilk. Leg. Angi. Sax. p. 4. ; and there is good reason to believe that 
this part of the town was inhabited before the Norman Conquest. This street was called a venella, 
so early as the reign of Edward II. Ex. Reg. PrsBpos. Bev. 1. 1. p. 26; as was also that part of 
Lair-gate which adjoins the west end of it, as appears from the following record. Rentale Bever- 
lacl, 1 Hen. IV. De capella^n Canf S^ce Katherine provid^ placea cu p'tin in Minster Mooregaite 
in longitudine a com^un^ via usq; ad com^nn^ gutter' ville et in latitudine com'un' venelle (Lair-, 
gate) que iV a pred' via usque EcclMa S'ci Egidij ex p'te una et terr' Joh'es de Luda de p'te altera 
at patet in quad' Charta Lawrence' de Clifford. Ex. Reg. PraBp. Bev. 1. 2. p. 56. b. In still 
earlier times the street now called Minster-Moorgate extending from Lair-gate to the minster, 
appears to have been known under three distinct appellations. That part adjoining the minstf^^ 
wag alone distingfuished by its present name. The remaining part of the street wp^ - ♦«nella ; 
the centre bad ib« agpellation of Fishmarket Moorgate, and the enrl njj*i«iag Liair-gate that of 
Market-Moorgate. Thus t>o neu. iii. lU/^^t u« rfonoumbertand and Ellas Caretter were ap- 
pointed constables for Minster-Moorgate and Fishmarket Moorgate. Ex. Reg» ut supra» 1. 1 . 
p. 34. And in the Provost's Rental, made in the early part of the ensuing century, we find both 
tenements and gardens brought: into charge in Mark?t*MoOrgate» near Lair-gate. Ibid. 1. 2. 
p. 56. b. Three contiguous streets are called venell» in the old rentals and registers, Moorgate, 
Lair-gate, an^ Ringadd Lane, %h^ latter of which is described as a ^ venella voc' Ringaddlane de 
priorat' de Warter; Ibid. 1. 2. p. 56. b. and was doubtless the same as that already mentioned ia 
this note as leading from Lair-ga(e tath^ hospital of Saint Giles.. 

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accordingly compeUed to tihe only alteinatir^ of ]pi^i4li!rr$ for wanl^ or soliciting 
the aid of their more opolent feUov ChristiiUis. The halls of the nobility were 
indeed seats of hospitality^ but they were thinly stireW6d tlnougfaont the land; and 
the monasteries were the only certain source where indigence could be supplied 
with the necessaries of life. When this fountun of beneyolence was closed by the 
dissolution, the poor were thrown on their own energies for support, and if their 
solicitations were ineffectual to supply the caQs of nature ; in the frenzy of disap- 
pointment they took with a violent hand those gifts which they could easily persuade 
themselves, were unjustly withheld. Hence robberies became so frequent that 
during the latter part of Henry the Eighth's reign, it is said that nearly a hundred 
thousand executions took place.^ The loud and unceasing complaints of the 
suffering community at length reached the ears of the legislature; and in the reign 
of Elizabeth, the outline of those laws was framed by which every parish is bound 
to provide for its own poor. The strong and healthy beggar was thus compelled 
to maintain himself by labour ; and those, who from infirmily or any other cause, 
did not possess powers for active employment were consigned to the care of their 
respective parishes, and overseers were appointed to discriminate between the idk 
and the infirm. The erection of appropriate buildings for the retreat of age and 
wretchedness followed, and in the year 1725, the inhabitants of Beverley, having 
become sensible of the great benefit of these institutions, came to the resolution, 
pursuant to the powers of an act of parliament, to build a house which might be 
capable of receiving their poor; and at a general meeting of the whole town, held 
in the Guild-hall, 24 April, 1726, a series of resolutions was agreed upon, and a 
house was built capable of containing a hundred persons, which was opened at 
midsummer 1727 ; notice having been given to the poor that the weekly allowances 
would cease at that period, and that such as were unable to maintain themselves 
and families, must apply to the governors of the workhouse, to be by them pro- 
vided for.*' 

'^ This meaeare doeg not appear to have been popalar amongst the poor ; but it produced the 
very beneficial effect of distinguishing the real from pretended objects of charity. Before the 
house was opened, 1 1 6 paupers received parochial relief, and the number that entered it at firs^ 
was only eight persons, and never exceeded twenty-six during the whole of the succeeding winter, 
though all kinds of provisions were excessively dear, and the season very sickly ; and the extraor- 
dinary expenses of the parishes, such as payments to bed-rid persons, sick &mUies, and other 
occasional demands of that nature, did not exceed twelve or thirteen shillings a week at any time, 

2P 2 

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. The governor of the work-hwise containing the poor of the united parishes of 
Saint Martin and Saint Jc^lm, has with the paupers, an allowance of eighteen- 
p^ce a head per week for their sustenance, and a salary of thirty pounds a year 
for his own time and labour; and the governor of the work-house of Saint Mary 
and Saint Nicholas receives half a crown a week with each pauper. The inmates 
of both these houses are constantly employed in works of industry adapted to their 
age, strength, and capacity; the children attend the national school till they attain 
the age of ten years, and are afterwards employed in labour, with the exception 
of two. hours a day, which are regularly devoted to their instruction. They are 
then apprenticed to useful trades. The lazy and vicious are punished by confine- 
ment, or alteration of diet; and if this prove ineffectual, the interference of a 
magistrate will inflict a heavier punishment. The industrious, but unfortunate 
poor, on the contrary, are accommodated with the best apartments and superior 
attention. Thus good order and regularity are encouraged, and the establishments 
are kept in an uniform system of decency and subordination. Added to this, 
religious instruction is dispensed amongst the paupers with steady effect; prayers 
are read morning and evening by the governors, and the paupers are taken every 
Sunday to their respective parish churches. In a word, the general regulations 
are exceedingly judicious; and the conduct of these establishments is highly credit- 
able to the town. On the other side of the way is 


This benevolent foundation was established in the year 1636, by Mr. Th waits Fox, 
an alderman of Beverley. He gave this house and the appurtenances, by deed of 
feoffment, together with a rent charge of ten pounds a year, arising out of lands 
in Arnold and Coniston in the county of York, to certain trustees, towards pro- 
viding an asylum for four destitute, aged widows, who should be natives of 
Beverley, and have been resident in the town with an unblemished reputation for 
twenty years prior to the time of their appointment to the benefit of the charity ; 
and have actually received a weekly allowance from the parish for, at least, the two 
preceding ycare. The widows thus qualified and appoijitpH y^te to enjoy the 

and frequently amounted to no more than six or seven; while it was thought, that if the house 
had not been opened the overseers would not have had less than 200 paupers on their hands ; and 
in all probability the rates must, in that particular year, have doubled their usual amount. Vid. 
An Account of Workhouses; pub. by Downing, 1732. 2 Edit p. 165. 

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privilege for life, except they should forfeit it by being convicted of dmnkenhesBi 
scolding, felony, or any other notorious offence; in which case it is directed that 
expulsion shall immediately ensue, and a successor be elected within six days of 
such example. The present trustees are William Beverley, and T. Duesbery, 
esquires. The widows receive four shillings a week each, vnth a new gown every 
two years, and an annual allowance of coals. The next house of charily we arrive 


The funds of this establishment arise out of lands at Killingraves Grange. It was 
also instituted for the comfort of poor widows in .their declining years ; and is at 
present under the judicious management of the Rev. C. Constable, Rev. John 
Gilby, Rev. Joseph Coltman, H. W. Hutton, esquire, and the Rev. W. R. Gilby, 
and the number has been increased to fourteen, who receive a weekly stipend of 
five shillings each, an annual supply of coals, a govm and petticoat, and five 
shillings instead of a pair of stays. The widows are appointed to the benefit of this 
charity by the trustees at a general meeting. The annual income amounts to 
about £350. which enables the trustees to extend the limits of their charity by 
placing out every year several poor boys apprentice, with each of whom they give 
a premium of £4. which is paid to the respective masters by two instalments.'* 
Adjoining this institution stands 


which is under the able direction of the archbishop of York, and the mayor and 
recorder of Beverley. Within its walls are accommodations for the reception of 
six poor widows, who are each allowed three shillings a week, with an annual 
gown, and a supply of coals. In this street is situated 


an establishment founded originally by the Rev. James Graves, who bequeathed 
in the 1807, £2,400. in the 5 per cents, for the support of schools in the 
parish of Saint Martin. A tAmporary room was for a short time nsed under the 

^ The MS. which lies before me closes Its notice of this establishment with the following 
remark on the conduct of the trastees, which I have much pleasare in transcribing. ^* The re- 
spectable trastees of this charity deserve well of the public for their unwearied attention to the 
management of its funds, and their continued exertions for the general improvement of the 

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(iroYisiQns of this viU; but great ineonveniezices having arisen from a want of 
aoQOniinodationy the old theatre vaa pnrohased in 1814, and fitted up as a school 
room fbr the purposes of this charily; but the school was subsequently removed to 
Jfinster-Moorgate for boys, and to the minster*yard for girls. At the present time 
a hundred boys, and the same number of girls, receive gratuitous instruction daily, 
and enjoy the full benefit of the donor's munificent bequest. The annual income 
arising fix)m the investment, is now about £120. 

Returning to the Wednesday Market, we now pass through Butcher-row into 
Walker-gate,'^ where we meet with the 


which was erected for the purpose of religious worship in 1825, at an expense of 
£1,270. It is calculated to contain 700 persons. The number of members, how- 
ever, at present, amounts only to 182. Messrs. Hutton and Parker are the 
preachers. In the same street is the 


This is a commodious building, erected in 1808, and cost £600. The present 
minister is Mr. J. Charlton, and the number of members about 70.^ At the comer 
of Dog-and-Duck lane in this street stands 


an establishment for the support of poor persons, founded under the will of Mr. 

^ This street is mentioned in an ordinance made by the governors of Beverley in 1560, which 
provides that '< whereas the sessers of Walker gaite and Thengaite have snndrie tymes sessed and 
taxed one close in old Newbigginge, and once a stable door openynge of Bowbrigge layne, both 
in the occupation of John Harrison, common clerke, therefore we Matthew Garbrey, Richard 
Fews, Richard Greenhop^ Richard Bell, Thomas Stettrington, £dward Stoute, John Adamson> 
Adam Spence, Robert Farer> Thomas Green, and Robert Holmes, the governors and keepers of 
this town of Beverley ,this Xth day of November, in the yere of our Lord 1560, after trew know- 
ledge had and perceived in the premises, do by these presents deverlye acqwyte, exon^niXe and 
discharge the said John and his successors and assignes> for ever, from paj^^-g ^^J manner of tax 
or other demands lor the ea^ao oioco 4ma oiobU aoit? ur any or either of them to and with the 
sayde wardes of Walkergaite and Hengaite at any time hereafter^ and moreover we the said 
governors doo discharge ail other grounds within Old Newbigginge from paying of any maner of 
taxes to or with the sayde wardes of Walkergaite and Hengaite at any time hereafter/' Lansd. 
MSS. B. Mus. 896. VIII. fo- 169. 

^^ Near the end of Walker-gate was anciently situated the Cross Bridge, on which John de 
Ake built and endowed a chapel or chantry, and dedicated it to the Holy Trinity. Warb. MSS. 
B. Mus. Lansd. Coll. ut supra, fo. 140. 

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William Tymperon <^ Beverley, whioh was proved 12th Mardb^ 17!^.! 12he 
income by which this institution is maintained arises out of estates in the parish o£ 
Aldborough,. in Hpldemess, and amounts to about £260. a year. The milustoa;o£ 
Saint John and Saint Mary, in Beverley, and the minister of Aldborough, are llie 
trustees. The hospital was endowed for the benefit of six poor persons of either 
sex j two of whom were originally chosen from the parish of Aldborough, two from 
the parish of Saint Mary, and two from that of Saint John ; but by ail order of 
the court of chancery, the benefit of tlie charity has been extended to four ad* 
ditional objects; hence there are at present ten poor perscms who receive six shiU 
lings a week each, with coals, and a certain quantity of clothing. Seven of Ihem 
reside in the hospital, at Beverley, and three in a house built for their accommoda* 
tion at Aldborough. Five are appointed by the vicar of Saint Mary ; three by the 
vicar of Aldborough ; and two by the curate of the minster* The <mly qualification is 
that they be poor persons residing in his parish ^vho has the privilege of appointing. 
The inhabitants of Beverley enjoy the advantage of three extensive common 
pastures, containing together nearly 1200 acres; Westwood,^' including the Hum; 
Figham, including a place called Lund; and Swinemoor.^ They had formerly 
the privilege of stocking another pasture called the Hag, which lay contiguous to 
Westwood and Queengate, but it has long been inclosed, and the right of th^ 
burgesses compensated for by a grant of some land which lies *^ ridge, and furrow" 
upon WestwoodJow-Green. Westwood was formerly part of the domain of the 
archbishop of York, who held with it an estate in Bishop-Burton, called Killing- 
woldgraves. The common of Westwood is therefore stocked jointly by the free 
burgesses of Beverley, and by the tenants of Killingwoldgraves* In Figham, 
none but free burgesses have a right to graze their cattle; but in Swinemoor cer- 
tain copyhold tenants of Beverley Water-Towns enjoy the privilege of stocking to 
a prescribed extent, in common with tlie burgesses of Beverley.^' 

91 Lelaiid mentions the pretty riFolet which ran through Westwood. Habent etiam ad volop- 
tatem tenaem rivnlam ex Westwodde defluentem. Lei. C!ollect. vol. iii. p. 34.. 

^ In Swinemoor is a kind of spa, which was formerly reputed « to be a great dryer," as Camden's 
annotator expresses it, *nf iak«n inwardly, and washed in, dries scorbutic scnrf and all sorts of 
scabs; and also very much helps the king's evil." Gibson. Camd. Col. 744. Mr. Warbnrton says, 
that it is impregnated with steel ; and to increase its virtues was dedicated to Saint John of Beverley. 
Lansd. MSS. 896. VIII. fb. 217 ; and Mr. Bursell adds with Camden,.<Uhat it is a spa three yards 
wide, and if taken inwardly is a great dryer, &c. though it cannot be judged by its taste whether 
it contains any mineral or not" ibid. fo. 274. At present it has no celebrity for any such virtues ; 
9nd is used only as a bath, possessing the property of extreme coldness. 

^ From an unanswered case amongst the Corporation Records.. 

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Havingf thus completed a minute perambulation of the town, our reflections will 
naturally be directed to its moral, civil, and religious construction. Here we find 
a competent provision, not merely for personal protection, but for the absolute 
comfort and enjoyment of every rank into which society is divided and sub-divided 
by general courtesy or individual pride« First, two spacious edifices dedicated to 
the worship of the Creator stand pre-eminently conspicuous; in one of which the 
services of religion are daily performed; and in both, the practice of pure and 
fervent devotion elevates the soul to celestial contemplations. But tolerant in all 
its views, an attendance on the national worship is not coercively enforced by the 
established church, and eveiy individual is left to the exercise of his own discretion, 
whether he will conform, or whether he will dissent. Hence we find in Beverley 
several structures, devoted exclusively to religious purposes, which are not in 
alliance with the establishment, each adapted to the strength and character of its 
own particular system of faith and practice. Next, the ewU welfare of the inhabi- 
tants is strictly guarded by the existence of halls of justice, prisons, and a resid^it 
magistracy, armed with authority to punish the idle and dishonest members of the 
community, to reward the industrious, and to protect the innocent and unwary 
against the effects of violence, fraud or oppression. Establishments for the in- 
struction of youth of every class exist here in full perfection. The sons of the more 
opulent and respectable inhabitants are prepared at the grammar school for the 
honours of our learned universities ; and at the national and other charity schools 
the children of humbler parents are instructed in those duties so necessary for their 
station in life j honesty, sobriety, industry, and the fear of God. The grades of 
society are accurately defined, and each rank enjoys its own peculiar amusements 
and pursuits, without being subject to interruption fi'om any other class ; and while 
the wealthy members of the community indulge in gratifications which are inspired 
by a refined taste and enlightened judgment, the poor and indigent are liberally 
supplied with every comfort which their situation in life demands, firom the muni- 
ficent bequests and noble institutions with which the town abounds; and public as 
well as domestic happiness is distributed with an equal hand, each individusil en- 
joying the quantum which his situation in life, whether humWe or exalted, most 
particularly requires. On the whole, Beverley exhibits no inconsiderable specimen 
of a well-governed, independent, and improving provincial town. 

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(Efi^p. SS. 


Superiority of style and decoration — Site — Materials — Dimensions — East end — 

North porch West front — South transepts — Galilee — Sanctuary — General 

view of the irUerior — West door — Nave — Aisles — Sisters^ tomb — Font — Contrast 
between the east and west windows — Transept — Tomb of George Percy, 
clerk — Ancient tomb and altar — Organ screen — Choir — East window — StaUs 
-^Tabernacle work — Pulpit — Altar screen — Percy shrine — Colonnade — Lady- 
chapel — Hatchments — Reading desk — Vestry ^-^Fridstol — Percy chapels- 
Armorial bearings — Reflections. 

The minster at Beverley has been classed by many of our most learned and 
indefatigable architects and antiquaries in no inferior rank amongst those stu- 
pendouft edifices^ which have been devoted, by the pious munificence of our 

' Drayton, in his Poly-Olbion, (song 28) calls it '^ n gorgeous fiane/^ and makes the imperso* 
nated East-riding thus express herself: — 

<< Beverley whose beauties so delight 

The fair enamoor'd flood, (river Hull) as ravished with the sight, 

That she could ever stay, that gorgeous fane (the minster) to view/* &o. 


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forefathei*s» to the sacred purposes of religion. A middle station has not unaptly 
been assigned to it, between the chaste proportions and feminine splendour 
of Lincoln cathedral; and the massive grandeur, and masculine firmness and 
dignity of that at York. Intrinsically beautiful however, from its ddicate simpli- 
city of design, and masterly display of architectural decoration, Beverley minster 
will not suffer by any comparison, whether considered in the excellency of its 
parts, or the uniform harmony of the whole. Mr. Britton, an acute observer, and 
a competent judge, pronounces it ''a most stately and complete structure, worthy 
to be a cathedral, and ranking amongst the finest of that class/*' And another 
eminent architect, while speaking of its detached parts, says, that some of them are 

Extended as this lofty edifice appears, with an expanse of wall capable of sup- 
porting the immense mass of building which is placed upon it; the grand and 
capacious design has been contrived and executed with such a display of superior 
science, that its appearance exhibits an elegant picture of lightness, united with 
unyielding fimmess and imperishable durability. Nor is it destitute of appropriate 
decorations ; though it must be confessed, that its ornaments have been scattered 
with a more sparing hand than is usual in buildings of the same class* In this 
respect, it is in perfect accordance with the purest style of the several ages in 
which it was erected. The whole of its component parts, relatively considered, 
exhibit a pleasing specimen of that wonderful art and contrivance by which 
Christian architects have manifested their great practical knowledge of geometry, 
in a style of building apparently fantastic, amusing the imagination of the spectatCHr 
by its singular decorations, while the constituent parts are disposed to such ad- 
vantage, as to form one beautiful, dignified, and harmonious whole. If we trace 
the variety of this singular application of geometrical properties throughout the 
complicated operations of this majestic edifice, the union of strength and beauty 
will be found complete. An ample base is first marked out, to secure the per- 
manent stability of the fabric; and instead of a line of dead wall, massive and 
unsightly, all the^parts of its elevation are subdivided into light branches and 
abutments, so contrived as to counteract the effect of its perforations^ while an 
abundance of arch-wurk and tracery is so elegantly disposed and intersected, as to 
partake equally of the circle and the triangle in their powers and in their graces ; 

' Archit Antiq. vol. v. p. 228. ' Rickman. Engl. Archit. p. 106. 

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thus reciprocally uniting their aid to support and to decorate the intended 

Even in the construction of the pillars, necessarily massive for conveying 
strength to sustain their vast altitude^ the gloomy effect of an unvaried pile of 
stone is entirely avoided, by the clustered colunms which adorn their prominent 
surface. No part of the edifice exhibits the ungraceful appearance of what is 
called dead waU. The spacious windows which occupy the greatest extent of the 
extremities^ and sides of the edifice, are constructed on a principle which affords 
a firmness and g^randeur equal to the more solid parts; and the imagination is 
diverted from the disgusting effect which an unbroken surface would produce upon 
ity by the scientific and uniform disposal of niches, intersecting arches, projecting 
outlines, carved ornaments, and variegated mouldings. In these particulars, and 
others to be noticed, we may perceive a remarkable contrast to the whole principle 
and style of Grecian and Roman temples, which were generally massive and dark, 
oblong in form, with plain and solid walls; almost every part constructed on the 
principle of straight lines; and except some entablature, their chief beauty consisted 
of pillars with ornamental capitals, as supporters to the roof, while the demi-gloom 
of a cavern pervaded the whole interior. 

There can exist no comparison between the science exhibited in the constmetion 
of religious edifices by Christian and by heathen architects. The semblance of a 
grove, with a noble avenue of lofly trees, has been rather fancifully, but not unapdy, 
traced throughout the ^Mong drawn aisles" of majestic Christian churches and 
cathedrals; and when placed within the west door of Beverley minster, the idea 
will reign prevalent in the mind, and may be carried on even in the subordinate 
tracery of its magnificent windows; while in the appearance of most heathen 
temples, (always excepting the portico or colonnade) the mass conveys no idea in 
accordance with nature in any of her el^fant productions. It would, however, be 
an indication of vicious taste to withhold a just tribute of praise to the grandeur 
and beauty displayed in some of the sacred edifices constructed by the Greeks and 
Romans; yet^ if we except the Parthenon, the temple of Biana at Epbesus, the 
temple of Concord, the stupendous pantheon at Rome, and some others, the 
boasted magnificence of Italy and Greece united, could produce few entire temples 
which were comparable with Beverley minster. 

Without entering more minutely into such a comparison than is consistent with 
a general illustration of the building under our notice, it may be observed, that 
•notwithstanding the acknowledged splendour of the Grecian colnmns, pilasters, 


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Bnd porticos, many of which were almost sublime, they cotild scarcely be repeated 
in the same building without impairing, if not destroying, the intended effect; a 
disadvantage for which they possessed no adequate remedy. But in the English 
style of architecture, as exhibited in the minster at Beverley, the ingenious artist 
may tastefully repeat his decorations with almost unlimited profusion. Here, all 
is variety, all is harmony. The dull and Weary effect of a continuous line is 
avoided by the introduction of light arcades, composed of pointed arches, and 
ornamented with trefoils, quatrefoils, devices, and all the varieties of enriched 
mouldings repeated in different stories with new and increased effect, until the 
building is raised to a sublime height, equal, if not superior, to any work produced 
by a heathen architect In its colunms the style of Christian architecture infinitely 
surpasses every other, both in the qualities of dimensions and strengthir The vast 
but requisite mass of stone placed at the principal points of English erections, and 
especially in the piers employed to sustain the central tower of Beverley minster^ 
is so tastefully grooved and subdivided on its surface, as to form elegant groups of 
slender colunms, rising to an inconceivable height; and from their upper termina- 
tion, the vast design is continued by the ingenious expedient of springing new 
arches in various directions. This system at once conveys the united idea of light- 
ness and stability, and affords a degree of strength equal to the intended pressure. 
In a word, the multiplicity of arch-work which forms and supports the roof, fills 
up, at the same time, the intervening spaces ornamentally ; thus combining the most 
exquisite richness of decoration, with a strength and durability which time itself 
can scarcely shake or moulder to decay. 

On the exterior of these venerable edifices, a variety of ornamental pinnacles^ 
pannellings, niches, and mouldings are usually introduced by the expert architect^ 
to break and destroy the injudicious effect of a continued sameness of straight line 
or blank wall ; and a multiplicity of flying buttresses are so disposed, as to leave it 
apparently doubtful whether the artist had most in view, a fanciful ornament or 
real utility, when his actual design was to form a happy combination of both. It 
may be doubtful whether the same quantity of materials could, by any exertion of 
talent or genius, be combined within the same dimensions with equal grace and 
lightness in appearance, or permanent strength in real effect, as in the chaste 
construction of our minster. Let its age, the nature of its materials, and the 
graceful effect of its extraordinary combinations be considered; let it be examined 
with critical exactness in all its parts, and then viewed as a connected wh<rfe, and 
what early prejudices soever may have been imbibed in favour of Grecian archi-w 

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tecture^ they most yield to a taperior feeling of admiration and req[>ect for tbe 
taste and execution of the Christian architect; and produce a conTiction that this 
style, beyoAd all others, is the most suitable for the construction of ten^ples {ap- 
propriated to the worship of that Great Being, by whose all-powerful word the 
heavens themselves were made ; who laid the foundations of the earth, and was the 
Supreme Architect who planned and constructed the spacious universe and all that 
it contains/ 

Beverley minst» is erected on a firm bed of indurated clay, whidbi lies about 
five feet beneath the present surface of the grouod. ^ The earliest parts of the 
building may be dated shortly after the year 1188. The architecture of these parts 
resembles that of Salisbury cathedral, exhibiting a plain and simple style; the 
plan is also similar, having a double transept, the roofs are also vaulted with stone ; 
and the cdumns, like those in that cathedral, the standard example ^ the earliest 
variety of the pointed style, are neatly wrought with clustered shafts and capitals, 
composed of plain mouldings without foliage, The nave is more modem than the 
choir and transepts; and die western firont, which was the work of the fiftieenth 

« I am not inseasible that the above observatioiui, as well as others which will oooasionally arise 
respecting the combinations of the heathen with the Christian styles of architecture, which are 
exhibited in some parts of this beautifal church, are mere matters of opinion and taste, and may 
therefore be called into question by those who differ firom me on these points. Mr. Knight, in his 
analytical enquiry into the principles of Taste, pronounces such a sense of '' propriety or congruity^^ 
to be entirely artificial^ and acquired by an habitual association of ideas. ** That style of architeature/' 
says hC) << which we call oathedrali or monastic-gothic, is manifestly a corruption of the sacsed 
architecture of the Greeks and Romans^ by a mixture of the Moorish and Saracenesque^ which is 
formed out of a combination of the I^nrptian, Persian^ and Hindoo. It may easily be traced 
through all its variations, from the church of Santa Sophia, at Constantinople, and the cathedral 
of Moutreale, near Palermo, the one of the sixth, and the other of the eighth century, down to 
King's Chapel at Cambridge, the last and most perfect of this kind of buildings.'' page 165. ** In 
the pictures of Claude and Gaspar, we perpetually see a mixture of Grecian and Gothic architecture 
employed with the happiest effect in the same building, and no critic has ever yet objected to the incon^ 
gnaty of it; for as the temples, tombs, and palaces of the Greeks and Romans in Italy were fortified^ 
with towers and hattlemento by the Goths and Lombards in the middle ages, such combination^ 
have been naturalized in that country; and are therefore perfectly in harmony with the scenery; 
and so &r from interrupting the chain of ideas, that they lead it on and extend it in the pleasantest 
manner, through difierent ages and successive revolutions, in tastes, arts, and sciences. Perhaps 
we are becoming too rigid in rejecting such combinations in the buildings of our own country, 
^•^/; psge 160. Still I contend for a consistent uniformity, which, in the hands of an expert 
Christian architect, will produce an effect unknown even amidst the splendid works of Greece and 
Rome. And the author above cited virtually makes this concession. <^The ctnamenis of the 
monastie-gothic,'* says he, *< consist of indiscriminate imitations of almost every kind of plant and 
animal, scattered with licentious profusion, and without any pre-established rule or general prin- 
ciple ; hut often with Just taste and feeling as to the effect to he produced. No part of the interior. of 
King's Chapel is unomamented; and though the ornaments, conridered with reference to parte 
iMilv, often appear crowded, capricious, and unmeaning, yet the effect of the whole together is more 
mk% grand, light, and airy, than that of any other building known, eitksr andeni or modernJ*'' p. 1 «J. - 

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centurjy appears to have been scarcely completed when the chang^e m religion put 
a period to ecclesiastical magnificence. The great baronial family of Percy, who 
had a castle near Beverley, were liberal benefactors to this church, which contain^ 
some beautifiil tombs for persons of that house, and to them may be ascribed many 
of its enrichments."* 

The materials of which the nave is built were procured from the quarries at 
Bramham-moor, near Tadcaster, and are supposed to have been presented to the 
church by the family of Vavasour j and Mr. Comins is now employed in restoring 
the decayed parts with the same stone, drawn from this inexhaustible source. It 
is a beautifrd close-gprained freestone, in colour nearly approaching to white; and 
composed of this material, highly decorated with the chisel, the nave, when first 
erected, must have been splendid beyond description j although the antiquary will 
prefer the fine russet hue in which time has clothed the whole exterior, as it conveys 
a more grave and venerable appearance to the fabric, and spreads the shade of anti^ 
quity over its battlements and towers. The choir and transepts are built of stone 
from the quarries of Newbald.® 

The general dimensions of the building are as follows. Length firom east to 
west, 334 feet 3 inches; breadth of the nave and side aisles, 64 feet 4 inches; 

& Brittcm. Aroh. Ant vol. v. p. 288. 
' In the year 1721, the bafldingp underwent a complete repairi and many new decorations were 
introdnced from the designs of John Moyser, esquire, who had formerly represented the borough 
In parliament The taste of this gentleman, to whom gieat praise is due for his indefatigable 
perseverance in restoring the decayed parts of the building, was not, unfortunately, in accordance 
with the general character of the edifice. Having imbibed a predilection for the Grecian style <^ 
architecture combined with early English, which, indeed, was the prevailing error of the age iH 
which he lived, he erected the nATvtntl inwt^r of BAverley minster, and blended, with the legitimate 
decorations of pure English character, a profusion of ornaments copied from the designs of classical 
antiquity, chaste indeed, and elegant, but utterly anomalous and at variance with the primitive 
taste of those truly English architects, who, at dinerent periods had contributed their aid towards 
the composition df this noble pile of building. On the summit of the tower he placed a cupola, 
or vast circular ''leaden bonnet,^' crowned with a gilded ball : 

''A leaden dome intrusive to the sight, 

On sumptuous arches bears its oval height; 

A gilded globe placed high with artful skill. 

Seems to the distant view a golden Pill.^— Dr. Garth* 

At this time also the nave was fitted up with pews, and new galleries were erected, supported 
by Grecian pillars of the Doric order, and adorned with triglyphs. A Grecian organ screen, and 
an altar screen of the same schocd were constructed at a prodigious expense, the latter consistiiig 
of a triumphal arch, supported by four pair of Corinthian pillars, and surmounted by an eagl^ 
the emblem of Saint John, curiously carved and magnificently gilded. The reading-desk and the 
pulpit were of the same taste, and here the eagle was repeated. <' Nothing can be more disgustingj^^ 
says Muiphy^ in his Histoiy of Batalha Abbey, '<to every admirer of antiquity, or indeed to any 

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length of the great transept, 169 feet; breadth of the transept and side aisles,, 09 
feet; length of the choir, 46 feet; breadth of the choir, 26 feet 7 inches; height 
of the nave, 66 feet 6 inches; height of the choir aisles, 33 feet 3 inches; height 
of. the central tower, 107 feet; height of the west towers, 200 feet; height of the 
west window, 41 feet; breadth of the same, 21 feet 8 inches; height of the east 
window, 48 feet 8 inches; breadth of the same, 21 feet 10 inches/ 

The stranger who approaches Beverley from Hull finds his curiosity strongly 
excited by the interesting appearance which the south-east view of the minster, 
flanked by its beautiful western towers, most strikingly displays.^ On entering 
the suburbs of the town, a close and distinct view of the east end attracts the eye, 
and by its unaffected grandeur and fine preservation, prepossesses the mind with 
ideas .which are almost sublime. ^ The original elevation of this front may be 
supposed to have been lighted by tall narrow windows, similar to those of the 
transept; the buttresses and pinnacles at the angles retaining their origpinal cha- 
racter in the same style. The principal window was evidently copied from that at 
York, which was built in the early part of the fifteenth century. The chieif mullions 
are strengthened by parallel ones on the inside, which bear a small gallery, con- 
nected with the transom, which divides the lights into two portions. A similar 
expedient was practised at York, where the window has two transoms with interiw 
galleries. The skill of the architects of these structures, in combining great du- 
rability and strength with the utmost lightness of effect, cannot but excite our 

man of the least taste, tban this jnmble of Grecian work, patched np in the most striking purts of 
a Gothic (Christian) stmctnre.'^ The good taste of the present trustees for keeping the minster 
in repair, has recently removed all these offensive objects, except the organ screen ; and it may 
be hoped that the period is not far distant when even that also shall be obliterated, and a more 
consistent decoration jsnbstitated in its place. When the cnpola was taken down, an inscription 
in red chalk was fonnd in the centre of the ball, containing the name of the artificer, and the date 
of the year when it was erected. ITie Grecian galleries^ Ac. are mostly taken down, and the 
choir and small south transept are fitted np with pews fior the nse of the congregation* 

' In the proportions of ecclesiastical buildings, the height was generally considered to be eenal 
to the breadth of the body and «ide aisles; the height of the tower abont the same as the length of 
the transept; that lei^h corresponding with half the length of the whole fabric; the side aisles 
were half the breadUi and height of the nave; Willis. Hist Abb. vol. ii. Prefl VIII. and the 
breadth was about one-fifth of the length. These comparative dimensions correspond very nearly 
with those of Beverley minster. 

' I quote irom Evelyn's Memoirs a paragraph which will shew the stranger's opinion almost 
two centuries ago. «' 18th August, 1654. We went to Beverley, a large towne with 2 stately 
churches, Saint John's and Saint Maries, nd much inferior to the best of our cathedrals. Here a 
very old woman shew'd us the monuments, and being above 100 years old^ spake y* language of 
queen Marie's daies, in whose time she was bom ; she was widow of a sexton who had belonged 
to J* ohnrdi an hundred yeares/' 

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admiration; and their boldness in introducing new embellishments into the works 
of their predecessors, is astonishing."' 

The principal window in this front is tall, and divided into two stages by an 
ornamented transom, above which is a profusion of rich perpendicular tracery; the 
whole surmounted by an elegant ogee, decorated with crockets, and terminating 
in a superb finial. The window has nine lights. The upper part of this front, 
including the gable, is lightened in its effect by an abundance of trefoil and qua- 
trefoil paimeUing, having a line of quatrefoil ornaments at the base, the pannelling 
foeittg' repeated on the turrets which boldly project fix>m the angles; and these, 
crowned by lofty cones, rise above the terminating finial of the gable. On the two 
buttresses where the arch of the window springs its curve arc figures of king 
Athelstan and Saint John of Beverley, placed under tabernacles, but from their 
diminutive size the effect intended to be produced by their introduction here, is 
much diminished by the distance. 

Passing the north end of the transept, which is here represented ; 

» Briltou. Arch. Ant. vol. v. p. 230. 

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«nd whichy at the beginning of the last century, had faUeh away four feet beyond 
its base, and was replaced by the ingenuity of Mr. Thornton ;^^ not without noticing 
the beautiful parapet, decorated with a double row of rose ornaments^ the stranger 
arrives at the great north porch, which, as a pannelled front, is described by 
Rickman to be unequalled. ^The door has a double canopy, the inner an ogee, 
and the outer a triangle, with beautiful crockets and tracery ; and is flanked by 
fine buttresses breaking into niches, and the space above the canopy to the cornice 
is pannelled; the battlement is composed of rich niches, and the buttresses crowned 
by a group of four pinnacles." " In one of the buttresses of the north tower is 
observed a standing figure with flowing drapery, which escaped the rage of pu» 
ritanical predominancy, and remains as a specimen of the taste and execution of 
the sculptor. It is said to be a figure of some member of the Vavasour &mily, 
who is supposed to have given the free use of his stone quarries at Tadcaster, 
towards the building of this part of the church. 

Passing forward through the minster yard,'^ which is rather spacious on the 
west, the visitor is struck with the extraordinary beauty of the west firont, which is 

1® Vid. at supra, p. 241. The annexed copper-plate engravings, as well as the following 
explanations, have been taken from the designs and illastrationa published by Mr. Thornton 
himself. The first plate contains a view of the north gable of the great transept, which had actu- 
ally fallen away four feet from its perpendicular, and was replaced by means of the finme work 
here described. The second plate contains a section of the trusses and buildings. The method 
used to produce this herculean effect may be ascertained by a description of the machinery. A. A. 
The beams or bases of the trusses. B. B. The upright posts next the face of the building. C. C. 
Principals of the trasses. D. D. Braces. E. £. Binders let into the beams. F. F. Strutts from 
the binders to the building. G. G. Planks to receive the strutts. H. H. The jacks to raise the 
trusses. 1. 1. Screws to assist in moving the trusses. K. K. Bases for the jacks to work on. 
L. L. Pnnchins to support the lower beams. M. M. Timbers to stop the front firom going beyond 
its place. N. N. A frame to stop the inner trusses when the fit>nt came to its place. O. O. Wedges 
to ease the trusses down with. P. P. The wall which was taken down to give room for getting 
the front back to its original situation. When the trusses were fixed on boUi sides, the wall was 
cut to the centre at Q. level with the base of the trusses, that it might give way upon raising the 
whole machineiy, and so come into its place ; being in the mean time supported by several wc^ges^ 
which were gradually taken out as the building came back into its place. 

" Rickman. Engl. Archit. p. 106. 
>> The following ridiculous stoiy about the supernatural virtues of this consecrated cemetir, is 
veiy gravely recited by Cressy, in his Church History, p. 565, << I will onley adde what William 
of Malmesbury relates as a thing usually performed and generally acknowledged by the inhabitants 
of Beverley, in testimony of the sanctity of their glorious patron ; which is, that the fiercest bulls 
being haled with many strong ropes by the force and sweat of severall lusty men, assoon as they 
are brought into his churchyard immediatelv lose all their fury and fierceness, and become gentle 
as lambes, so that they are there left to their freedom to sport themselves, whereas before with 
their feet and horns they endangered all that came near them.^* 


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esteemed by competent judg^, to be one of the finest instances which this country 
can produce of the perpendicular style. ^ What the west front of York is to the 
decorated style^ this is to the perpendicular^ with this addition, that in this front 
liothing but one style is seen, all is harmonious. Like York minster, it consists 
of a very large west window to the nave, and two towers for the end of the aisles^ 
the window is of nine lights, and the tower windows of three lights. The windows 
of the tower correspond in range nearly with those of the aisles and derestory 
windows of the nave; the upper windows of the tower are belfry windows. Each 
tower has four lai^e and eight small pinnacles, and a very beautiful battlement. 
The whole front is paimelled, and the buttresses, which have a very bold projection^ 
are ornamented with various tiers of niche-work, of excellent composition, and 
most delicate execution. The doors are uncommonly rich, and have the hanging 
feathered ornament The canopy of the great centre door runs up above the sill 
of the window, and stands free in the centre light with a very fine efiect. The 
gable has a real tympanum which is filled with fine tracery.'"' 

A pavement of smooth stones has been recently discovered in the minster yard, 
on the south side of the west end of the church, which is firmly placed on the solid 
clay, and appears to give some countenance to the supposition, that the ancient 
building, which was destroyed by fire, in 1188, was either of greater extent than the 
present church, or occupied a somewhat different site. This pavement might be a 
part of the floor of the crypt, on which it is probable the former edifice was built, for 
vestiges of a more ancient building remain on the south side of the adjoining tower, 
which are placed on a basis exhibiting the appearance of the dwarfish columns 
and ponderous arches which usually characterize these subterranean apartments.'* 

To describe minutely all the transcendent beauties which are constellated in this 
distinguished edifice, with all the technicality of architectural precision, would be 
tedious to the general reader; yet, a copious outline may be equally acceptable and 
useful; and this, added to the accompanying embellishments, will convey an 
adequate idea of its merits, as a superb specimen of the various styles of English 

>* Rickman. Engl. Arohit. p. 105. 

'^ Mr. CominB has taken the pains to excavate down to the base of these columns, and he pro- 
nounces them to be the pHlars of a ciypt Mitchell, the sexton, seldom opens a grave hi this 
quarter of the churchyard, but some of these smooth stones turn up. I have seen many specimens. 
They are square and thin, of a white colour, and close-grained ;. but the actual extent of the 
pavement has not been ascertained.. 

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ia*cliitecture» We will conduct the stranger therefore roond the minster^ and before 
we pass the sacred threshold to survey the beauties of the interior, we will point out 
to his notice, the peculiarities of the south end of the two transepts. *^ The com- 
pleteness, the regularity, and the fine proportions of the elevation of the south front 
of the larger transept, make it worthy of minute examination; such an example of 
the style of the thirteenth century being very rarely to be met with."'* It consists 
of four stages besides the gable. The lower compartment has a double pointed 
door, surmounted by a semicircular arch, with lateral pointed arcades* The second 
stage has three tall and noble lancet windows, and the third the same, except that 
here the centre one is rather taller than its two lateral companions, and the upper 
stage has a fine ornamented rose window, of large dimensions, and containing ten 
lights, flanked by tall niches with oylets; and in the gable is a vertical slit window 
which penetrates to its highest angle. The buttresses which bound this central 
part of the transept are slender and elegant, the lower compartments, containing 
niches, which are trefoil headed and canopied by triangles, and the upper crowned 
with pannelled pinnacles, surmounted by cones, rising somewhat higher than the 
apex of the gable. The end of the aisles has each a corresponding lancet window, 
over which are circular lights, so judiciously disposed, as to display, in a most 
striking manner, the exquisite judgment and refined taste of the skilful architect, 
by whom this portion of the building was designed. The south end of the small 
transept is of three stages, each containing two lancet windows; the lower tier 
surmounted by an arcade of eight acute pointed arches, supported by cylinders; 
over the second tier is a circular window of four lights, surrounded by the toothed 
ornament, and flanked by quatrefoils, three on each side, two and one; and over 
the upper tier is a small lancet window, in the centre of the gable. On each side 
are strong buttresses, pannelled and crowned with cones. The parapet is open 
and trifoliated. 

The visitor once more passes the east end, and enters the edifice by the north 
porch, over which he is shown a small chamber, where in ancient times, the porter 
of the convent had his bed, that he might be ready to attend to the call of claimants 
for the privilege of sanctuary, whose crimes deterred them from approaching the 
sacred chair of peace by the light of day. With trembling hand the refugee 
touched a small bell, which was suspended at the entrance of the porch, and 

1' Britton. Aroh. Ant vol. v. p. 229. 

2 r2 

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anxioiisly awaited an answer to his summons. When admitted into the g^ilee,'' 
he might remain in safety for the night; and in the morning a chapter was as- 
sembled, to hear and record the details of his case.'^ The sanctuary oath was then 
administered, and having deposited the customary fee for registering the circum- 
stances of his crime, he was seated in the fridstol, and permitted to remain within 
the precincts, until he was favoured with an opportunity of compromising with his 
adversary ;'' or, in case of murder, with the sui*viving relations and friends of the 
unhappy sufferer.'^ 

'• The galilee was "a ginaU gallery or balcony open towards the nave of a conventual charch, 
fipom which visitors, or the family of the abbot, with whose residence it commanicated, niight view 
processions. Here also the female relatives of the monks were permitted to have interviews 
with them. From this last circnmstance. Dr. Milner explains the origin and derivation of the 
appellation. On a woman^s applying for leave to see a monk, her relation, she was answered in 
the words of scripture; "he goeth before yon into Galilee, there you shall see him.''* Britton. 
Archit Ant vol. v. Append, xlii. « Every Sunday a sermon was preached in the galilee, from one 
to three in the afternoon; previous to which, at twelve, the great bell of the galilee tolled three 
quarters of an hour, and rung the fourth quarter till one o'clock, that the people might have 
warning to come and hear the word of God preached.'* Fosbr. Monach. vol. ii. p. 115. 

'^ The places of sanctuary, in process of time having been much abused and diverted from 
their original purpose, to serve as a protection to villany against the honest portion of the com- 
munity, became objects of general scandal and complaint. « Debtors took refuge there," says 
Stowe, in his quaint style, "and bid their creditors go whistle; men's wives ran thither with their 
husband's plate, and said that they dare not abide with their husbands for beating them ; thieves 
brought thither their stolen goods and lived thereon ; there they devised robberies ;" Ac. &c. In 
the 21st year of the reign of Henry VIII. an act was passed to restrain this unbounded licence, 
which provided that any felon or murderer taking sanctuary subsequently to the passing of the 
act, << immediately after his confession and before his abjuracion shall be marked with an bote 
yron upon the brawne of the thombe of the right hande with the signe of an A, to the entent he 
may the better be knowen amonge the kinge's subjectes that he was abjured. And all mayres, 
&c. shall be attendant at the dew execution thereof as they will answer at the parils to the kynge, 
and than to gyv hym his abjuracion, &c," 21 Hen. VIII. c. 2. In the next year another statute 
ordained that abjured persons should remain in sanctuary on pain of death for quitting the same ; 
and that sanctuary men committing oifences shall forfeit the benefit of sanctuary. 22 Hen. VIII. 
o. 14. This was followed up by an act which provided that sanctuary should not be allowed in 
cases of high treason; 26 Hen. VIII. cap. 13.; and another, which decreed that sanctuary men 
should not be allowed the use of weapons; that they should wear badges in the day time when 
abroad, and they were not allowed to be out of sanctuary at night. 27 Hen. VIII. c. 19. Soon 
were the number of these privileged places restricted to eight, of which York was one, and they 
did not afford protection to persons guilty of deadly crimes; 32 Hen. VIII. c. 12. and in a few 
years the sanctuaries were entirely abolished. 

" By the laws of Ina, A. D. 693, any person guilty of a capital crime taking refuge in a churchy 
his life shall be spared, on condition that he makes recompence to the friends of the deceased, 
according to justice and equity ; and if one who had merely incurred the punishment of stripes 
should tdce such refuge, his punishment should be suspended. 

«» At the commencement of the reign of Edward I. the archbishop of York clauned the privi- 
lege of sanctuary for his churches of Beverley and Ripon. Die' q'd ip'e dam' ab antiq? q'd si 

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To take an advantageous view of the interior of this superb edifice^ the stranger 
should seat himself in one of the niches, which are disposed to the south of the 
great west door, and near the western pilasters of the tower. Here he may deli- 
berately survey the many noble and interesting objects which present themselves to 
his notice, in fine perspective. Here he may at leisure contemplate the multiplicity 
of its parts, and the sublimity of its construction. Here he may enjoy a com- 
manding and satisfactory view of the pillars and arches^ and internal scenery of 
the building. In this diagonal view, tlie disparity of the north arches and windows 
is lost in the perspective; and collectively the effect will be so striking, that 
pleasure and astonishment will contend for the superiority in his enraptured mind. 
Let it be considered, that the spectator now visits this noble edifice for the first 
time; that he is seated alone, on one of the stone seats in the situation already 
pointed out, and views with abstracted attention the scene before him. To describe 
the effect it would produce must unavoidably tend to do it injustice. It must be 
experienced to be felt and understood, for he is now within the sacred walls of one 
of those g^rand churches, which, as Warton observes, are of wonderful mechanism, 
constructed on principles of inexplicable architecture, and possessing a tendency 
to impress the soul with sensations of awe and religious veneration. 

In contemplating the long perspective of the nave, with its slender columns, 
and ceiling groined and ribbed with stone, the spectator may fancy himself within 
a superb avenue of lofty trees, whose upper branches are elegantly intertwined in 
an endless variety of complicated combinations. He views the grand design with 
increasing attention, and soon becomes imbued with other sentiments than those of 
mere admiration of the building, as a superb specimen of the almost unlimited 
extent to which the exertions of human science may be carried. Worldly consi- 
derations are rapidly swept away, to make room for ideas of greater solemnity. 
The solemn echo which reverberates the lightest footstep, and with hollow murmurs 
repeats the softest sound; the dead and awful silence which succeeds j the unusual 
splendour of the extended prospect; the striking solemnity which surroui:ids him, 
all combine, with indescribable harmony, to melt his soul into that feeling of devo- 
tion, which irresistibly stamps on his excited mind the gpreat idea of a present 

aliqais homicidia renerit infra harducd apnd Beverlacu v^l apad Ryponn et cognovMt se comissisee 
homioidiu Ac. ballM ip'ius Arch' accepto ab ip'o sacro sc'dm consaetadineni> &c. ip'm recipiut Ac. 
et remanebit infira lib'tatem pM'cam set si suspic'o sit de eo de alio malef 'co &c. fit de eo sicat 
SQpMns d*cm est aliis captis et imp' sonatis in pMca lib'tate &c. et alios malef Hores n' alio moda 
dam' eof reoettare &o. • 

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God. His enraptured thoughts, thus spontaueously elevated to celestial contem- 
plations, proceed from one conception to another of still increasing sublimity, till 
the spell is broken, perhaps, by the distant thunder of some closing door, and he 
starts from his pleasing trance, to pursue the more sensual amusement of examining 
the scenes before him. 

There exists a pleasing analogy between certain appearances in nature, and the 
curious and complicated perspective in ecclesiastical architecture. We muse with 
sentiments of .unmixed pleasure and satisfaction, on the effect of those grand 
avenues, which have been formed by art, amidst the stately groves that surround 
the ancient mansions of our nobility ; and we are agreeably surprized, at observing 
the mimic resemblance of these scenes in the interior of magnificent Christian 
edifices, where, as if by magic power, an immensity of wrought stone assumes the 
likeness and venerable gloom of a vast and shaded avenue of trees.^ This similarity 
i« beautifiilly described by sir Walter Scott : — 

'< The moon on the east oriel shone. 
Through slender shafts of shapely stone. 

By foliaged traceiy combined ; 
Thon wonldst have thonght some faiiy^s hand, 
'Twixt poplars straight the osier wand 

In many a freakish knot had twined ; 
Then firamM a spell when the work was done. 
And changM the willow-wreaths to stone/^^^ 

Such will be the spectator's sentiments, while endeavouring to form an estimate 
of the admirable scene exhibited in the construction of Beverley minster; and he 
will soon be sensible, that in order to do justice to the undertaking, it would be 
necessary to possess, not only the plans, details, and elucidations, but also the 
scientific knowledge and vast conceptions of those superior architects who originally 
contrived to blend, without disorder or confusion, so many detached parts in one 
grand, magnificent, and beautiful assemblage. 

The spacious entrance door, at the west end, is flanked on each side by an 
arcade, with canopies supported by cylinders. The door itself is of oak, and de- 
corated with specimens of extremely bold and tastefiU carving, apparently of the 

^ Vid. sir James Hall's Essay on the origin, history, and principles of Oothio architecture. 
*^ Sootf s Lay of the last Minstrel, canto ii. v. 1 1. 

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^ame age as the Greden work already mentioned. It is divided into eight com? 
partmentSy surmounted by a profusion of elegant flower embroidery, carved iji 
volutes, the centres teiminating in weU executed figures of angels blowing 
trumpets. In the four upper compartments, which are canopied by pointed arches, 
are placed the four evangelists, and the corresponding squares beneath, are deco* 
rated with their legitimate symbols, the cherubic figures of a man, an ox, a Uoi^ 
and tax eagle.^ The window above has nine lights, ornamented with perpendicular 
tracery, and headed with cinquefoil arches* 

The nave consists of three stories, the lower containing pointed arches, with 
archivolt mouldings springing from lofty clustered columns. The second story, 
or triforium, is an extended arcade, composed of plain pointed arches, curiously 
placed behind higher arches trefoil, ornamented with rose mouldings; and above 
the capital of the lower pillars, and within the span of the trefoil arch, quatrefoils 
are introduced with pleasing efiect, their points being flowered, while the toothed 
ornament is used in the recesses. The upper, or clerestory, has windows with 
pointed arches and tracery, supported on each side by small lancets, tastily disposed, 
and decorated with the ball flower ornament.*' ^ The rich tracery and sculptured 
details which became fashionable in the 14th century, are here superadded to the 
simple outlines displayed in other parts. Many of these enriched members may 
find a parallel in the nave of the mother church at York, with which Beverley 
minster was always intimately connected; and the ruined choir of Howden col- 
legiate church has also many details still more closely resembling these." *^ 

The aisles of the nave contain large windows, with acute pointed arches, and 
ornamented with flowing tracery. Beneath the windows is a tier of ogee arches, 
supported by small marble cylinders, the niches being tabernacled and surrounded 
by crockets, with grotesque figures, sculptured at the junction of the mouldings; 
but at present much dilapidated. These cylinders are ingeniously contrived to 
convey an idea of elegant lightness, where a vast bulk of solid material appears to 
be placed upon them. The capitals of most of these columns are corresponding 

^ A copious elucidation of these sublime emblems mij be found in a work called ^ Signs 
iKD Stmbols,^^ recently published by the author of this History. 

^ The bones of Saint John of Beverley have been deposited at the east end of the nave, im- 
mediately underneath that part of the pavement which is perpendicular with the second rose in the 
groining of the roof. 

^ Britton. Arcb« Ant vol. v. p. 230« 

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eaijatides, representing elioral musicians and angebi devoutly playing on violins^ 
bagpipes^ hautboys, guitars, the rebec or crowd, and the serpent, for a deep and 
sonorous bass, which was used for accompanying and filling up the vocal parts of 
the choir service, before the use of the organ became general in our cathedral and 
collegiate churches. This kind of ornament appears to have been in high esteem 
amongst the architects at Beverley, for it is repeated above the capitals on either 
side of the body of the nave, near the west door; and also in the Lady*chapel im- 
mediately over the monuments of the Wartons and the Pennymans.^ 

In the south aisle of the nave^ are the remains of a sepulchral monument, which 
is said to perpetuate the memory of two maiden ladies, who are feigned to have 
made a voluntary grant of a large extent of pasture ground in Beverley, as common 
right to the burgesses at large. It is even added that these benevolent females 
were members of the family of earl Puch or Puca, who resided at Bishop-Burton, 
and in whose household Saint John of Beverjey is said to have effected a mi- 
racalous cure.^ This conjecture is not entitled to credit^^ The altar tomb is in 
the early decorated stifle of architectiure, and may have been erected about the 

^ The following arms were visible in the minster at the visitation of the norroy king at arms, 
in 1584, thongh I cannot ascertain in what particular part 

1. Quarterly. 1 and 4. Sable a Bend A. double collised floree. 

2 and 3. Three Escallops. Gules. 
Impaling. Fert. 3 Bends Gules, over all a chevron Ermine. Kslkb. 

2. A. 3 heads Sable in chief B. a lion passant A. 

Harl. MSS. B. Mns. 1394-57* 

*^ In the south aisle of the nave are two stone coffins, of veiy ancient date, which have been 
recently found at the east end of the south side of the building. One was taken up in the month 
of December, 1816, and contained the bones of a male and a female. Others have been found 
during the present year (1827) but the difficulty of extracting them entire is so great, that the 
Mxtott generally leaves them in the groundi or takes them out in broken fragments. From the 
i^pecimens exhibited in the nave, it should appear that this mode of sepulture was used at Beverley 
for a considerable period of time, for the two sarcophagi are evidently the workmanship of different 
ages. These receptacles for the dead were used in Saxon times for kings, ecclesiastics, and 
opulent nobles. Bede. 1. 4. c. iv. Kings were usually buried in linen, and the clergy in the 
habiliments of their office. Ibid. c. xix. 

^ Vid. infra. Par. IV. c. iil. 
** Indeed there is no truth whatever in this tale. The pastures of Hum and Westwood were 
conveyed to the burgesses by a grant from Alexander Neville, archbishop of York, in the reign 
of Richard II. ; Corp. Rec. 1 1 D. reserving to himself and successors the right of a lime-kiln, 
with the privilege of drift and redrift, through the various ways and places heretofore used, and 
the payment of one hundred shillings per annum. These rights descended, by a subsequent grant 
from the crown to the lord of the manor for the time being, to whom the payment of one hundred 
shillings per annum is still made by the corporation. 

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(xunmeiiceineiil of the ireign of Edward III. It » a chaste and highly finished 
specimen of that period, and contains the pointed arch, with square tnrreti 
or pinnacles rising from buttresses richly ornamented with crockets and ftnials. 
The canopy is groined. The flat stone which covers the tomb is a masore slab of 
porbedc marble, munscribed.'^ 

The baptismal font is also in this aisle. The chief recommendation to the notice 
of the visitor which this font possesses, is, its antiquity; being, most probably, 
quite as old as the first building of the church. It is composed of a Inge bason^ 
in shape the iGrustum of a sphere, hollowed out of an entire agate of a dark colour, 
and thickly charged with an intricate mass of shells and other petrified substances, 
the inside being protected by a coating of lead. Its diameter is 3 feet B inches; 
hdlght of the bason 18 inches ; height of the pedestal the same, and height of Ae 
base 8 indies.*^ Over it is suspended a massive cone of richly carved oak, highly 
decorated with a omibination of figures and flowers tastefully disposed in wreaAs 
and festoons, of the same age as the carvings on the west doot. 

The nave is supported by ten noble piUars on each side; and the central tower 
by four masnve i»ers of fine construction, each being formed by four large and 

" It may be here remarked, as applicable to many of these ancient monaments, that there were 
far, if any, inaoribed tombs from the Conquest to the reign of Edward III. except for monarehs and 
the chief nobility. Lethallier, on Sepnl. Mon. in ArchaM>K toL i. p. 239. The olassifioatira of 
tombs and monamental effigies has been attempted by Maarioe J ohnson, the founder of the Spalding 
Lifteraty Society, and aftar him by Mr. Gongh, who haye arranged them nnder eight mibrent 
beads: — 

1. Coffin-shaped stones, prismatic and plain at top. 

2. Prismatic and canred at the top, with crosses plam and flenry ;— A. D. 1160. 
S. Tables, on which are effigies or scnlptare ;-^to A. D. 1226. 

4. Tombs with festoons or arches over them. This class was succeeded by more lofty tombii, 
with arches, crockets, finials, pinnacles, d^c. 

5. Tombs in chapel burial places* These consisted mostly of open screens with doorm altav 
monuments, piscinas, niches, &o. 

6. Tombs inlaid with brass, both representing figures of the deceased, and inscriptions either in 
cameo or intaglio. These are mostly of the 1 4th century. 

7. Against the wall ; chieflly since the Reformation. 

8. Detached buildings; as domes, obelisks, colunms, and eonestrian statues. 

Yid. Britton. Arcti. Ant vol. v. Append, xxiii. 
^ There are two distinct and hostile opinions respecting the antiquity of this font One gen- 
tteman, in a letter to me, expresses himself as follows. '^ I very much doubt whether this font ia 
of Bay great antiquity. The pedestal on which it stands is the only part which to my eye possesses 
the wpearance of antiquity, and that by no means decidedly so. It is to be observed likewise, 
tM till lately, there was in the workshop a font evidently of ancient workmanship, which probably 
waa diaplaoad when the present font was substituted. The old font was sold to Mr. Crof^ and \b, 
I believe, in Rowley church.^ Another friend says, << I consider the font all of a piece, and very 
ancient I am inclined to believe that it is certainly Saxon.'' 


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four small shafts placed alt^nately, and erected on an octagonal base 2 feet 
2i inqhes in altitude." 

; The curious visitor should now place himself on the central black stone in the 
middle $pace beneath the tower; and in this situation he will enjoy a still more 
general and commanding prospect of the interior, embracing alternately the whole 
extent of the nave, the greater transept, and the choir. In taking a deliberate 
view of this extensive scene of admirable workmanship, he is forcibly struck with 
the very perceptible contrast between the beauty and attraction exhibited in the 
east and the painful glare of the west window. The former by its mild beanis of 
intercepted light soothes his soul to rapture, and infuses into his bosom an inde- 
scribable sensation of pleasure and. delight j while the stately west window in all 
the pride of architectural decoration, overwhelms him by its shadowy lustre and 
tmvaried whiteness. But turning by an involuntary motion to the east, his eye re- 
poses with satisfaction on the exuberant colours and enriched featherings of this 
superb specimen of Christian workmanship.'^ 

The transept is composed of three stories like the nave, and the plainness of its 
windows, devoid of the, rich tracery exhibited in the nave, marks decisively the 
difference of style which prevailed in the ages when the parts of this church were 
respectively erected. The irregularity which may be traced in the size and pro- 
portions of the north transept windows, may be attributed to the repairs, which, at 
different periods, this part of the fabric has undergone. Those in the south are of 
greater regularity. The transept is supported by eight arches on each side; and 
the aisles contain some valuable specimens of ancient sculpture which ought to be 
careftilly preserved. In the east aisle of the north transept stands an altar tomb on 
which is placed a recumbent figure in the attitude of prayer. The sides of the 
tomb are pannelled, the pannels being canopied with pointed arches and traceryt 
and the buttresses decorated with crockets and finials. The pediment is plain, and 
the slab purfled with rose ornaments. The figure is clothed in a flowing robe 
embellished profusely with shields. His alb is fringed as well as his maniple; and 

*> The moimments in the nave are two ; one In the sonth aisle to the memoty of the Rev. F. 
Gwynne^ head master of the grammar school, 1816; and the other to Margaret Stow, 1815, 
against the north porch door. 

^^ I shonld strongly recommend to the trustees of this magnificent fahric, if fiinds could be 
raised for the purpose^ to introduce stained glass into this nohle west windoWj which, if disposed- 
with taste and elegance, would add mach to the beauty of the interior, and convey to it a new and 
lasting claim on the admiration of the beholders. 

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over his chesible, in front, falls a rich scarf or pall. The head is placed on a 
double cushion and supported by cherubs j the feet on a lion. It is the effigies of 
George Percy, a clergyman and canon of Beverley ;** and haii a place originaUy 
amongst the other monuments of this noble family; but has been removed by some 
accident to its present situation, during the repairs of the church. It is supposed 
1^ have been dignified by a canopy. The arms on this monument are as follows. 
Under the left ear of the figure. 

1. A bend inter two roses. 

2. Three lions passant g^rdant. 

On the wrist. 

3. A chevron, with a bird in base. 

4. A bend.^ 

Down the middle of the robe. 
6. Three 1^ armed proper conjoined in fess at the upper part of the thigh; 
flexed in the triangle, garnished and spurred.^ 

6. A maunch.^ 

7. A bend engrailed cottised, with a crescent, or something too much defaced 
to be distinguished with any certainty. 

8. Cheque. — Warren^ 

9* Three lions passant guardant— over all a label of three points.^ 

^ '<Oeoffg» Percy, sixth son of Henry, second earl of Northamberland, was bom at Leckon- 
fieU, on Saint Sampson^s day, anno 1 424. He was a clergyman, yet he does not appear to have 
attained any other preferment hot to a prebend in the collegiate church of Beverley. Collins, by 
fiiydgei^ vol. ii. p. 282. 

^ Anciently, Peter de Malo Lacn or Mauley, bore, Or^ a bend Sable. He was summoned \o 
parliament, temp. Edw. III. In Drake's Eboracum, this coat is on a son of Poynings, A. D. 1461, 
quartered with Fitz-Payne, and impaled with Brabant and Lucy. 

^ On the accession of Henry IT. Henry Percy had a grant of the Isle of Man, to hold by 
carrying thp Lancaster sword, worn by the king when he landed at Ravenspume, before him at the 
coronation. Rot Pat 1 Hen. IT. m 35. 

** Topaa, a maunch ruby, belonged to the family of Hastings, and is quartered by the right 
honourable the earl of Kent ^ Katharine Percy, second daughter of Henry, second earl of North- 
umberland, was bom at Leckonfield, May 18, 1423. She married Edmund, lord Grey, of Ruthin, 
who was advanced to the dignity of earl of Kent, in the fourth year of king Edward IT.*' Collins, 
nt supra. 

^ Henry de Percy married Eleanor Plantagenet, daughter of John, earl of Warren and Surrey ;, 
circa, 1250. He died in 1272, leaving three sons. Ex. Reg. de Lewes. 

^ The lady Maiy Plantagenet, daughter of the earl of Lancaster, married Heniy, third lord 
Percy, of Alnwick, at her father's castle of Tutbury, in Staffordshire, A. D. 1384, when she waa 
only 14 years of age. She died 1st September, 1362, leaving issue two sons, one of whom waa 
Heniy, first earl of Northumberiand. 


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Oil the bottom of the robe. 

10. A lion rampanL— ^roteftf.^ 

11. A few bktm Ihxee Boar's heads couped. 
Betwecsn the legi^ 

IS. A cbeTron between three escallops.^ 

la. Eretty/ the field charg^ witJi fleur-de-lis, impaled with three lions passant 
guardant, in chief three fleur-de-lis.^' 
On the right side. 

14. Barry of three, chief charged with three roundels.^ 

15. Defaced. 

16. A cronal in bend with three mourns.^' 

17. Defaced. 

18. A fess between three inverted chevrons. 

In the same aisle is another tomb, also nninscribed, with an anciait figure laid 
supine upon it, having a venerable beard, its hands elevated towards heaven, and 
Supported by two recumbent angels much defaced. Near this stands the ruins of 
a VQtive altar, fimnerly inlaid with brass or some more precious metal; bat now. 

^ Agnes de Percy, in wboMi were vested the honours of the fiunihr, was married to Josoeline 
of Lonvain, brother of queen Adelicia, second wife of king Henry 1.; who were both the issue 
of Godlrejr Barbatus, duke of Nether-Lorrain, and count of Brabant and Louvain, descended 
lineally from the ancient dukes or counts of Hainaulty and from the second race i^kmgB of Frtnce 
sprung from the emperor Charlemange. All the ancient writers have deliFered, &at the lady 
Agnes, being heiress to so great an estate^ would only consent to marry Joscelinei upon oondtfion 
that he should either adopt the name or arms of Percy ; and that he, consulting with the queen, 
his sister, chose to assume the name of Percy, which was ever after borne by his descendants; 
but retained his own paternal arms, or^ a lion rampant azure i which are generally styled by our 
English heralds, the old arms of Brabant, which they say were afterwards changed for those now 
borne for that duchy, viz. sable^ a lion rampant, or.'^ Collins, by Brydges, vol. ii. p. 226. 

^ OuleM a chevron argmU inl9r three escallops. I find this coat in Ouillim's Heraldry, Impaled 
for D^ Acres, with Broad Lumceford. 

^' The first is fonnd hi the fifth place of the arms of the right honourable Thomas Leonard, 
earl of Susses, and lord D* Acres of OUesland. OuilUm's Heral£y, fo. 39. Coat W. Achievement 

^* The arms of lord Wake, which are also on stone in the nave of York cathedral.— Lord John 
Wake was summoned at the meeting of the northern barons with lord Henry Percy, 1298. Bdw. I. 
At the confirmation of the Magna Charta and the Charta de Foresta, he had his castle at Cotting- 
ham. His successor destroyed this castle, to prevent the visit of Heniy Till, to his wife. Vid. 
infra. Par. IV. e. 1. Arms of Wake. Or, two bars guhs, in chiefs torteanxes. On a figure in 
Dnke^s Bbor. p. S06. Margwetta Percy has Percy and Lucy quarterly impaled with the above. 

** The robe falls over and covers half this coat 

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ftltt! eijiibiting the marks of revolutionary ararice;^^ for the omame^lal work has 
all been torn away, and nothing remains to tell the tale of its former magnificence.^^ 

^ Dnrinf the unhappy diflsentions which deform^ the reign of ott first Charles, the p6titiilil<!»U 
party having resolved to carry their superiority to extremities^ as a preliminary step they moved 
a resolution in 1641, to send commiasioners throttghont the country, for the purpose of deCaoing 
and removing all images, niotures, and relics of idolatry from places of public worship. Thte 
was carried; Journals of me Commons, Jan. 23, 1641 ; and a {bill was brought in and passed; 
Journals of the Lords, August 26, 1643; but with this proviso, that all such removals should be 
oteefully made, and the breaches thereby occasioned should be repaired at the sakne time ; and 
that no such demolition should be extended to the monuments of the dead. No noti^^ how^tai^ 
was taken of this saving clause, but with misguided seal the sacred structures of religimi were 
violated, the magnificent painted windows destroyed, the tombs and altars defaced, by bein^ 
divested of their rich ornaments of brass and still more precious m^tal ; and in the prevailing trail* 
sport of religious zeal, the fabrics themselves were dilapidated, and subjected to the barbarian 
outrages of reforming bigotry and fanatical superstition. During these unholy ravages, the minster 
at Beverley suffered severely, its rich decorations were taken away, and ttie injury inflietod by 
blind sealots, under the sacred pretext of religion, can never be repaired. 

^ The monuments and inscribed stones in the transept are very numerous. On the east side 
of the door of the north transept is the following inscription : — 

To the memory of Lancelot Machsll, lieutenant in the Royal Engineers) the third 
son of Christopher and Ann Machell. He was killed in the trenches at St. Sebastian, in Spaing 
after the unsuccessful attack upon that place on the 25th of July, 1813, in the 21st year of bU 
age; esteemed and respected in his public and private character. 

''The three ofllcers of the engineers employed to conduct the different parts of the columns of 
attack, behaved admirably, but suffered severely. Captain Lewis lost his leg; lieutenant Jones 
was wounded and taken, and lieutenant Machell, on his return, was killed in the trenches/^ 

Lieut-Gen. Sir T. Graham's Report, 26th July. 
Another in the east aisle of the north transept deserves notice. 

In memory of Francis Best, esquire, whose exemplary conduct in private life, in the 
several domestic and social duties of husband, father, firiend, and bene£M>tor; and whose faithful 
and upright discbarge of the public and usefol duties of a magistrate, having acted in the com- 
mission of the peace more than forty years in the East-riding of this county ; have endeared his 
memory; and rendered his death a public and much lamented loss, though at the advanced age 
of fourscore years. 

FormM as he was on nature^s purest plan. 
Graced with each virtue that ennobles man^ 
When genuine truth, simplicity, and ease. 
Displayed their every charm and power to please: 
Who tempering justice by the laws of heaven, 
Sav'd where he could to be himself forgiven. 
Lent sure to teach and to delight mankind. 
He's gone his real home and bliss to find. 
Spare then the falling tear and needless sigh ; 
When life is goodness, 'tis a gain to die. 

He died at Beverley, in this county, Feb. 21, 1779, and was interred in a private vault on his 
estftte at Bmswell, near Little- Driffield. 

Within the same vault are deposited the remains of Rosamund his wi£^ who died al Bath| 6th 
Mttrdi, 1787, aged 86 years. 

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Over the door of the south transept is an emblematical painting on. wood, not 
palrticularly creditable to the taste, ingenuity or antiquarian knowledge of the I 

artist; representing two figures, a king and a priest, the former being intended for 
Athelstan, who is in the act of presenting a charter to the church of Saint John, 
personified in the figure of the great saint himself; and containing these words : 

%% %txi mag ti^atti^ or ^gj^ mas 0<<« 

The organ screen is a beautiful specimen of the Grecian style of architecture 
with English decorations; but lamentably misplaced amidst such a profusion of 
pure English ornament as is here presented to the view. It was built under the 
direction of Mr. Moyser, in 1731. The entrance into the choir is made to consist 
of a Corinthian archway supported by pillars of the same order, the inner part of 
the arch being decorated with roses. On the north side of this archway is a niche 
with an ornamented and embattled canopy, flanked by two pinnacles with crockets 
and finials springing firom buttresses, and placed above the niche as a second stage. 
Within the niche, upon a pedestal stands a warrior as large as life, armed after 
the fisushion of a Roman knight, with a drawn sword in his right hand, and a 
charter in his left. This figure, which is another representation of Adielstan, is 
entirely a creature of the artist's fancy, formed without taste, judgment, or con* 
sistent effect But it is finely contrasted by an excellent cast of an ecclesiastical 
personage, which is placed in a niche on the south side, having a book and a 
crosier,, and appearing to be in the act of bestowing the episcopal benediction with 
much solemnity and dignity of expression. This figure is intended to represent the 

Other monuments there are in the transept to the following persons. North Transept, East 
aw^.— Joseph Cam, 1825, and Prisciira his wife, 1817; James Edmonds, esq. 1776; Rev. G. J. 
Edmonds^ 1804; Maria Edmonds, 1797; Elizabeth Lowthorp, 1811 ; Oliver de Lancv, 1785;. 
Henry Watkins, 1777, and Ann his wife, 1787 ; John Sllversides, 1807, and Nancy his wife, 1819; 
Nicholas Wight, 1773 ; Rev. W. Morrell, 1749. West aw/c.— Ebenezer Robertson, 1825; John 
Ditmas, 1825; captain John Green, 1823; Francis Iveson, 1825; Richard Farrant, on brass; 
William Taylor, 1706, and Margaret his wife, 1744 ; Robert Norris, 1816; Robert Jennings, esq. 
1804. South Transept, JEo*^ aw/«.—Major.Gen. Foord Bowes ; William Wilson, 1816; Ridbard 
Fox, esq. 1823; Richard Milner, gent 1776, and Elizabeth his wife, 1757; Elisabeth Hewitt, 
1 824 ; Robert Barton, 1 737 ; John Jarratt, esq. 1754, and Sarah his wife, 1757 ; Thomas Harrison, 
1772; Alexander Shaw, M. D. 1820; John Bowman, esq. 1799; Anne Atkinson, 1819; William 
Gee, 1790; Mrs. Anne Routh, 1722. West aitie.^ Yarburg Constable> of Wassand, esq. 1731, 
Faith his daughter, 1732, and Rosamond his wife, 1756; Marmadnke Constable, esq. 1762^ and 
Mary his wife, 1752; Leonard Bellamy, esq. 1766; Thomas Oxtoby, 1817; Mary Luck, 1727; 
Charles Robinson and Sarah his wife, 1794. 

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{matron saint of the minster; and is supposed to have been taken from a graceful 
and admirably expressed model, representing pope Gregory at the moment of re- 
garding an angelic messenger which was said to have appeared to him from the*^ 
summit of Adrian's tomb, during a sorrowful procession of the 'much afflicted 
people of Rome, who sought by acts of humility and mortification to appease the 
wrath of heaven, and avert a heavy calamity with which they had been visited. 
The whole of this figure, whether in air, expression, or drapery, would form an 
excellent study for grace and solemn dignity. But when we observe the figure of 
a Roman pontiff with a venerable beard, substituted for a Saxon archbishop, whose 
order obliged him to be closely shaven, however we may admire the execution. We 
cannot but condemn the false taste of the artist, under whose superintendence so 
much absurdity has been accomplished.^ 

The archway is surmounted by a high central cluster of three cherubs, supported 
by two sitting angels, the one handling a harp, and the other blowing a trumpet 
Upon this foundation an organ was erected, by Snetzler, in the year 1767, at ah 
expense of nearly £800.;^^ which was improved in 1824, by the addition of pedals 
and a new bellows, under the direction of Ward, of York. On each side of the 
organ screen are prominent pointed archways, which form an entrance into the 
aisles of the choir behind the elevated pews which have been erected at the back of 
the ancient stalls. 

The choir is deservedly admired for its superb carved and perforated ornaments, 
in the best style of the grandest of our English cathedrals ; for its stately monu- 
ments, its variegated marble floor, its stalls and altar screen, and its magnificent 
east window, on which was beautifully delineated the Saviour, his twelve apostles, 
and several eminent saints; and under the central battlement, on the south side, 

^ And yet Mr. ColKns, the artist who produced these figures, was a clever man. His models 
ot animals were well managed, and his raral subjects, which he was fond of introducing, were 
generally executed with much taste and feeling. He was a native, either of DriiBeld or of some 
village in its immediate neighbourhood ; but for want of patronage, he passed his days in obscurity 
and wretchedness, and was freqaently reduced to absolute indigence. The two statues above 
described, were cast by him in moulds, said to be formed for the purpose firom two ancient figures 
of Athelstan and Saint John, which were removed to France at the dissolution. The moulds were 
afterwards destroyed. They are composed of a mixed metal, covered with a coating of plaister. 
The tale of the two orig^als, however, is without authority, and may safely be pronounced 

*^ Snetzler's estimate, exclusive of the case, was £650; but like all other estimates, it fell short 
of (he real charge, although he stipulated that for this sum it should be <' executed, completed, 
and erected in the best workmanlike manner.'' HU bill was £7 16. 1 6b. 1 0|d. 

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w«r<ttwo apacee fflkd the l^eadary history of Saint Maitiii/* There are at jveseBt 
matty defieieacies in these paintings^ bat the venerable elSect of the window has 
Imik preserved^ by placing a gaieral collection of the fragments in an uufcnrm 
laaimeffy so as to give it the a]^>earance9 at least, of a conneeted sobject 

The stalls are forty-two in number^ and do not exhibit any dijffierence in point of 
elevation or embdlishment to distinguish the superior dignitaries, except in a single 
iwtance. The first stall on the right hand of the entrance from the nave exhibitEr 
inarks of superiw decoration, as if intended for the chief person in the eatablishnient; 
aiPd when we recdUect that the archbishop of York had ''the first*' stall in 4iis 
^ijr/^ we inonediately pronounce that this was the primate's seat. The can<^y is 
finished with turrets instead of pinnacles; the tracery of the back pannels is of 
infinitely greater richness and more minute execution; and the buttresses are omap 
Iftented with the well sculptured heads of a king and a bishop. The seats are of an 
^qual altitude, and turn on a moveable pivot, so that they may be raised or let down 
at {Measure like the leaf of a table; and the under part of each, which is visible when 
tbe seat is turned up, contains some allegorical design, curiously carved^ and 
forming altogether a record, the key to which is irrecoverably lost These carvinga 
are. unequal in point of merit, both as regards design and execution, yet some of 
lik^m are above contempt They may perhaps have been the work of some of the 
residentaries,^ as an artist describes himself on the 17th stall firom the east end on 
the north side^ as Clericus et Faber; and if this conjecture be correct, each design 
might contain some sly allusion either direct or implied, to the habits or propensi** 
tieS) of the person then in possession of the stall on which it was placed. The 
omamenta with which this stall is decorated, consist of a central group representing 
a gentleman in the hunting dress of a person of distinction, with a hawk upon his 
fisl^ and attended by servants and dogs. On each side is a circle containing a 
single figure; the one, a dog gnawing a bone; the other, a cock of the true game 
breed, trimmed ready for battle. Hence we may conclude, that the Bev. John 
Wake was a branch of a noble family, and attached to the sports of the field and 

^^ These absurd fables may be fonnd in Gent. Ripen, p. 90. 

^ Ex. Reg:. Prop. Bev. 1. 1. p. 57. Dngd. Monast, Epit p. 305. Rot Pat 21 Rich. IL The 
affohbishop> afier Thnrstan^s time, was always one of tbe canons, and presided when present. 
Extract fnMn the archdeacon^s book. East-riding. 

^ It was no degradation, in these early times, for a dlergyman to practise the mediaaical arts. 
A law of Edgar ordained, that « every priest, to inovease knowledge, shall diligently leam some 
handicraft." Wilk. Leg. Ang. Sax. p. 83. 

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«ther domefitic recreationsy as well as the more sed^itary pursaitsy either of his 
sacred profession, or the amusement of decorating oaken benches with caricature 

The dresses of some of the figures under these seats serve to exemplify the fashions 
of the times, and may thus aflford employment to those who possess leisure and in- 
clination to investigate this ample subject The rural designs appear to have had 
the greatest pains bestowed on them, and are therefore the most tastefully executed. 
Some are grotesque and even ridiculous; amongst these may be instanced, the 
exhibition of a shrew who has merited distinclion by her superior powers of elo- 
quence, and the facility she possesses of adapting tropes and figures of rhetoric to 
every occasion and circumstance of common life. Her husband has placed het in 
a wheelbarrow, and appears to be conveying her post haste to the ducking-stool.^^ 

^> In viewing all the decorations of this church, generally magnificent and snblime, but some- 
timesy as is the case with these ornaments^ puerile and trifling, our ideas naturally revert to the 
establishment which was devoted to the daily services of religion within its walls^ during the period 
of its greatest splendour. This establishment was numerous and important, and consisted of a 
provosl^ who did not however possess a stall in the choir, eight prebendaries, a chancellor, a pre- 
centor, seven rectors choral, nine vicars choral, with the usual retinue of clerks, choristers, oiBcers, 
and servants; besides the chantiy priests, who did not form an indispensable part of the general 
estabiisbraent, but constituted casual appendages to the church ; and their several duties were 
confined to one exclusive object, the solemnization of masses for the souls of the founder and his 
relatives; for which service they held a life estate in the lands and other property with which 
their charities were respectively endowed. They were bound, however, to pay canonical obedience 
to the provost, in common with the established residentiaries. Obedientia licitz et canonicz man- 
datz omn^ p^sonar^ vicar' capellanor' cantiar' po'chionar annual dium' oeleb'nt infra o's Ecclesias 
capellas cantias orator, infra diet' feed' et lib'taf prepositur' infra viir Bev'lac' et ext^ ac omn' 
Cricos p'ochionar &o. Ex. Reg. Prtep. 1. 1 . p. 2. The number of chantiy priests attached to the 
minster church cannot now be ascertained with absolute precision. We possess records which 
mention fifteen of these institutions, and there were probably many others of which no account 
remains ; and it is remarkable that some of them had more than one priest appointed to oiBciate 
at each altar. Nor were the chantries confined to the mother church ; they abounded in chapels, 
monasteries, and private houses; and in the whole, tiie liberties of Beverley contained, at the 
least, thirty endowed altars, at which masses were daily performed. 

The chantries in the collegiate church wereJifteefL 

1. Saint MichaePs chantiy. Gent. Ripon, p. 78. 

2. Corpus Christi chantiy. Ibid. 

3. Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin. Ibid. 

4. Saint Peter's chantry. Compotus of Simon Sprotley. 24 Hen. VI. 

5. Saint James's ohantty. Gent Ripon, p. 78. 

6. Grant's chantry. Ibid. 

7. Saint Catherine's chantiy. Rot. Pat. 9 Henry IV. Ex. Reg. Pr»p. 1. 1. p. 26. At the 
dissolution, William Cowarde, the incumbent of this chantry, had a pension for life of £4. 4s. Od. 
Willis. Hist Abb. vol. iL p. 290. In ;the same record, five other chantry priests are mentioned as 
having had pensions allowed them at the same time, in lieu of their endowments in the coUegiaie 
church, but the respective altan are not named. George Haslewood, £5. Os. Od. Edmund HogesoDi 

2 T 

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She appetos disiDclined to receive the threatened elevation with patience^ for rage 
and fury are not only strongly depicted in her countenance, but strikingly illustrated 
by the act of tearing off her husband's wig. A more tranquil figure of a woman 
milking her cow is particularly simple, natural, and well designed. Underneath 
the twelfth stall from the entrance into the choir on the north side, in the centre is 
a shield with a bar radiated between three martlets, two and one, and supported 
by a falcon on the dexter side, and a fox on the sinister; and within one of the 
accompanying circles is placed a falcon with its bells, in the act of striking its 
prey, and within the other, a dove with this inscription, ^mta KftUliClme ®&U 
IBoCtorUf W^tatOiXmii ibuiUJf ^ttltfiiU. 1520. This date shews the time when 
the stalls were erected. Several other coats are here found, particularly the fourth 
and seventh on the south, for Whyte, a fess between three weights, with this 

£6. Os. Od. Geoffeiy Jefferson, £5. Ob. Od. Henry Bilton, £4. Os. 1 Id. and Christopher Walton, 
£2. 18s. 8d. Ibid. p. 268. Others are described as ministers, who migrht probably be found offi- 
ciating at the remaining altars, as they also had pensions allowed them. 

8. Chantry of Saint John the Baptist. Rot Pat 28 Hen. V I. 

9. Saint Trinities, founded by William Tyrwhytt Rot Pat 20 Hen. VI. 

10. Saint Anne's chantnr. Rot Pat 9 Hen. I V. Ex. Reg. Pnep. 1. 1. p. 26. 

11. Chantry of Saint John of Beverley. Excheq. Decree. Corp. Rec. 18 C. 

12. Chantry of Saint William. Ibid. The above two chantries were granted to the mayor and 
bnrffesses, 21 Eliz. Ex. Reg. PrsBp. 1. 3. p. 18 b. 

13. Chantry founded by Stephen Wiltou. Rot Pat 33 Hen. VI. 

14. Chantry of Saint Christopher. Compotas of Simon Sprotley. 24 Hen. VI. 

15. Queen's chantry, founded by Isabella, wife of Edw. II. Pet in Pari. 7 Rich. II. 

The chantries in the chapel of Saint Mary were three, and I introduce them here in preference 
to any other place, that the article may be complete in itself, and exhibit at one view the number 
of these institutions which the town of Beverley contained. 

16. Chantry of Saint Michael. Gent Ripon, p. 78. 

17. Gervus^s chantry. Ex. Reg. Archiep. Ebor. part II. p. 185. 

18. Saint Catherine's chantry. Granted to the mayor and burgesses, 21 Eliz. Ex. Reg. Pnep. 
1. 3. p. 18 b. on condition that a pension of £4. 13s. 4d. should be paid to William Cawood, the 
present incumbent Corp. Rec. 20 I. 

Distributed throughout the liberties were twelve chantries. 

19. The chantry of the Blessed Virgin in the chapel of Molescroft. Rot Pat 2 Hen. V. Ex. 
Reg. Praep. 1. 2. p. 78. b. At the dissolution, Robert Mote, the incumbent, had an annuity of 
£4. lis. 8d. Willis. Hist Abb. vol. ii. p. 289. 

20. Chantry of the Blessed Virgin in the chapel of Theame. Ex. Reg. Pr»p. 1. 2. p. 57 a. 

21. Chantiy of the Blessed Virgin in Saint Nicholas's church. Willis. Hist. Abb. vol. ii. p. 290. 
At the dissolution, John Thompson, the incumbent, had a pension of £6. Os. Od. Ibid. 

22. Saint James's chantry at Hull-Bridge. Ex. Reg. Priep. 1. 2. p. 57 a. Robert Busbye, the 
incumbent, had a pension of £4. 1 Is. Od. Willis. Hist Abb. vol. ii. p. 292. 

23. Chapel of Saint Ellen, near the Grey Friars. Tan. Notit York. XII. 8. 

24. Kelk's chantry. Ex. Reg. H. Bowet^ Arch. Ebor. p. 184. Corp. Rec. 3 July, 1421. Richard 
Benson and John Talbote, the incumbents, were allowed a pension of £5. Os. Od. each at the 
dissolution. Willis. Hist Abb. vol. ii. p. 290. 

25. Rosse^a chantry. Inq. ad quod dam. 2 Hen. V. 

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inscription, IBftiamt ttmjpOVt CttnceUttrit KftfiSlbt ]^uiU0 ^ttUsUSt, and having 
two supporters carrying weights; and the twelfth for Donington quarterly, 1 and 
4, three pales in pale couped in chief with three roundlets in chief. 2 and 3, a 
chevron between mullets ; and supported on the dexter side by an eagle, and on 
the sinister by a stag collared, seated on a cask to which he is chained; with this 

inscription, ^tma J)Sagi0tri Wt^omt lionangton ccmtarti fi\x)Uft taUtivit^ 

Some of the grotesque figures and ornaments appear to be satirical, while others 
evidently convey a serious moral. One represents a boar hunt, a man disciplining a 
monkey, and a muzzled bear teaching a monkey to play on the bagpipes; another 
is a satirical representation of a bear playing on the same instrument to a choir of 
young pigs as singers; and on a third is depicted a bird like a goose, with the head 
of a man appearing at its breast'^ 

26. Ck>rpas Christi chantiy, founded A. D. 1323, by Robert de Scorbargh, in his own house in 
Beverley. Rot. Pat 17 Edw. II. 

27. Saint Nicholas or La Frere chantry. Willis. Hist Abb. vol. it p. 268. Granted 3 Edw. VI. 
to Michael Stanhope and John Bellowe. Ex. Reg. Praep. 1. 3. p. 17 a. 

28. Of Saint Egidias, in the hospital of Saint Giles. Tan. Notit. York. XII. 3. 

29. Chantry of Saint Trinities, founded A. D. 1398, by John de Ake, on the Cross-Bridge, at 
Beverlejjr. Lansd. MSS. B. Mas. 896. VIII. fo. 140. 

30. Willis gives a chantry, dedicated to the Virgin, in the manor of the Hall-Garth, which was 
probably at Beverley. Hist Abb. vol. it p. 293. The incumbent, John Lightfoot, had a pension 
of .£2. 3s. 2d. Ibid. 

There was also in Beverley a chapel dedicated to Saint Thomas; Archdeacon^s Book, East* 
riding; which was erected daring the reign of Athelstan ; Lei. Itin. vol. lit p. 102, but I am in- 
clined to think that it was demolished long before the Reformation. 

The priests of these chantries, together with the establishment of the collegiate church, the 
rector of Saint Nicholas, and the vicar of Saint Mary, if they were not prebendaries, would form 
an aggregate of more than sixty persons who were set apart for the services of religion, for it has 
been already observed that several of the chantries had more than one priest to each. The clergy 
belonging to the collegiate establishment mostly resided in the prebendal houses, the rectories, 
and other dwellings, which were placed for that purpose within the precincts of the church, and 
performed the customaiy religious services in hebdomadal rotation, assisted by the choristers, 
and attended by the inferior officers of the church. 

^^ These figures are, many of them, copied from the tricks of the ancient joculators. ''One 
great part of this profession was the teaching of bears, apes, horses, dogs, and other animals to 
imitate the actions of men; to tumble, to dance, and to perform a variety of tricks contraiy to 
their nature; and sometimes the joculator learned himself to counterfeit the gestures and articu- 
lations of brutes.'' Strutf s Sports, p. 182. A variety of these delineations may be found in MS. 
books of prayers and religious tracts in the British Museum, the Bodleian, the King's library, and 
other places. In a MS. book in the Bodleian libraiy, dated 1344, is a figure similar to our double 
faced goose. It is the resemblance of a stag which was produced at some public place of amuse- 
ment, with a human face seen through an aperture at the breast ** I doubt noV^ Mys Stmtl^ 
Sports, p. 190; but a person was chosen to play this part with a face susceptible of much grimace, 
which he had an opportunity of setting forUi to gpreat advantage, with a certainty of commanding 
the plaudits of his beholders. It was also possible to heighten the whimsical appeaiwice of 

2 T 2 

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The tabernacle work over the stalls is a very happy specimen of the excellence 
to which the perpendicular style of architecture may be carried. The canopies are 
supported by slender and delicate pillars springing from the projecting elbows of 
the uppermost row of stalls. These canopies consist of an intricate mass of carved 
work representing highly finished models of projecting windows, intermixed with 
a clustered grove of pinnacles, and adorned with a profusion of crockets and finials, 
all in the chastest style of the age. Even the carvings which are placed behind, 
and almost out of sight, have neither been neglected nor finished in a slovenly 
manner, but every part will bear the test of the most minute inspection. The 
innumerable perforations are judiciously designed, and executed with taste and 
exactness, and the tracery is as accurately described behind the pinnacles as in 
those parts which are most exposed to the view. ^ Till very lately, a back ran 
behind the whole length of the tabernacle work, and a canopy, extending in one 
continued line from east to west, overhung the pinnacles. Theywere both origi- 
nal parts of the work. In the progress of the alterations now going on, the 
removal of the former became necessary ; and the effect has been very good, in 
exhibiting more clearly the elegant and delicate tabernacle work. Sraiething, 
however, still is wanting to relieve the plainness of the back part of the work, 
which was never intended for exposure; and some persons, perhaps, will be dis- 
posed to regret the canopy, as an ornament not common in such a situation, and 
giving to the choir a peculiar and distinctive character."^' 

The choir i&now fitted up with seats for the congregation; and with the addition 
of the south small transept,^ and the aisles of the choir, affords ample room for the 

this dlsgatee by a motion communicated to the head, a trick the man might easily enough perfonn 
by putting one of his arms into the hollow of its neck, which probably was made pliable for that 

«' Coltman's Short History, p. 51. 

^ On one of the pillars of the choir, leading to the south small transept, is a brass plate, with 
the following beautilnl epitaph, which it would be inexcusable to omit 

In obitum sanctissimae, integerrimo, ac verenobilis Femina Thomasins Oe», uxoris nupet 
Oujielmi Oeij, Armigeri Epitaphium. 

Mole sub hao lapidum recnbanti carmina libo 

Maluit heu vivo reddere musa vicem. 
Qua hospitijs inopes sacrasque amplexa oohortes 
Jam bibit ostemas nobilis hospes aquas. 
Hac triplici supertim rector meroede beauit 
Justitia, vita non pereunte, throno. 
Protulerat pietate facem qutt matribus omnei» 
JiuikQ sibi perpetoam proferat aura.faoem. 

Digitized by 



accommodation of all the parishioners. A new pulpit designed and executed by 
Mr. Fowler, of Winterton, has been recently introduced. It is an octagon of two 
stages; the lower being pannelled with cinquefoil pointed arches, the upper 
with crocketed pediments, each triangle having a superb purfled finial, inclosing 
a pannelled imitation of pointed windows with flowing tracery, the spandrills 
being filled in with the rose ornament in square compartments to correspond with 
the altar screen. The buttresses terminate in pinnacles with crockets and finials ; 
and the canopy is ornamented with an ogee battlement, similar to that which sur- 
mounts the altar screen. The whole has an imposing appearance, but the effect 
would probably be increased if it were placed at a greater elevation. It is dis- 
posed at present at the east end of the centre aisle, immediately fronting the 
principal entrance from the nave. The altar table** is a plain slab of veined 
marble, suppwted by three trefoil arches in front, and two on each side; the 
spandrills plain and the points of the arches terminating in roses. 

The altar screen is a most beautiful' specimen of the decorated style of architec- 
ture, recently erected under the superintendence of Mr. Comins, and is an exact 
renewal of the old screen which was constructed in the reign of Edward III. and 
diefaced by the reforming zeal of